But if you decide to organize a large-scale production, you will need not only large, specially equipped premises, but also equipment, equipment, substantial material and labor costs, as well as knowledge. Each method of growing mushrooms has its own nuances, which will be discussed further.
In the garden, in the garden or in the garden
Growing champignons in an open area is not the easiest process, as these mushrooms do not like bright light. So if you want to do mushrooming at your summer cottage, look for a place in the shade - in the garden under the trees, shrubs, raspberries or behind the house. Over the bed you need to build a canopy to protect the soil from drying out.
Before starting work on the site, you must first prepare compost for mushroom cultivation. The easiest recipe is 12 kg of straw, 8 kg of manure or litter. The components are laid in layers in a collar, then the mixture should be watered daily, avoiding drying out. During the preparation (22-25 days), the compost must be mixed several times.
The soil on the chosen bed needs to be plowed up, sown mycelium on its surface, cover it with a layer of compost 5-7 cm high and pour. In the future, you need to moisten the area as needed. Before the start of fruiting will have to wait 2.5 months. Champignon yield – 12 kg of mushrooms per month from a plot of 1 square. m. At one place mycelium can grow about five years.
If you do not know where to get mushroom mycelium, or you want to try to get it yourself, you can try the following method, for which you will need mushrooms collected in the natural environment. They must be removed in such a way that traces of earth and mycelium remain on the legs.
At the site you need to dig a trench with a depth of 20-30 cm, fill it with a mixture of manure and straw and pour 5-6 cm of forest or garden soil on top. Chop up the collected mushrooms with a knife, spread them out on the prepared surface and cover with a layer of soil. The first mushrooms will appear in a month. In addition to breeding mushrooms in open areas, with the help of beds in the basement You can also start growing mushrooms. With this technology, the beds are placed on the floor covered with plastic wrap. The disadvantages of the method are a large amount of manual labor, difficulty in cleaning and a high possibility of spreading diseases and pests. The advantages of the method are minimal economic costs: you do not need to buy containers and racks.
The Dutch technology of cultivation of champignons on the shelves assumes the presence of special expensive equipment, mechanizing the technological process. This method is more suitable for large enterprises. With its help, the production area can be used more efficiently, saving space.
Racks for champignons - these are the same ridges, only a few floors. Blocks or boxes are laid out on numerous shelves. The disadvantages of the method are the high costs of equipment and the spread of disease across the horizontal and vertical installation.
The container system as a whole is designed not for amateur mushroom production, but for business. This method is well mastered by large, mostly foreign (America, Canada) enterprises. It requires large capital investments, almost complete mechanization of the processes (filling and unloading compost, applying cover soil) and is economically advantageous for large volumes of production (thousands of tons of products per year).
For the cultivation of mushrooms, wooden containers specially treated against mold and fungi are required, in which the substrate for champignons is placed. Different phases of growth of fungi occur in different rooms, which allows you to optimally organize sanitary measures (washing, disinfection) and storage of containers.
However, this method can be adapted for home conditions, if you use one or more small containers.
Recently, a well-established method of mushroom cultivation in bags of polymer film. It requires less investment than the container or shelf systems, and it can be used for small and medium businesses or at home. For this purpose, an equipped vegetable storehouse, a poultry house will be suitable. At home, it is better to use bags with a capacity of 25 kg.
Filled and seeded bags are set at a distance for easy care. Bags can also be arranged in tiers.
When using this method, it is easier to eliminate the lesion of infection or rot, in which case you can simply close and remove the problem bag, protecting the entire crop from infection. It is also easy to change bags with spent mycelium. If to build tiered bag holders, it is possible to use production areas much more effectively (in comparison with ridges). The disadvantage of the bag method is that it is difficult to manually pack the packages with compost, but today you can find ready-made bags of compost and mushroom mycelium on sale.Many mushroom growers today acquire ready blocks for the cultivation of champignons from extruded substrate. In large briquette production, manure, seed husks, peat and sawdust are pressed into the briquettes.
A significant advantage of the method is the lack of compost production, also large areas are not necessary for the cultivation of mushrooms, this can be done even in the country. Since the blocks are fully prepared, planting the mycelium of champignons is not needed, it is already in them at an early stage of overgrowing. The weight of one unit ranges from 2.5 to 20 kg.
To work with such briquettes, you can use the technique for applying and loosening the casing layer; you will not need a technique for driving compost. To the question of choosing compost in briquettes should be considered carefully, in addition to a reasonable price, it must be of high quality. Change its composition or structure will not work.
Blocks are laid horizontally on shelves and pallets, and holes are made on their surface. To prevent the unit from drying out, it can be covered with burlap, paper or film. When the block is covered with mycelium, it is covered with topcoat and airing is stopped. Moisturize the units with a spray so that the moisture does not reach the substrate itself. The first crop of mushrooms can be harvested in 2-2.5 months.
Substrate for champignons
So, first of all, it is necessary to soak straw, sawdust, or other vegetable components in water exactly for a day. After that, you need to make a kind of "sandwich". At least three layers of what you have soaked are stacked on the manure layer. Each of these layers of straw, sawdust or leaves must be thoroughly moistened with water. On each layer it is necessary to add small quantities of chalk, gypsum, and fertilizer.
Ultimately, it is necessary to obtain a stack of substrate, which will measure one and a half meters and a half. It must be constantly condensed and watered. After each procedure, this compost must be covered. In this state, it should be about 20 days. During this period, the ammonia smell passes, and this indicates that the substrate is ready.
The next step will be laying this substrate on the place where you plan to grow mushrooms. If you do not have a suitable room, and you plan to grow mushrooms in the street, then the shadow of the trees will be a suitable place. It is best to grow mushrooms under fruit trees. For cultivation in the open air, it is necessary to dig a trench no more than 15 cm deep. Then the substrate is laid in this trench. Drawers or special racks will be needed for the room.
The next step will be the landing of the mycelium. Seed material for the cultivation of champignons can be purchased in stores, or ordered online. In order the amount of compost given in this article will need about 1.3 kg. mycelium. In order to plant a mycelium, it is necessary to carefully lift the soil, and to place a handful of mycelium the size of a tennis ball to a depth of 4-5 cm. The wells should not be too close together. The minimum distance that must be observed between the holes is 20 cm. The most effective way is to plant the mycelium in a checkerboard pattern. Also there is a mycelium in the grains. This option is much easier to use. You just need to evenly distribute the grain on the ground, and then cover with one layer of the substrate (about 4 cm).
The most suitable conditions for growing mushrooms 14 - 21 degrees Celsius. The temperature of the soil should not exceed 27 degrees, and not be less than 21 degrees. To grow mushrooms on the street, be sure to cover them with a dark tarp or bags. Watering mushrooms by spraying, which must be done regularly.
Collecting a crop, it is necessary to consider that champignons are not cut with a knife. Harvesting is necessary with the help of twisting. It is possible to determine whether a mushroom is ready to be harvested by a film that is located on the edge of the cap. If it is available, it means that the mushroom must be twisted. It is not recommended that the fungus stand.
This option, which we have reviewed, is capable of producing crops up to 25 kg. from one square meter. However, compliance with all the subtleties of the process of composting and planting mycelium depends on how big the harvest will be.
Where do mushrooms grow in nature?
If we consider the natural conditions, they are found almost everywhere. Forests, steppes, meadows, edges, lowlands, open spaces with wet ground and even semi-deserts, mountain forests are common places of growth.
As for the “home” conditions, they can grow in a garden or a kitchen garden, a cellar, a basement, a specially equipped garage, a greenhouse.
How to grow mushrooms? With many years of experience of mushroom pickers, it has been proven that they grow best of all where the basement room is equipped with good ventilation.
At the same time, the air temperature should be relatively cool (not higher than +20 ° C), and if this process is put on stream, the indicator of the mercury column on the thermometer should vary between +12 .. + 18 ° C year-round. The percentage of humidity should be about 70..85%, lighting does not play a special role.
It is not recommended to cultivate mushrooms in room conditions due to the absence of all the required standards: temperature, the presence of compost (smells from it), lack of space.
Landing on the usual horizontal ridge
Blocks (or as they are also called briquettes) are specially prepared for the production of presses from manure, husk of seeds, sawdust, peat. The ideal ratio of all components, as well as high-quality mixing on the production equipment will benefit the future harvest.
The benefits of this method of growing a lot. You do not spend time, effort, money on the construction of the beds, you get ready-made material. As a rule, compost is sold in plastic blocks of cylindrical or rectangular shape. You can hang it on a rope, or simply put it in a prepared metal container. It is very easy to change, so growing champignons at home does not require much effort: we collect 3-4 waves of mushrooms and throw away the “stuffing” of the metal box. We buy a new briquette, put it, fall asleep mycelium. The main disadvantage of this method is the same as in the previous one - the cost. However, since the first 3 waves give about 80% of the harvest, such a frequent change of the substrate will be to some extent even beneficial if you want to get stable and large yields of champignons.
The most time-consuming, difficult and important stage is the manufacture of compost. As experienced summer residents say, the success of the whole business depends on the quality of the compost by 50%. What is compost made of?
Manure. The ideal option is horse manure, only it contains the complete set of elements necessary for the development of champignon. Unfortunately, at present, horse manure is a big problem to find, it is necessary to replace it with chicken manure (the best replacement option) or with any domestic animals.
Horse manure as a fertilizer
Straw. Ideal - wheat winter or rye spring. There is no such straw - take the oatmeal, in the last place is barley. Keep in mind that deviations from the ideal compost components will inevitably reduce the yield of mushrooms under all equal conditions.
Important. The straw should be only fresh, golden in color and with a pleasant "bread" smell.
Straw is an important source of carbon and some of the nitrogen. Without these elements, the synthesis of the protein of the fungus slows down or does not occur at all.
Mineral supplements. First of all, gypsum belongs to them, it enriches the compost with calcium and improves its physical structure. In the compost, you can give bone meal, urea, brewer's grains and other elements. Of course, you need clean water.
Very important. It is strictly forbidden to pour tap water with chlorine for compost preparation. Compost can only be watered with rainwater, in extreme cases, well water.
Data on the number of each element in the compost are given in the table.
What kind of compost to prepare, everyone must decide, based on the availability of components.
Composting for champignons
If you think that it is enough to mix all the ingredients to make compost, then this is a big mistake. Quality compost, from which you can expect a return, is obtained as a result of a complex biochemical process. The result should be a lignin-protein substrate, optimally suitable for champignons. What are the main requirements to follow?
- The site where the compost is supposed to be produced must be isolated from the ground. It can be concreted, asphalted, covered with thick rubber, film or other materials. The main thing is to completely exclude the possible penetration of spores of pests of fungi, in which they are always in the ground.
- If it is warm outside, then the compost can be prepared under the open sky, you just have to cover the area with any rain cover. Otherwise, it is impossible to regulate the humidity of the compost, and this is a very important indicator.
- In order to soak a ton of dry straw, you need about 20 m3 of water, and for complete preparation of the same amount of compost you will need about 10–15 m3 of water. We have already said that the use of tap water is prohibited. In total for a ton of compost you need up to 35 m3 of water. A ton of compost is not very much, in volume it will be up to 2 m3, such an amount is enough to grow mushrooms in an area of approximately 10 m2. Amateur mushroom growers should know that if there is little straw (100–200 kg), then the fermentation process will not start, all attempts to make real compost will actually turn into useless mixing of ingredients.
The main stages of compost preparation
Good quality compost should be soft, without a strong ammonia odor. As you can see, compost preparation is not as simple as it may seem to inexperienced summer residents.
Substrate for champignons
The resulting compost should be poured into wooden boxes with a depth of ≈ 20 centimeters, the length and width should be chosen taking into account the size of the shelves or places in the beds. The introduction of the mycelium (inoculation) should be done only after the temperature of the compost has decreased to + 24 ° C. Immediately after sowing, the temperature begins to rise slightly, which becomes an additional incentive for germination of mushroom spores.
Wooden trough for forming beds
The temperature of the compost should be constantly monitored, if it rises above + 30 ° C, then it can be dangerous for germination, it is necessary to take emergency measures to lower it. The simplest and quite effective way is airing. 600–800 grams per square meter will be required. mycelium. Before seeding the mycelium, it is necessary to preheat it to room temperature, then chop it thoroughly, break the breasts and, in this form, bring it into the compost. How to do it?
- In the mycelium with the prepared compost prepare cavities ≈ 5 cm. Make holes in a checkerboard pattern, removing them with honey 20 cm.
- Put about 20–30 grams in each hole. mycelium, dimples close with compost.
It is allowed to use another seeding method. The prepared mycelium is evenly mixed with the upper layer about ten centimeters thick.
The process of growing mushrooms
After sowing the mycelium of the box or bed, cover the polyethylens with a film, this way it will be possible to eliminate the quick drying of the surface. Periodically it is necessary to check the temperature of the compost at a depth of about 15 cm, it should be within + 24 ° C.
The first survival test can be performed at the expiration of a week after seeding. To do this, carefully lift the top layer, if the mycelium is clearly visible, then everything is going fine. При оптимальных условиях для полного развития грибницы хватает двух недель.
Для повышения урожайности нужно сделать гобтировку – нанесение на ряды шампиньонов влажной земли. Такой слой земли выполняет несколько функций:
- защищает нижний компост от быстрого высыхания. Это своего рода мульчирование, только с помощью грунта,
- значительно стимулирует развитие плодовых тел гриба. Без гобтировки грибница развивается отлично, но грибов появляется мало,
- adjusts the percentage of carbon dioxide in the compost and maintains temperature values.
Instead of natural land, peat can be used to cover the upper layer of the boxes. The main thing is that the coating materials have a neutral acidity.
Very important. The cover mix must be sterile, otherwise the mycelium may become infected with diseases and pests. To achieve the required performance, it can be steamed, spilled with boiling water or roasted in the oven. Select the method taking into account the amount of coating material and its individual capabilities. Before using the earth, it is necessary to moisten it abundantly, humidity not less than 70%. Apply it to a layer of up to three centimeters, the surface needs to be leveled.
Practical advice. Keep in mind that reducing the coating layer to a thickness of 1 cm reduces the yield of mushrooms by 30%. At the same time, an increase in this layer to 5 centimeters has no effect on productivity. Do not skip this operation, it is of great importance.
Mushroom cultivation in blocks
After 7 days, the mycelium begins to germinate in the covering layer, during this period it needs to be slightly burnt. To increase the yield by another 30%, after the colonization of the compost with mycelium, special nutritional supplements are necessary. You can find them in stores, if such a purchase option is not possible, then use the services of the Internet. The rate of nutritional supplements specified by the manufacturer.
It must be remembered that dealing with diseases is much more difficult than preventing them. In addition, diseases of fungi extremely adversely affect the yield. In order to minimize the risk of disease, you need to thoroughly disinfect the spawn boxes and prepare the compost correctly. Pay much attention to the cover material.
Practical advice. If you find the first signs of illness, the container with mushrooms must be removed, it is not necessary to risk all crops. After removal, try to cure the mushrooms, if it is difficult for you, then throw out the substrate on the beds and use it as fertilizer for other crops.
Mushroom cultivation at home - technology
The necessary factors for a successful process are:
- The right choice of location.
- Disinfection room.
- Organization of microclimate.
- Proper preparation of the substrate.
- The selection of mycelium.
- Planting mycelium.
- Appropriate care.
As mentioned above, under properly organized conditions, mushrooms can be grown throughout the year. The technology itself is not very complex, as it may initially seem. From the very beginning, you need to arrange everything correctly, and then the process will go along the thumbed path. This work can even be called creative, something like a hobby. To date, breeders have brought about 50 varieties of this mushroom, which have minor differences in appearance. The color of the cap, its structure, the duration of storage may vary, but all cultivated cultivars are the “children” of the usual white champignon.
An example of a light brown variety in the photo:
Let's, as a basic example, consider basement cultivation, since this method is considered the most common. For the so-called “burial” breeding, it is best to choose high-yielding varieties, such as Silvan 130 (Sylvan 130), Hauser A15 (Hauser A15) or Somicel 512 (Somycel 512). They are quite unpretentious, they are not difficult to care for, and also very "prolific."
Remember - the most important factor for the successful outcome of your efforts is the presence of well-adjusted ventilation in the room where the mushrooms will grow!
A constant supply of fresh air is very important, since during the growth they emit carbon dioxide, and its excessive concentration in the room leads to the stretching, lengthening of the mushroom leg.
Mushroom cultivation in the basement
The selected room must be decontaminated. This factor does not depend on whether it is a basement, a garage or a separate shed. As mentioned above, in addition to high-quality ventilation, there should be a high level of humidity. This is necessary for the qualitative growth of fungi, but because high humidity is a direct path to the appearance of mold and various fungi on the walls and shelves. In addition, the mushrooms themselves are extremely sensitive to all kinds of parasites and diseases. Therefore, the processing room is a must for a mushroom grower.
How to grow mushrooms at home - room disinfection:
- Of the most common, frequently used ones, this is whitewashing of the ceiling, walls, and all surfaces of the limestone with copper sulfate (copper sulphate) added to it. The so-called “recipe”: 2 or 3 kg of hydrated lime + 100 g of copper sulfate per bucket of water (10 liters). When working with disinfectors, be sure to wear a protective mask on your face!
- The second method is more dangerous for the human respiratory tract and also requires protection. It takes 350 g of bleach, is diluted with 10 liters of water, and is applied by irrigating the walls of the room.
- Irrigation of walls and other surfaces with 4% formalin, with the help of a construction spray gun is most convenient.
- You can fumigate the room with the help of sulfuric checkers - it also gives a very effective preventive effect.
- Chlorophos is a radical, destructive method, but too poisonous in its composition. It acts not only on mold, but also on harmful insects.
After any treatment, the room must be ventilated with high quality - this is also a prerequisite.
Let us return to the ventilation, or rather, we will clarify one thing: the air should be fresh, but drafts should be excluded. It is better to close the ventilation pipes (“ducks”) with small mesh nets - this will create an obstacle to the entry of insects, as well as a small barrier to air masses. If you have a serious room of a large size, and the cultivation is put on stream, then the ventilation system should be more global, with additional fans located above each large box. If opportunities permit, the installation of air purifiers with replaceable filters will not be superfluous for this business.
It is clear that a thermometer with a hygrometer is simply necessary for the room where mushrooms are grown. So you can always control the level of humidity: with a lack - irrigate with water from a spray bottle, with an excess - air. With the onset of the summer heat, the fans solve this problem, but if the cultivation of this type of mushrooms occurs throughout the year, then in addition to all the aforementioned benefits of civilization, you will need additional heating of the basement or cellar.
Large cellar room, photo:
Best of all, if your cellar, in addition to all requirements for cultivation, will have an earthen floor (not concrete). By and large, the more purposefully the room will be adapted specifically for mushrooming - the better. Any extra additional factors in the basement, cellar, garage or shed, not related to the topic of cultivation of mushrooms, will only interfere with, violate the "microclimate" of the room.
To the "pluses" of mushrooming, you can add the fact that they are able to bear fruit well even in complete darkness. This distinguishes them from all other green residents. The weakest light bulb is enough - they will feel comfortable, but the light, rather, will be more useful to you in order to be comfortable in the place.
If the cultivation of champignons at home initially has far-reaching plans, the owner has a large room, then it will be a reasonable, convenient solution to divide it into 2 zones. Simply put - the mushrooms must be born somewhere, and a specially prepared substrate is designed for this process (about it a little later). So, in one zone there will be a substrate through which the mycelium will spread (this is called incubation). In the second compartment will be placed directly boxes of mushrooms, where they will be forcing.
The temperature regime of these two compartments should also be different: the mycelium usually grows at a temperature of +23 .. + 24 ° C, and the growth of mushrooms occurs at a temperature column of +16 .. + 18 ° C. If you adapt, develop your own “schedule” of moving boxes from one zone to another, you can grow these delicious, well-loved mushrooms all year round.
Compost for mushroom cultivation
Compost preparation (substrate) is one of the most crucial aspects of mushroom production. The quality of the mushrooms will depend directly on the properly prepared substrate. Usually, when you buy mycelium of champignons, the substrate corresponding to the variety and the nuances of its preparation are indicated on the package with the contents. The varieties are different, and the composition of the compost, its technology of collection may vary. However, most often these parameters have no significant differences.
The substrate should be prepared either in a specially designated room, or in the open air (outside), under a well-equipped shed. It is important that no precipitations (rain) or sun rays fall on the compost. It is also not recommended to pour the compost on the "bare" ground - spread a sheet of dense plastic film. Thus, undesirable insects or any other pests do not penetrate into the substrate. It should not be in contact with the ground, but blowing it with air from all sides is a must!
Compost for champignons should be moderately wet, since an excess of moisture can disrupt the proper fermentation processes.
Anyway, the street is the best place for maturation of the substrate, active release of ammonia, carbon dioxide will not be useful to anyone. The average time of "readiness" of the substrate, its fermentation, is approximately 25-30 days. During this period, it is recommended to mix it at least three times (to ensure uniform fermentation). The fact that the process has come to an end, you will learn by the absence of a specific smell of ammonia. Its color by this time gets a brownish tint. While the substrate is fermented, the temperature inside it can be about +50 .. + 65 ° C, and the ready-for-use compost has a temperature of no more than +24 .. + 25 ° C.
By the way, to enrich the contents of the compost when it is first mixed, you can add crushed lime to the total composition. During the second mixing - fertilizer superphosphate, with the third - ground gypsum or its construction analogue (alabaster). Already "ready" substrate, in addition to the above signs, does not stick to hands, springy at tactile contact, the straw is extremely softened, easily divided into fragments.
As an alternative to the independent process of compiling the substrate, you can advise the purchase of ready-made compost, which is sold in gardening departments of supermarkets or flower shops. Of course, such a substrate will be of lower quality than it was prepared with its own hands, although it will be written on the package that it possesses all the required characteristics.
Here it is up to you to decide what is more convenient for you, whether you have time for the implementation of all the preparation points for the cultivation of these mushrooms. Considering the common signs of “good” compost, let's highlight the main ingredients.
The composition of the compost for growing mushrooms:
- For these purposes, it is considered to be the best horse products of vital activity. In addition, it is important to bear in mind that the horses ate hay, and not green grass. Horse manure moisture for the preparation of the substrate should be approximately 45%. Horse waste can be replaced by cow or poultry, but, according to the experience of experienced mushroom pickers, the harvest on such a "basis" will be much worse. So, horse manure you need about 100 kg.
- Straw - better choose a dry, rye or wheat variety. You will need about 100 kg too.
- Alabaster (gypsum) - about 6 kg.
- In other cases, alabaster is replaced by urea (2.5-3 kg) or the same amount of nitrate (per 100 kg of straw and 1000 kg of manure). As we remember, these fertilizers are added with the mixing of the compost.
- Again, the use of 100 kg of horse waste, 100 kg of well-dried rye straw, 3 kg of urea, 5 kg of chalk, 2 kg of superphosphate, 8.5 kg of gypsum when mixed will create the optimal ratio of ingredients.
How to grow champignons at home? Use fresh waste products of animals while they still contain nutrients as much as possible. Make sure that the introduced components do not contain coniferous shavings or sawdust - they release resin, and these mushrooms feel it, react painfully to its presence. Phosphate fertilizers, as well as urea, are in fact highly recommended, useful - these are sources of phosphorus and nitrogen, so necessary for champignons. But chalk normalizes the acidity of the substrate, maintains the optimum pH level.
Mushrooms: growing at home is the easiest way to create layers:
- We take a comfortable wide container, fill it with hot water, soak the straw for about 24 hours.
- After that we lay it in layers with manure. You will get about 5-6 layers. Do not forget to moisturize each layer is not very hot water, lightly, but do not moisten copiously.
- After 3 days, we take a pitchfork and thoroughly mix the compost-straw "pie", but at the same time we add fertilizers - superphosphate with urea (urea). At this stage, the substrate begins to smell strongly of ammonia. After 4 days, we again shovel the substrate, additionally adding those dressings that are required by the standard of this cultivar.
- In general, compost mixing should be done about 4 or 5 times in all time. Do not spare the effort on this - useful elements are evenly distributed throughout the composition, and the mass will acquire a relatively uniform consistency.
The so-called "care" for the compost has already been described above, but I would like to add, repeat about the warning about excessive moisture. Too much moisture of the substrate will slow down its maturation, but what's even worse - it will wash out from the mixture all the useful ingredients required for development, growth.
Compost components (dry hay, horse manure, fertilizers), photo:
Mycelium of champignons - landing
The substrate, of course, should be purchased from a reliable representative (best of all - special laboratories). When the compost is already ripe, we transfer it to the agreed place, put it in boxes or special forms, where further actions will take place:
- In order to get a good harvest of champignons, about 500 g of mycelium or 400 g of these varietal spores will be needed per 1 m² of compost.
- If mycelium is used, then along the entire surface of the container with compost, at a distance of 20 cm from each other, small dimples should be made, 4 or 5 cm in depth. An appropriate amount of mycelium is laid in these pits, but if fungal spores are used for planting, they are simply spread evenly over the substrate surface.
- After a while, you will notice spiderwebs covering the surface of the containers with compost. By this time, the temperature of the humidity in the room should be at the level of 75-95%. In order to avoid drying of the substrate, it can be irrigated from time to time with clean settled water from a spray bottle, and also covered with a clean, damp cloth or paper.
- The mushroom mushroom begins to grow at a temperature of +20 .. + 28 ° C, the active phase of the spread of the mushroom "spider web" occurs after about 10 or 12 days, and then the top layer of the compost will need to be powdered with the appropriate earth mixture (about 4-5 cm), wait for another 3 days, after which the containers with the future mushrooms should be transferred to a colder room with a temperature of +12 .. + 16 С °. Or by compulsion to lower the temperature in the room to this indicator of mercury.
- Keep in mind that the usual garden soil for "powdering" will not work for you. Prepare a mixture of 1 share of limestone, 5 shares of peat, 4 shares of clean soil in advance. After 3 - 3.5 months, expect the first well-deserved results of their work.
The harvest from one mycelium can give from 5 to 8 periods of ripening of new mushrooms. This is called the "wave", the most generous mushroom picking falls on the first three "waves". Here it is important to catch the moment of ripening - when the cap is still tightened from the bottom with a thin white skin (film), and there are still no brown plates. Mushrooms need to be unscrewed, as it were, from the place of its growth, but not cut (so that no harmful bacteria penetrate through the cut-off area into the mycelium).
After the crop has been harvested, again gently powder the substrate with the above mixture. During the next two weeks they will grow especially actively.
Mushroom correctly extracted from the soil, photo:
Hat in optimal ripening state, photo:
How to grow mushrooms in the country in the open field?
In addition to the above, the most commonly used "basement" method of growing mushrooms, there are other alternatives. For example, how to grow champignons at home, namely - in the summer cottage. Иногда, по каким-то причинам (отсутствие подвала, гаража или иного подходящего помещения), желание заниматься разведением этих грибов кажется невозможным. Но если вы являетесь счастливым владельцем дачного участка – всё осуществимо!
Самым удачным периодом для этого является лето и осень, здесь тоже важно выбрать комфортное место. Шампиньоны — где растут? В затенённых местах, на специально подготовленной почве, место для грибницы должно быть в меру увлажнённым, земля не должна пересыхать, солнечные лучи не должны слишком сильно освещать выбранное место. To protect against drought on hot days, the beds are often covered with plastic film or a special covering material to create a certain microclimate. It is important to bring the mushrooms as close as possible to conditions similar to their natural habitat. Since we can not affect the weather conditions, we must try to give the mushrooms moisture - when they need it, as well as the presence of fresh air.
In the garden under the trees, photo:
After sowing the mycelium on the beds, on the open field, mushroom cultivation - their technology is practically no different from the rules of cultivation in the cellar. After a couple of weeks, the “cobwebs” of the mycelium expand over the surface of the soil, at this point the temperature is reduced by sprinkling the surface of the soil with a thin (up to 5 cm) layer of moist earth. Temperature, similarly, should vary within +12 .. + 15 С °, but in no case reach above +20 С °. As in the above method, it will be much more productive if this land contains peat and limestone. Regular watering (or rather, delicate irrigation) is best done after sunset - this will optimally moisten the soil and prevent the formation of a dense earth crust. With the right approach to business, in about 3-4 weeks you can expect a harvest of your own mushrooms.
Mycelium launches spiderwebs, photo:
To summarize how to grow mushrooms in the country:
- Mycelium or spores should be planted on specially prepared soil. This may be soil brought from the forest zone.
- The earth should be optimally saturated with top dressing, be well hydrated, not have stones, fragments of bricks or remnants of old roots.
- It is best to plant the mushrooms on open ground at a neutral temperature of air - +21 .. + 22 С °.
- If a greenhouse is chosen for planting, you should carefully monitor the level of humidity and the air temperature in it. Conditions are not very different from the basement or garage cultivation of mushrooms. It should be remembered - that heat and drought are detrimental to them.
- As already mentioned, the method of planting does not differ from the “basement” analogue (20 cm apart, shallow pits, powder with a ground mixture after the appearance of the “cobweb”).
- With the receipt of the first mushrooms, the abundance of irrigation can be reduced (so that the roots do not rot), irrigation is our everything in this business.
After all the waves of the mushroom harvest are gone, the spent substrate can be simply disposed of, and it can be quite successfully used as organic fertilizer or mulch for some trees or even flower beds. Of course, for the re-cultivation of mushrooms, it is no longer suitable, but as an excellent fertilizer for your green inhabitants - it will serve. As for all kinds of packaging, boxes after harvesting and harvesting compost, they will require mandatory disinfecting treatment, as well as the room where mushrooms were grown.
If you ask anyone in the world what kind of mushroom is the most common and widely used in cooking, they will promptly tell you that this mushroom is a champignon. The thing is that it is unpretentious, easily and without additional high costs grown in artificial conditions: in greenhouses, basements, houses, garden beds or on mushroom farms. The first mention of champignons can be found in the works of the Greek scientist Theophrastus, who lived in the III century of our era.
The first champignons were "domesticated" in Italy around the 9th-10th centuries. In Western Europe, the French became the pioneers in the cultivation of champignons, who in the 17th century began to grow the so-called “Paris mushrooms” on special “mushroom fields”. Some went further, starting to grow them in the basement. Many monarchs of that time contained huge “champignon cellars” because it was considered prestigious. It was then that it was noticed that these mushrooms grow more efficiently under the ground, whereas on the lawns they were small and gave a much smaller crop.
Champignons require moist soils that are rich in humus and organic soil. Some species are able to bear fruit well in open plain spaces: fields, plantings, forests, garden beds. This fungus is rather easily cultivated; it can be grown in conditions of greenhouses, greenhouses, so in the conditions of mines, basements or underground premises, as well as in open terrain. Some species in temperate latitudes, with proper care, can produce up to two or even three harvests per year. Some champignon production facilities have achieved full automation.
Why champignons are so loved by consumers and cultivators?
This product does not contain a large amount of fat, has a low energy value, however, it contains quite a lot of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and provitamins, organic acids, minerals. Scientists say that more than 20 amino acids are part of the protein mushrooms. Including: essential: leucine, lysine, methionine, valine, arginine, tryptophan, isoleucine, histidine, interchangeable: glycine, proline, glutamine, alanine, phenylalanine, asparagine, serine, threonine, cysteine, tyrosine.
Dishes from this delicacy can be consumed even by people who are overweight, because champignons contain about 85-90% of water, vitamins of the PP, D, E groups, as well as manganese, iron phosphorus, potassium, calcium, sulfur, magnesium, zinc, contain very little sugar and fat. The high content of vitamins of group B, in particular riboflavin and thiamine, allows you to maintain immunity, physical condition and metabolism at the proper level. Mushrooms quickly saturate, and the substances contained in them are able to regulate human mental activity, limit the activity of parasitic organisms, reduce cholesterol levels and blood sugar.
The technology of champignon cultivation was first developed and described by the famous French scientist, professor of botany, academician of the Paris Academy of Sciences, whose name is Joseph Pitton de Tournefort. His research laid the foundations of the systematics; Carl Linney himself relied on Pitton de Tournefort in his writings. He also in 1707 and described the technology of cultivation of champignons, which later began to be used in England and the United States, and then - throughout Europe. His technique consisted in the cultivation of champignons from old mycelium on well-fertilized compost (in his interpretation - horse manure) soils. Now, of course, this method is a bit outdated. Modern development of technology and technology allows you to build a highly profitable business on the cultivation of mushrooms.
Price question: how much will this business cost?
If the champignon business will be built on indoor cultivation, then start-up capital should cover the following costs.
At the beginning of production
Purchase of mycelium - 100 000 rubles.
Purchase of fertilizers - 100 000 rubles.
Purchase of equipment - 500 000 -600 000 rubles.
Purchase (rent of land), construction of buildings or greenhouses - 1 000 000 rubles.
Registration, advertising and other expenses - 100 000 rubles.
Salary - 100 000 rubles.
Payment of taxes and utilities - 30 000 rubles.
Transportation costs and advertising costs - 15 000 rubles.
If the business will be built on the cultivation of champignons in open areas, the costs are coming several others.
At the beginning of production
Purchase of mycelium - 100 000 rubles.
Purchase of fertilizers - 120 000 rubles.
Purchase of equipment - 400,000 rubles.
Purchase (rent of land) - 6 000 000 rubles.
Registration, advertising and other expenses - 80 000 rubles.
Salary - 120 000 rubles.
Payment of taxes and utilities - 15 000 rubles.
Transportation costs and advertising costs - 20 000 rubles.
With the same land area under the greenhouse and under the beds, the profit will be the same. Net profit for the season will be 400,000 rubles.
In the year it is possible to collect mushrooms four times in the case of cultivation in greenhouses. Thus, the annual profit, taking into account all costs, will be at least 150,000 rubles in the first year of production. And in the case of growing mushrooms in open areas, the crop is harvested 2 times a year. Thus, the annual profit in view of expenses will be at least 80,000 rubles per month.
Requirements for cultivation in artificial conditions
- No need for special lighting.
- Constant availability of fresh air.
- Compliance with temperature and humidity.
- Zoned space.
- Fertilized and disinfected substrate.
Cultivation in open areas
- It is advisable to plant around trees or somehow obscure the area on which mushrooms will grow.
- Take care of the removal of carbon dioxide emitted by organic substances during decomposition.
- To produce regular watering, if necessary, cover with the heat-insulating material of the place of growth of champignons.
- Grow mushrooms in beds at least half a meter apart.
- Before planting, loosen the soil, fertilize with green manure, apply mineral fertilizers, beneficial microorganisms and disinfectants.
In the greenhouse or basement
- Minimal lighting.
- Ventilation systems. When decomposed, organic matter produces a huge amount of carbon dioxide, and mushrooms are very demanding on oxygen. Therefore, CO2 should be removed, and atmospheric air should flow in its place. Ventilation pipes should be closed with nets to prevent insects from entering. You can also install fans and air cleaning filters.
- Maintain constant temperature and humidity. It is recommended to use a hygrometer and a thermometer for control. Cooling and heating systems are installed to maintain the temperature, and humidity can be maintained by regular irrigation or ventilation.
- The cellar is recommended to be divided into two sectors, in one of them there will be an incubation, and in the second - the cultivation of fruit bodies. In this case, in the first sector, the temperature should be maintained from 22 to 25 degrees Celsius, and in the second sector - from 15 to 17 degrees Celsius. Working in two sectors at the same time, you can have a harvest all year round, while in the second sector, the mushrooms bear fruit, in the first - the mycelium grows.
- Disinfect with formalin solution, chlorophos, lime solution and copper sulfate. Place in the corner of each sector a box with sawdust dipped in disinfectant solution. Make composting.
- Horse manure (92%), urea (0.3%), superphosphate (1.4%), ammonium nitrate (1%), gypsum (2.3%).
- Horse manure (96%), straw (2%), urea (0.2%), ammonium sulfate (0.4%), superphosphate (0.2%), lime (0.3%), alabaster (0, 9%).
Mushroom cultivation algorithm
In the open area
- Prepare the ground. Loosen, apply compost, organic and mineral fertilizers, form beds.
- Take care that the plot is shaded.
- Select and purchase mycelium.
- Plant the mycelium in the substrate.
- Produce regular watering, protect the mycelium from weeds, drafts, rain, temperature and humidity changes.
- When fruit bodies appear, watering is less common.
- Disinfect the room.
- To form sectors.
- In the corner of each sector, place a box with sawdust treated with disinfectant.
- Process the soil mechanically, apply fertilizer and compost.
- Purchase mycelium.
- Plant mycelium in the substrate of the first sector.
- Move the boxes with mycelium into the second sector for the development of fruit bodies.
- Plant a new mycelium in the first sector.
- In the first sector to maintain temperatures of 22-25 degrees and humidity up to 60 percent, in the second - temperatures 15-17 degrees and humidity up to 55 percent.