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How to grow shiitake at home

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Shiitake is the most cultivated and (according to residents of China and Japan) the most delicious mushroom in the world. And also healing! In nature, it grows in Southeast Asia, but has long been cultivated in crops throughout the world. Why not try growing it at home?

And indeed, shiitake is a complete protein product with a rich set of amino acids, useful trace elements and biologically active substances. The taste of this delicacy is compared to something average between the taste of white fungus and champignon. Shiitake is a part of many delicious dishes - both with heat treatment and without it.

For the cultivation of shiitake at home you do not need specialized rooms with difficult climatic settings and plenty of time for the care of mushrooms. Everything is much easier, believe me. We tell.

Cooking mycelium and substrate

Planting material for growing shiitake is a sterile mycelium, which can be purchased in specialized stores or in production. High-quality mycelium - a good harvest, so buy it only from a trusted manufacturer. In these, there are even complete kits for growing shiitake, including, in addition to the mycelium, a prepared substrate, bioadditives to accelerate growth, and even thermohygrometers for measuring temperature and humidity.

But it is possible to grow shiitake at home or in the country independently, without acquiring the whole set.

Shiitake can be grown either on wood logs or on wood chips about 3 mm in size (shredded branches and bark), formed into substrate blocks. The main condition is that the wood is from hardwood trees, because coniferous wood contains resins and phenolic substances that inhibit the growth of mycelium of the fungus. It is believed that for the growth of shiitake most preferred solid wood of beech, oak, alder, hornbeam and walnut. However, in principle, you can use any wood.

There are technologies for growing shiitake not only on sawdust and woodchips, but also on other loose vegetable substrates - on straw chop, buckwheat husks, sunflower husks, etc.

Since it is impossible to achieve complete sterility at home, the substrate should in any case be as clean and freshly prepared as possible so that it does not have time to get infected with spores of pathogenic fungi and bacteria.

If you use shredded vegetable residues, you must conduct a pasteurization procedure. Plant residues should be poured with hot water, left for 8-12 hours, then laid out on the grid for partial drying and removal of excess moisture.

If you grow shiitake in wood chocks (preferably freshly sawn and without damage to the bark, if not - not overdried, thoroughly cleaned of moss and lichen residues), about a week before planting they should be soaked in water (preferably replacing it from time to time for hot).

Growing shiitake on logs and stumps

This method of growing shiitake is traditional and is called extensive. He seems to "duplicate" the natural way of growing the fungus on solid wood, is quite simple and does not require the expenditure of a large number of forces and means. Once sowing mycelium, the crop can be harvested seasonally, for 4-6 years.

The trunk of the tree (preferably cut down after the fall of the foliage and before the start of sap flow) is cut into chocks about a meter and a half and at least 15-20 cm thick. Then in logs at a distance of about 20 cm from each other holes about 2 cm in diameter and a depth of 5 cm. Shortly before making the mycelium, chocks are additionally soaked in water as described above.

After the logs are saturated with moisture, the grain mycelium of shiitake is introduced into the holes. Top holes are capped with wood or wax plugs (paraffin) to prevent possible contamination of the mycelium with bacteria or mold.

The wooden chocks sown with mycelium are installed (stacked in piles) in humid but well-ventilated rooms or in shady places under trees or shrubs in the open air and periodically watered.

The incubation period (colonization of wood with mycelium) lasts from 6 to 12 months - the duration of the stage depends on the amount of seed, environmental conditions and the selected shiitake strain. In the initial period, the illuminance is not important, the optimum temperature should be 15-26 ° C and humidity - within 80-90%. If the logs are located on the street, for the winter they are carefully covered with straw or transferred to the basement.

After a period of overgrowing by the mycelium (its completion can be judged by the appearance of white areas of the myitlium of the shiitake on the cross section), it is necessary to induce (stimulate) fruit formation.

In nature, in the homeland of the fungus, this process is triggered by seasonal rains, creating the necessary moisture in the wood. You just have to soak the chocks with sprouted mycelium in cold water for 2-3 days, and then install them vertically in a warm shady place, protected from drafts, and wrap with air-tight material for some time to stabilize humidity and temperature. After 7-12 days, the first fruiting bodies should appear on the surface of the chocks.

The massive growth of fungi begins when the average daily temperature approaches about 20 ° C and continues in the open air until about October - at least you will receive two waves of fruiting.

If the cultivation process is organized indoors, then fruiting shiitake is possible all year round. It is necessary only after each wave of fruiting to soak the logs again and give rest to the mycelium.

Growing shiitake on sawdust

This method of growing shiitake is called intense. It is more fruitful and “speedy” than the last, but it will require a little more effort from you than the above described option. In this case, the fruiting of the fungus can also occur year-round in the basement or greenhouse - just create the necessary conditions for it.

First you need to prepare the substrate by the method described above. Before sterilization, sawdust (chips, husks, etc.) should be added to increase nutritional value of grain and bran of cereals (wheat, barley, rice, millet), flour of leguminous seeds or other sources of organic nitrogen and carbohydrates in the amount of 10- 30% of the total substrate. To improve the structure and acidity, you can also add a little dry chalk or gypsum to the substrate.

After the sterilizing treatment and cooling of the substrate to a temperature not higher than 22 ° C, mycelium is carefully placed on the pieces 1 cm in size, so that it is not less than 5% of the total volume.

Sowed wet substrate is placed in plastic bags, in the walls of which pre-cuts are made 3-4 cm long. For about a month, the substrate mass should be overgrown with mycelium - for this, as in the previous case, there is no need for light, but the temperature should be in the range of 15-26 ° C.

After this, the substrate block must be removed from the container again and soaked in water for 2-3 days - as you already know, this mushroom requires a “bath” to start fruiting, which simulates the beginning of the rainy season. After that, the substrate is again hidden in perforated plastic bags and placed in a room with moderate lighting and ventilation (humidity 85-95%, temperature about 20 ° C).

After 7-12 days, the first fruiting bodies should appear, then the fruiting will go in waves with small intervals approximately every month. For better growth of fruit bodies, mushrooms should be sprayed from time to time with water.

Now, armed with detailed knowledge, you can easily grow a "Japanese mushroom" at home. You may also be interested in information on how you can grow an oyster mushroom at home.

How to grow shiitake mushrooms at home

Growing shiitake at home can be done in different ways. For example, the mycelium can be placed in the straw or placed on special shelves in the greenhouse. But the quickest way to get a bountiful harvest is through intensive cultivation in bags (Figure 1).

Intensive method is carried out according to the following rules.:

  1. Pre-harvested substrateusing straw, corn cobs or any other agricultural waste. As a basis, sawdust is used, which is poured into the bag.
  2. Substrate Pasteurization - a necessary stage, since in the course of processing all pathological microorganisms that can destroy spores are removed from the raw materials. To do this, bags tightly placed in boxes and periodically watered with hot water. This process lasts throughout the day.
  3. At night the bags with the substrate are hung out, so that the excess water is glass and you can start planting mycelium.
  4. Seeding mycelium carried out in accordance with the amount of substrate. For 10 kg of the mixture should be 500 grams of mycelium. Spores are evenly placed in bags, and clog them with a cotton-gauze pad.

Bags hang in random order in a warm and humid room, and maintain the optimum temperature during the whole growing season.

Features

Growing at home can be carried out not only in bags, but also with the help of other materials that are on the farm.

Figure 1. Features of home production

For example, mycelium is sown in ordinary sawdust or straw, to which other nutrients are added. However, it should be borne in mind that regardless of the type of substrate, it is necessarily subjected to heat treatment (scalded with boiling water) to prevent the spread of pathogenic bacteria.

When cultivating the house, it is important to observe the optimum temperature and humidity conditions. For this, the substrate with the sown mycelium is better covered with a film to maintain a normal temperature.

Mycelium germinates at a temperature of +20 degrees, but in the future, the indicator can be reduced to 12-16 degrees. In this mode, fruit bodies grow quickly, and as they mature, they change color.

Technology

If you are interested in how to grow shiitake mushrooms at home, you should know that this process can be carried out in different ways, depending on what materials are on the farm (Figure 2).

Among the best ways of growing home conditions are:

  1. Cultivation in bags allows you to save space, while collecting a large enough crop. The nutrient mixture is placed inside the bag and becomes infected with mycelium. After that, the bags are transferred to a room with suitable temperature and humidity, and mushrooms are expected to mature.
  2. Growing in straw not very different from the cultivation technology in bags. The only difference is that only straw is used as a substrate, which is first boiled over with boiling water.
  3. Bags can be filled with any sawdust, except for conifers, adding bran and other agricultural waste for greater nutritional value. Further planting of the mycelium is carried out as described above.
Figure 2. The main methods of cultivation: 1 - in bags, 2 - in the straw, 3 - on the stumps

In addition, it is quite successfully cultivated on the stumps, planting mycelium on wood on the principle of oyster mushroom.

Growing shiitake on stumps

It is easiest to grow shiitake on stumps. To do this, simply select a suitable piece of wood (oak, chestnut or hornbeam). Harvesting hemp is better in spring, when the buds have not yet awakened, and sap flow has not started in the tree (Figure 3).

For planting mycelium choose only healthy wood, not affected by lichens or mushrooms. Finished bars are cut into small hemp 30-40 cm long and soaked for a day in water. After that, they should dry out a little. So that the moisture content of the rock was at the level of 70%.

Mycelium is sown on the finished hemp, and the hemp is wrapped in polyethylene to prevent moisture from evaporating.

Growing shiitake greenhouse

You can grow mushrooms in the greenhouse. However, it should be borne in mind that this structure of the closed ground after the mushrooms can no longer be used for the cultivation of vegetables because of the large number of spores left in the air.

Cultivation can be carried out both on stumps, and in bags or on specially equipped beds with a substrate. The main thing is to observe the regime of humidity and temperature so that the spores sprout faster.

Greenhouse preparation

Before sowing mycelium, you need to properly prepare the greenhouse. To do this, it is desirable to install metal shelves with shelves filled with nutrient mixture inside. The substrate will be sown in such containers (Figure 4).

In the future, the beds can be covered with a film until the first fruit bodies appear. Since the temperature of the air slightly decreases after germination, the mushrooms can be grown without external shelters, but it is advisable to periodically inspect them in order to detect damaged fruits in time and remove them.

Preparation of beds

Preparation of greenhouse beds for cultivation is no different from the preparation of the substrate for cultivation in bags. The filler is a mixture of sawdust and straw. If desired, it can be supplemented with bran or grain.

Figure 4. Preparation of greenhouses, beds and shelves for cultivation

The mixture must be scalded with boiling water several times to remove pathological microorganisms and protect fungi from diseases. After that, the mycelium can be sown on the bed.

When the harvest is gathered, it is desirable to treat the soil with boiling water, but if shiitake has been cultivated at the same place for several years in a row, the substrate is simply disposed of.

Ways to Grow Shiitake

Growing shiitake is possible in two ways:

An intensive method is sowing mycelium in a special substrate, which consists of sawdust and shavings of deciduous trees with the addition of chips, straw, hay and grain. A prerequisite for this method is the sterility of the substrate. This is due to the fact that shiitake spores are weaker than mold spores. In case of violation of sterility, mold will drown out the reproduction of fungal spores, which will reduce the cultivation of mushrooms to no.

The extensive method is to grow mushrooms on newly cut deciduous tree trunks. Spores are sown in holes drilled in logs. The peculiarity of this method is that for the sprouting of the mycelium, the logs must be in conditions with a low temperature and moist air for a long time. Mushrooms grow for a long time - from the moment of infection of the spores with spores to the technical ripeness of mushrooms, it takes from one and a half to two years.

At home, the intensive method is more effective, the mushrooms are ready for harvest in a few months.

Substrate Preparation

Shiitake cultivation is carried out in blocks prepared from a special substrate. This will require sawdust from deciduous trees, the fraction of which should not be less than 3 mm. For air permeability sawdust necessarily mixed with chips, small chips - also from deciduous trees. Conifers do not use because of their resins, which do not allow the mycelium to develop.

Hay, finely chopped straw from oats or barley can be used instead of chips and shavings. Increase the nutritional value of the substrate grain, welding, legume flour. To improve the structure add chalk or gypsum.

It has been experimentally verified that in large blocks mycelium is poorly distributed throughout the substrate. 2.5 liters - the optimal size. When preparing the substrate at home it is necessary to observe the proportions of the components:

  • sawdust - 50%,
  • straw or wood chips -25%,
  • grain, bran, welding, flour - 25%, in any combination,
  • chalk or gypsum - no more than 1% of the total mass.

The weight in percentage ratio can be slightly changed, but sawdust and straw in the aggregate should be at least 70%.

Sterilization of the substrate and packaging in bags

Growing shiitake in the substrate without prior sterilization is impossible. The conditions in which the mushrooms grow are favorable for the reproduction of mold, which develops rapidly and drowns the reproduction of shiitake spores. Only when sterilizing it all the fungi and bacteria die.

At home, you can sterilize in two ways:

  1. steam the substrate with boiling water in a separate container, and then pack it in bags,
  2. Pack in the bags first, and then sterilize in boiling water.

Sterilization in the first way, packaging and application of mycelium

When using the first method, a large capacity will be required, into which the entire substrate is poured. At home, it is convenient to use an enameled saucepan with a lid, before the dishes have to be washed thoroughly. The mixture is poured to the top with boiling water, wrapped in a blanket and left for 10 hours. After that, the excess water is drained, slightly pressing the substrate. It should cool to room temperature under the lid, only after that it is packaged in packages. Packages for packing units must be clean. Fill them only with sterile gloves.

Growing shiitake should be carried out in bags with ventilation. Ее можно сделать самим, проткнув отверстия сбоку после формирования блока, или купить специальные пакеты, в которых вентиляция предусмотрена.

После заполнения пакета центр смеси аккуратно протыкают и вносят в него мицелий. Количество мицелия должно составлять 3-5% от веса блока. If the block has a volume of 2.5 liters, then the mycelium needs 100 or 150 grams. Tie tightly package can not be. Mushrooms ripen with special gas exchange, therefore before stopping, a cork of sterile cotton with a diameter of 2 cm is inserted into the neck. There is no need for this in ready-made bags, gas exchange will be carried out through filters.

Sterilization by the second method and filling with mycelium

Growing mushrooms in the second way at home is more convenient, but packs for blocks must withstand temperatures up to + 110 °. Before packing the mixture is moistened, wring out and fill the bags. Humidity can be checked by clenching the mixture in your fist:

  • if streams of water flow down, it means squeezing is insufficient,
  • if drops are released, the mixture is ready.

The package is tied up with a net and placed in a saucepan. Water poured, a little before reaching the string. Simmer for 2-3 hours. After that, the bag is removed and cooled to room temperature. Filling with mycelium is carried out in the same way as in the first case. Be sure to use sterile gloves.

The block in the package is formed in the form of a bar, the lower part of which is slightly smaller than the upper one. Mushrooms will grow at the top and sides.

Sprouting mycelium

For the germination of mycelium at home, humidity and light are not important, and the air temperature should be + 25 ° -27 °. Within two to three months, shiitake spores will fill the block. After that, it will be covered with bumps in white, and then turns brown. This means that the growth of fungi has begun. The package from the block should be removed, and the block itself should be moved to the room where further cultivation will take place.

To accelerate the growth of shiitake can, if after removing the package to place the unit in a container with cold water for a day. After this, it is necessary to drain the excess water.

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Let's be friends!

Lentinula edible (Lentinula edodes) is an agaric mushroom that grows on a tree. His light or dark brown cap in diameter reaches 30 centimeters. It is mounted on a white fiber leg, cylindrical. Shiitake can be translated as "mushroom from a broad-leaved tree." The zone of its growth is Japan, China, Korea. "Black Forest Mushroom" can be called one of the main ingredients of most dishes of the countries of Southeast Asia. Studies have revealed a large number of useful and medicinal elements. Cultivation of shiitake mushrooms in the open air takes from 180 to 360 days, in the greenhouse the ripening period is much lower.

Doing business at home

The name of the cultivated culture indicates the characteristics of the choice of soil - it is used for shiitake wood. For the cultivation of mushrooms in their own area, you can choose intensive or extensive methods. Growing a single crop in conditions close to natural, takes from six months to a year. At the same time, every square meter of rotten, damp wood used for planting will bring 250 kg of gourmet mushroom every year.

The shiitake mycelium can tolerate freezing temperatures down to -25 ° C. When spring comes, the planting site of mushrooms must be covered with a film to warm up as soon as possible and maintain the necessary moisture content of dead wood.

The optimum moisture content of the substrate is 60%, with an increase or decrease in this indicator, the yield of the mushroom space decreases.

Growing a Japanese mushroom on the trunks of rotted wood with a one-time replanting mycelium in the trunk is more profitable. Fruiting mycelium will last from 3 to 5 seasons. Regardless of where the mushrooms will be planted, horizontally or vertically, in tiers or in one row, it is necessary to maintain the temperature and humidity of the logs.

The intensive method, which requires special conditions for the forcing of mushrooms, reduces the period of aging to 1-2 months. The method of accelerated germination requires strict maintenance of the temperature and humidity of the soil (substrate). After the first growth, the fruiting of the mycelium lasts a few more weeks. Only the yield with intensive distillation is no more than 20%, despite the fact that the soil is sawdust of hardwood trees and the remnants of threshing grain crops.

Attention! Softwoods are not used for mushroom cultivation. The optimal choice of substrate or churbak for planting shiitake mycelium is oak, maple, beech.

What mushrooms are more profitable for home business: shiitake or cherry

Growing cherries and shiitake on logs of deciduous trees, which began decomposition from high humidity, is similar only at first glance. Daily fluctuations in air temperature in central Russia are not terrible for the Korean forest mushroom. Fruiting lasts from May until then, until the ground was not serious frosts. As a rule, this time coincides with the feast of the Intercession (November 14). At this time, the last roots are removed from the fields.

  • Cherries are more whimsical, their yield is lower.
  • Shiitake mycelium grows significantly slower than oyster mushroom spawn.
  • Due to the duration of the period of formation of Japanese mushrooms mold begins to compete with the mycelium.
  • Fruiting oyster mushrooms provoke a decrease in temperature.
  • For shiitake, you just need to regularly water the ridge.

After weighing all the pros and cons, it turns out that shiitake is more convenient for home cultivation. For cherries need expensive climatic equipment.

Chinese way of growing shiitake

The Chinese method of growing mushrooms on tree trunks is different in that logs are located, with a diameter of 7-15 cm in a horizontal position. Until the middle they sink into the ground. For convenience, trunks of fallen trees are divided into sections of 100-120 cm. If necessary, save space on the site, the trunks are folded according to the principle of well rings with the difference that there is a gap between adjacent logs on each side.

Preparation of trunks for planting is as follows:

  • trunks during the training period should spend several years outdoors in the rain, snow,
  • the constant moisture content of the wood at the time of planting mycelium should be 38-42%,
  • the lack of moisture in the wood soil is compensated by abundant irrigation before the introduction of planting material,
  • holes of 1.2 cm in diameter to a depth of 4 cm are drilled on the barrel,
  • the distance between the holes in each row is 10 cm,
  • rows are located at a distance of 7 cm from each other.

Mycelium contribute to the finished, fairly moist holes. The height of the woodpiles, which are essentially a mushroom garden, does not matter. For 30 days, this vertical mushroom plantation must be covered with plastic wrap to create a greenhouse effect for the period of incubation under it. The temperature for germination can range from +20 to + 26ᵒС.

Tip! Carbon dioxide contained in the wood prevents the fruiting of shiitake. 12-hour soaking in water t ° from + 13 ° to +18 ° С will help to get rid of it. The absence of air bubbles at the end of the water procedure indicates the absence of CO2.

Determine the readiness of the trunks for fruiting can be on the following grounds:

  1. the absence of a sonorous sound when striking the trunk with a hammer or other hard object,
  2. on sections of the trunk visible mycelium,
  3. when using halves of the trunk, white islands of mycelium on the cross section.

Growing mushrooms on trunks dug into the ground makes it easier to maintain the necessary moisture, which contributes to the natural debate of wood. Accordingly, the temperature inside the barrel is higher than that of the surrounding soil. So, the frosts of the improvised mushroom ridge are not terrible.

To produce mushrooms with a dense flesh of the cap and a delicate (to taste) leg, they are formed at low temperatures for this fungus from +10 to +16 ° C and humidity of 60 to 75%, which is not typical for many areas with a temperate climate. Daily fluctuations in air temperature also contribute to improving the taste and appearance of shiitake. Therefore, during the fruiting period, the mushrooms are not covered with a film.

After collecting mushrooms of the first growth, it is necessary to change the climate for the trunks, lowering their humidity to 30-40% and increasing the air temperature. During the 2-month recovery period, daily fluctuations in temperature should be in the range of +16 to +22 ° C.

Interesting! It is possible to use the same logs for growing shiitake for 3-5 years. During this period, they will be collected mushrooms weighing 5 times smaller than the mass of wood used. Conclusion: beech and oak have a greater density and weight, which means that with the same area of ​​birch and oak ridge, more mushrooms will be harvested from the first.

Growing at home

When used for growing lentinula edible room with adjustable modes of temperature, humidity, light fruiting will be year-round. Acceleration of the forcing of mushrooms is largely achieved due to the heat treatment of the substrate.

Not all stages of industrial beekeeping can be reproduced at home, which affects the result. Stages of work:

  • sawdust substrate is enriched with essential nutrients.
  • The soil is poured into bags of agril, the material for hiding beds.
  • Packets with the substrate are placed for a quarter of an hour in hot water.
  • 24 hours the soil is sterilized at a temperature of 60 ° C.
  • 72 hours he should spend in an environment with a temperature of 50 ° C.
  • The cooled sawdust inoculated with mycelium is transferred to sterile 3-liter jars.
  • Glass incubators are sealed with cotton plugs.
  • For 2 months, banks are moved to a room with a temperature varying from + 17 ° C to + 20 ° C.
  • Substrate with sprouted mycelium returns to breathable bags.
  • Two weeks no procedures are carried out. During this time, the mycelium substrate will assemble into a single dense unit.
  • After which it must be sent, about a day, to the water for moistening.

After soaking the substrate collected by the mycelium dense block, in two weeks you can wait for the first harvest.

Production of substrate blocks for home mushroom farming

It is wood that is necessary for growing mushrooms, so all the leaves are removed before the branches are crushed. Recycled raw materials do not require additional processing, it is used immediately to prepare the substrate. The amount of soil is determined by the volume of the used package made of polypropylene or agryl.

The substrate is heated, being pasteurized. Only after this mycelium is planted in it. The package is an ideal environment for the development of mycelium, it is similar to greenhouse conditions. The size and shape of the packet determines what the substrate unit will be.

  • when packing a 25.5 cm wide package, the block will be 16 seconds in diameter,
  • optimum height - 28 cm,
  • volume - 5 liters
  • wet weight has a weight of 2.2 kg.

To moisten 5 liters of sawdust substrate enough 200 ml of water.

Attention! Barley in the composition of the substrate increases the yield. It is recommended to add 250 gr to each package. barley grain. To moisten sawdust enriched with a grain crop, 350 ml of water is required for each unit.

You can use blocks for growing shiitake in 2 times smaller in volume. Low pressure plastic bags are suitable for them. They withstand temperatures of up to +110 ° C.

Formation of blocks with mycelium:

  • a thoroughly mixed mixture of sawdust, grain, water is packed in bags,
  • from 30-40 cm stripes of a synthetic winterizer on 5-7 cm wide (not second-hand) roll up tight rolls of 2-3 cm in diameter,
  • they are wrapped with thread
  • homemade cotton plug is fixed in the upper part of the package with string or twine.
  • for 8-12 hours, blocked packages are left for even distribution of moisture, grain swelling,
  • when the substrate is sterilized in an autoclave, it is necessary to set the temperature to + 110 ° C for 3 hours.
  • after the substrate has cooled down, it is necessary to inject the mycelium and close it again with a cotton plug.

Attention! Sterility should be at all stages of planting mushrooms. For transferring mycelium into the soil it is better to use a spoon treated with chlorine-containing composition.

One packet requires 1 tablespoon of cereal mycelium. It can be poured into a bag, after strapping it around a cotton plug, the seeds of fungi can be distributed throughout the entire volume of the substrate by the method of intensive shaking. It remains only to give the package with loose soil a certain stable form. Bent corners of the bottom of the package can be fixed with scotch tape.

Growing in a greenhouse

Growing shiitake in the greenhouse is justified in areas with a cold short summer. After thermal preparation of the substrate, the introduction of nutrients into it, high-quality moistening, the blocks with mycelium are left for germination in the closed form. After 6-10 weeks of being in greenhouse conditions at a temperature of + 17 ° C to + 22 ° C in an environment with a humidity of ≈ 55%, the bags are opened and further moistened.

With the frequency of watering the first growth of mushrooms will not take long. Shiitake will appear in 2 weeks. But until this time, it is necessary to free the substrate bound by the mycelium of shiitake from polyethylene and lower the air temperature to + 10 ° C to + 16 ° C. From each block that is at this temperature for 3-6 months, you can regularly harvest.

The main threat to harvest is mold inside the blocks with mushrooms and other microorganisms that can destroy or weaken the mycelium. It is to combat their pathogens used long-term heat treatment of the substrate before planting mycelium in it.

If it is necessary to sterilize a large mass of the substrate, an alternative to heat treatment of the pre-packed soil is its roasting with a total mass. However, for all other stages, packing, distribution of mycelium will require a sterile room, otherwise all efforts will be wasted, because microorganisms develop much faster than mycelium shiitake.

In the case of greenhouse cultivation, as well as at home, dense plastic bags with a volume of 1 to 6 liters and cotton wool plugs are used to ensure air circulation.

Attention! For the landing of mycelium, the temperature of the substrate should be in the range of + 20 ° C to + 30 ° C.

Preparation of planting material

To grow shiitake mushrooms in greenhouses or at home, they need to infect any organic matter. The most suitable material for this are cereals. Germinating mycelium is most convenient in wheat or barley grain. Mycelium envelops the grains, sprouting in them, resulting in the formation of dense grains, infected with mycelium, blocks.

Before inoculation - the introduction of grain mycelium into the substrate, these blocks must be kneaded by grain. The proportion of grains to the mass of the soil is 2-5%.

Mycelium must be purchased in specialized seed shops. Here you can purchase and nutritional compositions for the enrichment of the substrate. In the Leningrad Region, seed shops in Peterhof on 63 Kuryant Boulevard and 63 in Otradnoe sell the mycelium to shiitake at the addresses: Tsentralnaya Street and Novaya Street 10.

You can purchase mycelium for growing shiitake in Chelyabinsk and Nizhny Novgorod, Cheboksary and Novosibirsk.

The rules for the preparation of a substrate for shiitake are the basis, nutritional supplements, optimizers for acidity. The basis is sawdust of deciduous trees, their size should vary within 2-3 mm. Alder, aspen, birch, poplar, maple, beech, oak and other local wood species are suitable for grinding. Mushrooms do not grow on coniferous trees, therefore sawdust of pine and spruce are not allowed in the composition of the substrate.

Such a strict criterion for the size of sawdust is justified by the fact that small ones will create too dense a layer, which impedes air exchange, and there will be a lot of oxygen between the large elements of wood soil, which is a favorable environment for the development of competitive microorganisms and mold, if we take into account the required humidity and temperature shiitake

No fertilizer for growing mushrooms is required! Nutrients for shiitake are cereals (grain or flour), organic residues after threshing. Depending on what crops grow in the area, you can use beans, maize, rice, barley. Rye, wheat, millet and so on.

The substrate is acceptable content of gypsum or chalk. They are required to normalize the acidity of the soil. They can be from 10 to 40% of the total volume.

Product distribution channels

Edible Japanese mushroom, taste and aroma reminiscent of white, mushroom density. Its peculiarity is that it is spicy, so the shiitake dish does not need to add pepper. This makes it possible to sell it to factories that produce semi-finished mushroom soups, sauces, and seasonings for second courses. В сушёном виде лентинула съедобная сохраняет свои полезные свойства и аромат, но несколько теряет вкусовые качества. Острота сохраняется, если сырьё не проходит неоднократного вымачивания в горячей воде.

В сыром виде грибы используются почти во всех блюдах национальной японской, китайской, корейской кухни. The second, most priority sales channel will be restaurants specializing in the preparation of national dishes of Southeast Asia. Shiitake can be used, after pre-soaking, in European dishes as an alternative to white mushrooms.

Japanese mushroom is widely used in pharmacology and traditional medicine - this is another opportunity to establish a permanent distribution channel. The spectrum of action of the nutrients contained in shiitake is quite wide - it is:

  • reduced heat
  • fighting viruses
  • treatment of the heart and stomach,
  • blood purification
  • increase immunity and stress tolerance,
  • normalization of blood circulation
  • sugar reduction
  • cholesterol cleavage
  • removal of toxins from the body
  • strengthening potency.

As an additional means to the main drug treatment of shiitake is recommended for the treatment of upper respiratory tract, polio, smallpox, influenza, HIV. In Japan, this micronutrient-rich mushroom is called the elixir of longevity. Fungoterapists recommend this mushroom for:

  • purification of the gastrointestinal tract,
  • reduce overweight,
  • to maintain normal blood sugar levels for diabetics.

Catering points that specialize in diet food can also be considered as potential customers.

Cosmetology concerns that use this mushroom for making anti-aging creams, lotions and masks can be considered one of the sales channels. The benefits of shiitake in the fight against certain skin diseases have been repeatedly proven by scientists.

Costs and return on business

The competition for growing shiitake in Russia is extremely low, which at the moment explains the high cost of the product. The price of fresh mushrooms varies from 700 to 1000 rubles. per kilogram (at wholesale). Per kilogram of dried Japanese mushroom can help out from 2.5 to 3.5 thousand rubles. With the maximum return from one square meter of wood at the lowest rates it will turn out to gain 175,000 rubles.

For homeowners in the private sector, harvesting the wood needed to grow shiitake will cost firewood. Valens is wood, for which you have to pay a purely symbolic price when you draw up a contract for the sale of forest plantations, as provided for by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. For each family living in a house with stove heating, the state assumes a consumption of 15 cubic meters of hardwood per year.

Prices in each region are set by local authorities, on average, along with the delivery, 5-6 thousand rubles will have to be spent on the purchase of wood.

  • To install 3-4 square mushroom "wells" enough 1 cubic meter of wood, which in its purest form, costs can be equated to 400 rubles.
  • Purchase of mycelium from 180 to 400 rubles.,
  • oats - 250-350 rubles.
  • A spacious greenhouse with polycarbonate coating (when purchased in winter) costs around 15 thousand rubles.
  • Agrospan (agril) roll - 360 rubles.
  • The cost of sintepon depends on its density. Price per meter varies from 20 to 70 rubles.

All costs for the arrangement of the mushroom plantation fit into the framework of the 20,000 budget, if there is an enclave and a well with drinking water in the farm. Under the most unfavorable circumstances, the recoupment of all costs is provided from one successful transaction. Well-established sales channels guarantee the success of a home business.

Shiitake hemp landing technology

Usually the substrate is sterilized using autoclaves, pre-packaged it in bags. But there are alternative methods, when the substrate is first sterilized with the whole mass, allowed to cool, inoculated, and only then placed in bags. However, in this case, you will have to do everything under sterile conditions, which will require additional costs.

Speaking of bags. It is best to use dense plastic bags of one to six liters. Having placed the inoculated mycelium in them, they are closed and sealed with a cotton wool and gauze stopper through which air will circulate.

Inoculation, that is, the seeding of mycelium, must be carried out only in a sterile substrate and only under conditions of a special sterile box, in order to avoid competing organisms that develop faster than mycelium shiitake in the substrate. It is important that the temperature of the substrate at the time of inoculation was not less than 20 and not more than 30 degrees Celsius.

The properties of the shiitake mushroom are such that it is better to germinate the mycelium in wheat or barley grain. By the time of inoculation, this planting material is tightly stuck together blocks. For this reason, before inoculation, the grain blocks need to be crushed back into separate grains. The seeding rate of grains infected with mycelium ranges from two to five percent of the total mass of the substrate.

After sowing, the mycelium develops in a room at room temperature for 6-10 weeks, after which the substrate formed into dense lumps and overgrown with mycelium is removed from polyethylene, transferred to a cooler and more humid room, where it is left in this “bare” form. Harvest from these blocks is obtained for three to six months.

Amateur technology

Since it is impossible to achieve complete sterility by growing shiitake mushrooms at home, the effectiveness of amateur technology is much lower than industrial.

The substrate is made using all the same sawdust or hardwood shavings. It is also recommended to use standard types of additives, the benefit to get them easily. Substrate mix should be packaged in agrylic bags. Agril is the special "breathing" material intended for covering beds in a kitchen garden.

Then these packages should be placed in hot water for 10-15 minutes, after which pasteurization is performed: at a temperature of 60 degrees, the mixture is kept for about a day and another three days at 50 degrees. After the substrate has cooled, it is removed from the bags and placed in sterilized 3-liter jars, after inoculating it with mycelium. Banks are sealed with a cotton plug.

Banks with inoculated substrate are left to overgrow with mycelium at a temperature of seventeen to twenty-two degrees for two months. After that, the mixture must be removed from the cans again and returned to breathable bags, leaving it for another two weeks. During this time, the mycelium will form a dense block from the substrate, which should be soaked in water for several hours (up to a day). After this, the first mushrooms should appear in two weeks.

Shiitake mushroom growing room

It is quite simple to create conditions for growing shiitake or Japanese fungus, as it is unpretentious and does not require temperature and humidity. This allows you to adapt to growing almost any room, whether it is a garage, basement, attic, barn or even a living room.

In addition, shiitake can be grown in the greenhouse - here it is even easier to create the necessary conditions. The room must have an area of ​​not less than 20 square meters, must be equipped with heating and ventilation.

Where to get shiitake mycelium

Mycelium - this is sowing material, that is, from which mushrooms will later grow. On average, one kilogram of mycelium is enough to grow two or three kilograms of mushrooms, and sometimes even more: as a rule, the yield is about 30-40 percent of the volume of the substrate, that is, the nutrient material.

You can buy mycelium in specialized stores, on the Internet, as well as on large mushroom farms, which, among other things, produce seed for sale. Of course, you can grow the mycelium on your own, but this is quite a laborious process, and the technology is very complex, so it is easier to buy the mycelium, especially since with small production volumes it is even more profitable.

It is best to store purchased mycelium in the refrigerator: at shit from 0 to 5 degrees, shiitake seed can be stored for up to six months, whereas at a temperature of about 20 degrees - no more than three weeks.

What to look for

First of all, you need to carefully inspect the packaging with the purchased mycelium: its integrity should not be compromised, because the mycelium can dry. In addition, it can cause infection of the mycelium with various parasitic cultures. Mycelium should have a pronounced mushroom odor. If it has an unpleasant sour smell, the packaging can be thrown away. Externally, the mycelium should look uniform and have a uniform white color.

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