Each gardener puts a lot of time and effort into his plot, and in return wants to get a good harvest. To do this, it is not enough to feed, water and cut the plants. It is also very important to protect the garden from pests, as well as from various diseases, which are becoming more and more. Viral and fungal, they spread at the speed of light and lead to the complete destruction of the crop, and sometimes the trees themselves.
Today, gardeners are increasingly faced with the fact that the spring greens on trees of stone fruit trees are covered with brown spots. Many people mistakenly believe that there was a night frost, or blame themselves for improper treatment with an insecticide. In fact, this is the activity of a harmful fungus. This disease is called monilial burn. Its prevalence in the territory of Russia today has reached an incredible scale, so every summer resident should provide such a problem.
How to recognize the enemy in person
Appeared this disease is not yesterday. If you are engaged in cottage for a long time, then, most likely, you know what a monilial burn is. Just in everyday life it is called differently. This is a common gray rot. Different subspecies settle on all fruit trees. At the same time, stone fruit cultures are favored by this fungus and suffer much more.
Monilial burn is very common in temperate regions. In Russia, it is the European part and the north-west, the Far East, the Caucasus and the Urals, and Siberia. That is, it turns out that most of the country suffers. Cherry orchards of Ukraine and Belarus are infected. The problem is becoming almost universal, and regular processing does not help. Relatively cool weather and rains are excellent conditions for the development of gray rot. At high humidity, the optimum temperature is 15-20 degrees. Today, the climate is changing everywhere, and a long spring with precipitation leads to the fact that the monilial burn appears even in those regions where it has not been encountered before.
How does the infection occur?
Processing should be carried out before the flowering of plants. It is from the moment of blooming of the buds of the conidia of the fungus that they penetrate the pistil inside the flower. Here he gets all the conditions necessary for life and development. The mycelium is able to hit wood and shoots. As a result, the gardener observes a rapidly expanding monilial burn (cherries, for example). Instead of pouring berries, you get dried up young twigs. Spores of the fungus are carried by the wind for a considerable distance, so if there are no diseased trees in the neighboring areas, this does not mean that there is nothing to worry about. They can bring insects.
As we have said, the leaves and shoots become brown in color. Behind them, the same fate awaits the resulting ovary. If the affected parts of the plant are not removed in time, then they themselves will become a source of controversy. The bone marrow monilial burn is a disease that must be addressed with all seriousness. Even adverse conditions can not stop the vital activity of the fungus. In hot weather, his activity slows down, but at the first opportunity he will again manifest itself in all its glory. The spores of the fungus are extremely tenacious.
Over the summer period, he can give several generations a dispute and capture entire gardens. Cold disputes are experienced on the branches, dried foliage, and undripe berries that were mummified and left hanging on the tree. And with the arrival of the warm season, the development cycle repeats with even greater speed.
A beginner gardener is sometimes surprised that only adults who bear fruit are affected. At the same time, young trees calmly tolerate the neighborhood with them, showing no signs of disease. Miracle is not here. Simply the only place through which the fungus is embedded in the bast tissue of a plant is an open flower. Therefore, seedlings are 100% protected.
At the same time, precipitation that falls during the flowering period is vital for spores. They are needed by the tree itself, since moderate heat and a sufficient amount of moisture contribute to the appearance and ripening of fruits. But the same rains create conditions for the development of the fungus and reduce the resistance of the plant. Therefore, a warm and rainy spring is a reason to guard and regularly check your garden. Even if you are not sure that the branch dries precisely because of the fungal infection, it is always better to cut and burn it.
Insects that parasitize flowers and ovaries also contribute to the spread. By the way, useful bees can also be indirectly guilty, because along with pollen they also capture harmful disputes. Therefore, timely treatment with insecticides is also a very important event. Monilial burn of fruit trees is considered one of the most devastating diseases. At the same time, it must be remembered that the treatment by popular methods is useless, so there is no need to waste time and energy on it. Modern agricultural technologies have made great strides forward, and most likely in modern stores, summer residents will find the necessary preparations.
Choosing a grade
Even at the time of purchase of a sapling you should think about which one of them will feel best in your region. The stronger the tree, the easier it will survive the attack of the fungus and medical pruning, as well as move in growth and restore the previous yield. Of course, it is very convenient to plant plants that are completely resistant to such formidable diseases as monilial burn of a cherry. Treatment involves the use of special drugs that can then accumulate in the fruit. I would love to avoid this.
Breeders have not been able to bring varieties that would be completely not subject to a dangerous disease. It is a pity, of course, but do not be discouraged. There are varieties that better than others cope with this scourge. As an example, cherries Anadol and Tamaris, Belarusian varieties Zhivitsa and Rossoshanskaya black, as well as a number of unpretentious varieties for the Moscow region. These are Turgenevka and Youth, Radonezh and Bystrinka.
With the right approach, these trees can easily grow and bear fruit, even in the area where there is a massive infection with monilial burn. At the same time, the amount of the harvest will delight from year to year.
It is much easier to stop the monilial burn. The treatment can be long and rather difficult, so pay special attention to this point. A good preventive measure is the regular formation of the crown of fruit trees. Removal of excess branches, the growth of which leads to excessive density of the crown, as well as cutting of weak shoots reduces the risk of crown pests and fungi. Such pruning is especially important for old, weakening trees. Do not forget to cut off all plant residues from diseased cherries.
Mechanical destruction of affected plants
The fight against monilial burn is a whole range of measures, which is aimed at completely ridding the garden of fungi and preventing its appearance in the future. If you do not want the garden to be completely destroyed, you must cut out all the affected and dead parts of the plants.
Usually, the time for a full inspection comes immediately after the leaf fall. Patients and dry twigs are cut, and wounds are smeared with putty or paint. Cut branches and dry garbage must be burned. After that, experts recommend spraying the trees with a 6% solution of ferrous sulfate. Do not be lazy to whiten tree trunks and branches of lime milk.
If you could not perform these activities in the fall, they are smoothly transferred to the spring. Do not forget that the work must be completed before the kidneys swell. Cut branches also need to burn. Now closely monitor the garden. After swelling of the buds, trees should be sprayed with 1% Bordeaux mixture. After flowering, check the fruit trees again. If old dried branches remain or new ones are added to them, then it is necessary to repeat pruning and conduct a second spraying with Bordeaux mixture.
To date, there are many modern compositions that are intended for the treatment of fungal diseases. But it is very important to take into account the fact that the parasites adapt quickly. Therefore, it is necessary to change fungicides from year to year, as well as regularly repeat the treatment. Along with this, it is necessary to prevent the spread of insect pests. Most often it is recommended to use "Fundazol", "Topaz", "Acrobat", "Horus", "Strobe", "Falcon".
Full cutting of the garden
This radical solution sometimes comes to mind of a gardener who is tired of fighting the disease. In fact, this is the worst option. Of course, with the destruction of the trees, the monilial burn will disappear. The photos presented in the article will help you understand what this disease is. However, by planting new trees, you will again fall into the risk zone. Cherries and plums, apricots and peaches should not be chopped, but rejuvenated by trimming skeletal branches. At the same time, a number of preventive and therapeutic sprays are carried out and a crown completely free of fungus is formed. In this case, you will not lose as much time as it takes to grow a new orchard.
Instead of conclusion
Monilial burn is a formidable disease that can quickly leave you without a harvest. The fungus spreads with lightning speed and is dangerous for most garden crops. But among fruit trees, stone fruit crops suffer the most. On the territory of Russia is a cherry and plum. However, the gardener is quite able to protect their plantings. To do this, you need to form the crown of the trees, inspect them regularly and carry out timely processing of iron sulphate or fungicides.
Symptoms of Moniliasis
Moniliasis is a disease affecting flowers, ovaries, fruits and branches of stone trees. During flowering, the fungus settles on flowering shoots. Affected flowers and leaves begin to wither, and then dry, the flowers fall off, the branches dry and stand for several weeks with blackened tips. Looking at this sad picture, it seems that they are burnt, look like after a fire.
This form of plant fungal disease is called monilial burn. There is another, which is expressed fruit rot. This disease develops throughout the period of fruiting. Infected fruits are affected by small gray dots. Gray rot is a problem of all stone fruit plants.
The causes of the disease
The cause of the disease is the microscopic fungus Monilia cinerea. Winter he waits in the infected branches, fallen fruits. Rain and fog, spring coolness and dampness - this is the environment in which the fungus likes to develop during the flowering of trees. With the arrival of summer, the disease multiplies on the shoots and branches of the plant, and then gets to the fruit.
Plants become infected with moniliasis predominantly through damage in the cortex. The defeat of the plant occurs during flowering. Monilia mushroom penetrates through the pistil of the flower, striking young shoots. As a result, the floral part, the leaves, the young twigs dry up — a monilial burn occurs. The optimum temperature for the development of the fungus is +15 degrees, the most favorable humidity is 95 - 100%.
On the infected fetus, an inconspicuous brownish spot first appears. It begins to grow rapidly in size, and after a very short time affects the entire fetus.
The disease can occur due to damage to the fruit by insects such as goose, weevil, moth. In turn, an infection can get to the injury site, which will contribute to the development of moniliosis.
Sometimes it seems strange to inexperienced gardeners that only adult plants suffer from moniliosis. Young trees are completely invulnerable to the fungus. And this is not a wonderful accident. The fact is that the infection sneaks into the tissue of the plant through an open flower. That's the whole secret. Young seedlings just can not get infected as long as there is no flowering.
For the development of fungal spores are necessary heat and rain, which falls on the period of flowering gardens. The tree also needs precipitations, because without heat and a sufficient amount of moisture it is difficult to achieve the appearance and ripening of fruits. But at the same time, this weather is favorable not only for the plant, but also for the fungus.
Therefore, spring, warm weather with rain is a risk zone for stone fruit plants in the garden. Experienced gardeners at this time on the check. After all, you need to regularly check the trees. And even if the cause of drying branches is not a fungus, but still it must be cut and be sure to burn.
How to deal with the spread of the disease
Distributors of the disease are very often various insects, and even bees. They spread spores of a fungus with a diseased flower along with pollen on their paws.
Therefore it is very important to treat trees with insecticides in time. After all, monilial burn is one of the most dangerous diseases for stone fruit trees.
Unfortunately, you need to know that various popular recipes for the treatment of this disease are useless! Do not waste your time on such events. Only modern agrotechnological schemes can help here.
Prevention of Moniliasis
Even if this is a truism, the best way to prevent a disease is prevention. This is especially relevant in relation to such a terrible disease as moniliosis. For this purpose, Horus, Mikosan and others containing copper are very well-proven.
Processing plants must be carried out repeatedly. Trees are first treated immediately after flowering. The following processing is carried out in June and July. After harvesting, one or two trees are also processed.
For better plant protection, treatment is carried out at the end of autumn. Such a measure will help protect the tree and protect against the causative agent in the spring.
There are some guidelines to help protect plants from moniliosis infection:
Stone fruit trees are best planted in elevated places where good air circulation is possible.
If the tree has received mechanical damage, then it is necessary to immediately begin healing the wound. Because an injured spot can cause infection.
An important role is played by timely trimming of the crown. Cutting off the dried branches, you should grab a piece of healthy. Dry branches and fruits must be destroyed.
The soil in the wheel circle should be carefully dug. By all means it is necessary to bring in the top dressing, rich in calcium and other trace elements.
These tips are quite capable of helping to preserve the crop and protect the tree from destruction.
How to treat
If the disease does affect the fruit tree, it is urgent to begin treatment.
The most important event is pruning diseased branches. After that - sanitization with special preparations. In addition, it is necessary to destroy at the site of insect parasites, which can be carriers of a dangerous infection.
There are many drugs, with the help of which it is proposed to fight against moniliosis of stone fruit plants. But all of them will not be very effective, if we exclude preventive measures to protect the plant.
It is prevention that increases the plant's chances of survival.
A natural healer to fight against a monilial burn is frost! Lowering the temperature to -20 degrees kills spores of the fungus.
In the fight against a monilial burn, chemicals like Abiga-Pik, Rovral, Teldor, and Horus have proven themselves well. Also, the use of copper sulphate and Bordeaux fluid. You can also make a mixture of whitewash with copper sulfate.
All of these drugs are chemically active substances, so it is best to test the selected solution on several branches. If after that spots are formed on the leaves, it is better to immediately abandon the use of this tool. When using drugs, it is necessary to read the instructions for use and strictly adhere to these recommendations.
How to choose a variety for planting
Each gardener, planting a tree in the garden, thinks about the future harvest. Therefore, buying a sapling, I want to choose the most suitable for growing in this region. After all, a stronger and better adapted plant will be more resistant to various diseases.
Unfortunately, there are no plants completely prone to monilial burn. And treatment is possible only with the use of chemicals, which then accumulate in the fruits of horticultural crops. This would be desirable not to allow.
There are some varieties of fruit trees that are easier to tolerate such a disease. При грамотном уходе и своевременно проводимых профилактических мероприятиях они вполне могут приносить стабильно высокие урожаи даже в тех районах, которые массово поражены монилиозом косточковых культур.
Therefore, gardeners should carefully monitor the condition of fruit trees in the garden, take preventive measures in a timely manner, and if mold or other terrible signs of the disease appear, it is necessary to immediately proceed to action.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Treatment
- 3.1. Control measures
- 3.2. Prevention
- 4. Treatment of stone and pome cultures
- 4.1. On apple (pear)
- 4.2. On cherry (sweet cherry)
- 4.3. On plum
- 4.4. On apricot (peach)
- 5. Preparations (fungicides)
- 6. Folk remedies
Moniliasis disease - description
The causative agent of moniliosis strikes mainly during flowering. Infection can occur through the bark of the tree, the incubation period lasts up to two weeks, after which the leaves and flowers begin to gradually grow, wither and die. In rainy and warm weather, small white pustules with fungus spores are formed on the underside of leaves and leaf petioles from the underside, which are transferred by wind or garden pests to healthy trees and plants, as a result of which brown spots appear on their fruits, gradually expanding and, eventually, covering the entire surface. As a result of the development of the disease, the flesh of the fetus softens, turns brown and acquires an alcohol flavor, and 7-10 days after the defeat of the fetus, small pads of cream-colored sporodochia form on its surface. Sick fruits that contain mycelium or sclerotia are mummified and can fall or hang on tree branches until the end of winter. Optimal conditions for the development of moniliosis - humidity 95-100% at a temperature of 15-20 ºC.
In our latitudes, the disease monilioz is widespread. We will tell you how to deal with monilium in different crops, how to prevent infection of fruit trees with this disease, what preventive measures can reduce the risk of moniliose damage to a minimum and what drugs from moniliosis can help you save your garden from this dangerous disease.
Measures to combat moniliosis.
The fight against moniliasis involves a whole range of methods, which include agricultural practices, regular care, preventive measures, the use of traditional and chemical means. In order to reduce the likelihood of developing the disease next year, after the end of the growing season, it is necessary to collect fruits damaged by moniliosis, cut infected shoots and burn them, and before the dormant period, the stem and base of the skeletal branches of the fruit trees should be lime-treated with fungicide. If during the growing season you find signs of moniliosis in the trees, immediately start treating the garden with preparations that destroy fungi, and remove and burn affected branches, shoots and fruits.
Moniliasis disease - prevention.
As you know, any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. The same can be said about the moniliosis of fruit trees: the best way to combat this disease is prevention. What measures will help you to prevent activation of monilioz pathogens in your garden?
- First, when planting, do not place seedlings too close to each other, because in close quarters, pathogens spread faster.
- Secondly, plant the plants in places with good air circulation.
- Thirdly, try not to injure the trees, because mechanical damage is a gate for infection. Wounds and freezers immediately heal and close.
- Fourthly, cut strictly according to the schedule, capturing some healthy tissue when removing diseased branches. Places slices necessarily gloss over the garden pitch.
- Fifth, do not leave fruits in the trees for the winter, be sure to remove them and burn them along with pruned diseased branches and shoots.
- Sixth, in a timely manner destroy insects damaging the bark and the ground parts of the trees, as well as their larvae,
- Seventh, every autumn, dig the soil in tree trunks of fruit trees.
- Eighth, strictly control the amount of fertilizer applied to the soil, avoiding either their excess or deficiency.
- Ninth, use only sterile garden tools.
- Tenth, try to grow varieties of trees that are resistant to diseases and pests.
With regard to the use of chemical means of protection, you need to begin preventive treatments before the trees bloom. For spraying the trees on the leaves using solutions of drugs Horus, Mikosan-V, one-percentage Bordeaux mixture or other fungicides containing copper. The next prophylactic treatment of fruit trees from monilioz is carried out immediately after flowering, then in July, it is necessary to spray the garden with fungicides 1-2 times more and the same time to treat the trees with copper-containing preparations after harvesting.
Monilioz apple (pear).
For stone fruits, moniliosis is the most harmful disease, since after a lesion the fruit becomes unsuitable for food. Infection of the tree is carried out by the conidia of Monilia fructigena. The signs of the disease on apples and pears look like this: first, a round brown spot forms on the fruit, then it quickly increases and eventually covers the whole fruit or most of it. The fruit becomes brown, and its pulp completely loses its taste.
How to treat moniliosis on plum? As well as on apple, pear, cherry and sweet cherry: timely carry out preventive measures to combat pests (weevils, codling moths, geese and others), try not to damage the organs of the tree, collect and burn sick fruits and branches. It is very important to carry out preventive treatments of plum trees and the soil beneath them before flowering with a one-percent solution of Nitrofen, copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture. The second spraying of plum trees Bordeaux liquid or solution of Zineb, Kaptan, Kuprozan carried out immediately after flowering. In the summer, plums should be treated one more time with one of the listed drugs, with the exception of Bordeaux liquids, since it can cause leaf burns. In the fall, the plums are again treated with Nitrofen or copper sulfate, but even better - with a seven percent solution of urea. For the winter, the stumps of the trees and the bases of the skeletal branches are covered with lime mortar, to which the fungicide is added.
Monilioz apricot (peach).
If in May you saw fallen ovaries and flowers near apricot or peach, and in June you found dried branches on these trees, and a little later darkened, faded leaves and brown fruits, then your trees are sick with moniliosis. Upon closer inspection, you can find other signs of the disease that we have already described: light gray or cream pads of sporulation on fruits, cracks and influx of gum on the branches.
As a result of the development of moniliosis, the yield of apricot and peach is sharply reduced, and only a few fruits remain unaffected by rot, but they burst with time, not having time to mature. Apricots and peaches are infected by the disease in the same way and under the same conditions as other fruit trees.
In order to prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary to observe the agrotechnology of the crop, regularly take care of the trees, conduct timely pruning and preventive measures to protect them: before flowering, after it, 1-2 times in June and July and 1-2 times after harvesting apricots and peaches must be sprayed with Horus, Bordeaux liquid, Mikosan-B and other preparations of similar action. Treating trees in late autumn is of great importance: if you spend it, the effectiveness of the first spring spraying will increase many times.
It should also timely trim the diseased branches, grabbing a few centimeters of healthy tissue. In the fall, collect all the affected fruits and burn them along with the trimmed branches. And do not forget to dig the soil in pristvolnyh circles.
Moniliasis drugs (fungicides)
We offer you a list and a brief description of drugs used in the fight against moniliasis:
- Abiga-Pik - copper-containing drug, contact fungicide of a broad spectrum of action for fight against fungal and bacterial diseases,
- Alirin-B is a fungicide of biological origin, used to suppress fungal diseases on plants and in the soil. It is used as a therapeutic and prophylactic agent.
- Bordeaux mixture - a broad-spectrum contact fungicide,
- Gamair - a biological fungicide to suppress some fungal and bacterial diseases on plants and in the soil,
- Captan is a broad-spectrum contact fungicide designed to protect fruit trees from scab, moniliasis and black spot,
- Kuproksat - contact fungicide of preventive and eradicating action, designed to combat the complex fungal diseases,
- Copper sulphate - copper-containing broad-spectrum contact fungicide to combat fungal diseases on stone and seed cultures,
- Mikosan-B is a biological fungicidal drug that stimulates the immune system of plants,
- Nitrofen - enteric-contact fungicide, insecticide and herbicide, used as a means to prevent fungal diseases,
- Planriz is a highly effective and environmentally friendly fungicide based on soil bacteria,
- Strobe - a highly effective broad-spectrum fungicide to combat fruit, ornamental and vegetable plants,
- Topsin-M is a systemic fungicide of therapeutic and prophylactic action, most effective in prophylactic treatment,
- Fitoflavin is a systemic biological bactericide used for the prevention of many fungal and bacterial diseases,
- Fitosporin-M is a biological fungicide of contact action, a microbiological preparation for protecting plants against a complex of bacterial and fungal diseases,
- Horus is a systemic fungicide used to protect plants from scab, moniliosis and other diseases,
- Zineb is a fungicide of prophylactic and therapeutic action to fight fungal diseases.
Folk remedies to combat moniliosis
From folk remedies to combat moniliosis we can offer you autumn processing of fruit trees with a solution of 1 kg of urea in a bucket of water. Approximately half a bucket of the preparation is spent on spraying each adult plant. For better “stickiness”, you can add 40 grams of dishwashing detergent to the solution. It is necessary to wet all the leaves on both sides and all the branches of the tree, and after falling leaves, you need to cover all the litter in the tree circle with a thick layer of straw: the urea solution will remove the fungus from the branches and leaves of the tree, and the straw mulch will preserve the pathogens in the soil that did not die. In addition, the mulch will serve as a good protection of the root system of the tree from the winter frost. In the spring, before the start of sap flow, you can once again process the fruit trees with a solution of urea.
The cause of the disease is microscopic mushroom Monilia cinerea. He spends the winter period in affected branches and single-branch shoots, as well as in fruits that have fallen to the ground.
Often the disease begins to develop with cool and wet weather, fog and dew during flowering.
In summer, the fungus continues to infect shoots and branches of trees, gradually reaching the fruit. At first you can see a small brown spot on them. The increase in its size occurs rather quickly, and after a while the whole fetus is affected.
The disease can occur due to damage to the fruit by insects such as goose, weevil, moth. In turn, an infection can get to the injury site, which will contribute to the development of moniliosis.
Monilioz stone fruit is able to destroy a large number of fruit trees. The following are at risk:
- Apple tree,
How to prevent illness
The best fight against moniliosis of apricot and other fruits is the implementation of preventive measures. For this you can use a variety of drugs. The most common use of "Chorus", "Mikosan-B" and other means, which include copper. Trees need to be processed several times:
- The first processing is carried out immediately after the end of the flowering period.
- Then you need to process the trees in June and July.
- After the crop is harvested, it is also recommended to perform the procedure 1-2 times.
The following tips are also helpful:
- Planting fruit trees is better in elevated areas where good air circulation is ensured.
- Mechanical injuries of the plant can lead to infection, so if wounds appear, you should immediately start treating them.
- Pruning crown should be strictly on schedule. Removing dry branches, it is worth capturing a small portion of healthy ones.
- Dry branches and fruits must be burned.
- The ground around the trunk must be carefully dug in along with fallen leaves.
- Keep track of the composition of the soil - it should be enough calcium and other nutrients.
How to fight
If monilioz has already managed to hit cherries or other fruit, it is necessary to take measures to combat the disease. First of all you need:
- cut off all the branches that attacked the disease,
- process trees with special means
- start fighting insects that are carriers of the disease.
- "Abiga Peak",
- copper sulphate,
- Bordeaux liquid
Among fruit trees, there are varieties that are more resistant to disease. We list them.
Resistant varieties include:
- "Wonderful Cherry"
- "Chosen One".
Resistant varieties include:
- "Clear sunshine",
The varieties of peach resistant to moniliosis include:
- Golden Anniversary,
Resistant varieties of apricot include:
- "Black Velvet",
- "Kuban black."
Among the varieties of plums that are resistant to illness, there are the following:
- "Beautiful girl",
Among pears, it is recommended to plant such varieties:
- "Krasnodar summer",
- "The conference".