Lada is a classic variety of pear, which is well acclimatized in any gardens in our country. Due to the huge number of positive qualities, this variety has won fame as the most popular pear.
Lada is recognized as a summer variety, the ripening period is in the middle of August. The average height of a pear is 2.5 m. The tree has a pronounced bob. The crown of his average density, up to three years, it is funnel-shaped, and at the onset of the fruiting period it becomes pyramidal.
Description and history of the appearance of pear varieties Lada
Let's start with a description of the variety. The shoots of a pear are rather long, of medium thickness, slightly curved, in a section - rounded, of a brown tint. Leaves are dark green in color, small in size. The length of the stem is 1.5–2.5 cm, and the stipules fall off in the early stages.
Cupped flowers. There are 5–7 of them in each inflorescence. The fruits are not particularly large, weighing 100-110 g, obovate. Their surface is smooth and shiny. The ripened pear has a yellow color with a pinkish tinge on the sides.. Subcutaneous points are practically invisible. The peduncle of Lada is short, there is no funnel. The flesh is whitish yellow in color, grainy, medium density and not particularly juicy. The taste of the fruit is sour-sweet without a pronounced flavor.
Variety Lada brought academicians Chizhov and Potapov. This pear was the result of crossing Olga and Forest Beauty varieties. In 1993, the Lada pear variety was entered into the State Register in the Central, Central Black Earth and Middle Volga regions. The most famous Lada acquired in the Moscow region.
Advantages and disadvantages
Lada has many advantages, which include:
- skoroplodnost - pear for 2-4 years from the time of budding brings a full harvest,
- winter hardiness - even young trees that were planted in the fall are able to winter without shelter,
- high resistance to most diseases - Lada resistant to scab and bacterial burn.
Of the minuses of this variety note:
- short period of fruit storage - only 55–65 days at 0 ° C,
- low transportability - pears do not have good resistance to transportation.
When planting seedlings of no small importance is the time of year. It is best to plant a pear in the spring. In the autumn, this should not be done, because of the likely weak formation of roots in the autumn-winter season.
Lada is not particularly demanding when choosing a soil, so it can grow almost anywhere. However, to increase the yield is better to use for planting soil with drainage or chernozem.
The selected area is pre-digged and fertilizers are applied: compost, potash salt and superphosphate.
Dimensions of the recess for the seedling should be larger than the size of the rhizome, so that the tree is freely located during planting. In most cases, the depth is 70 cm and the diameter is 100 cm.
When immersed, the plants in the pit control that the root collar necessarily looks 5–7 cm, and the roots gently straighten and sprinkle with the ground where the seedling is grown. At the last stage of planting, the soil near the pear is well compacted and watered, and a small amount of manure or humus is poured around the plant. At the end of all the actions, the tree trunk is carefully tied to the dug cola.Fruiting pear tree Lada
The pear is often watered only during periods of prolonged drought, because very frequent irrigation damages the root system and provokes all sorts of diseases of this variety. The plant may even die completely due to an overabundance of moisture. Watering is carried out abundantly, 2-3 buckets of water under one tree. Also, pear moisture is needed at the beginning of summer when fruits are poured.
In early spring, the tree is fed with nitrogenous fertilizers. This is done when the snow melts and dry weather sets.
Dried and damaged branches that appear after the winter time, cut off. The stem of a tree trunk is usually treated with red lead or lime.
In the autumn, mineral fertilizers are used. They are added in October. In winter, the pear also needs proper care. It is necessary to ensure that when warming sleet does not stick to the branches of the tree. The weight of the snow layer can easily break thin branches. Stamps do not cover, because the pear has a high frost resistance.
Pruning pears Lada carried out twice a year: in spring and autumn. Unnecessary twigs are cut, very long ones make shorter pruners with a sharp sheath, so as not to cause a lot of damage to the fruit plant. Then the cut sites are treated with garden putty.Productivity in an adult Lada tree
Terms of ripening and harvesting
Lada is a skoropplodny grade of the early period of maturing. With proper care and regular pruning, fruits appear for 3-4 years after planting. The first pears are harvested in early August, and the main harvest comes in the second half of this month. An adult tree brings about 50 kg of fruit annually.
Pears are firmly attached to the stem and fall off only when fully ripe. Due to this, it is possible to harvest in mid-September, when the pear fruit will become amber-golden color and make a blush.
The storage conditions for pears are as follows: a darkened room, a positive temperature of 1–4 ° C, humidity - not less than 85% and good ventilation. Fruits gently put in plastic boxes or wooden boxes. Spread the fruit in the selected container layers, which are separated with thin clean paper or dry straw. Do not create more than two layers.
Fruits of Lada pears are stored for 2–2.5 months. In addition, pears can be kept in the sand. When laying in wooden boxes, layers of fruit are sprinkled with sand. Thus, the fruits will be able to hold out until November.
Protection of an adult tree from diseases and pests
Lada has good resistance to scab and bacterial burn. But it is impossible to exclude the probability of infection with these diseases, as well as other diseases and insect pests.
Pest control begin before the period of sap flow. To do this, in one bucket of water 700 g of urea is dissolved and the stem and ground are treated around the pear.Collected Lada pears, ready to eat and store
This event destroys all the pests that successfully endured the winter cold and frost on the plant.
But if you treat the pear with this solution later, then the swelling kidneys will burn.
To avoid diseases such as scab, bacterial burn, fruit rot, powdery mildew and rust should follow certain rules namely:
- Spray the tree three times in a period from the start of bud breakage to the ripening of all fruits, regardless of the presence of the disease.
- Remove dead foliage on time and remove weeds.
- Prevent excessive aridity or excessive moisture content in the soil.
The pests of this variety are: gall mite, pear sucker, aphid, moth and tstern beetle.
Basic measures for pest control:
- The most effective here are the planned processing of special solutions against parasites.
- The destruction of weeds is mandatory, as they are carriers of various pests.
- Regular and careful observation of the appearance of the trunk, branches and leaves on the pear.
Despite the fact that the variety was bred relatively recently, Lada has already become widespread in most Russian regions.
Such a popularity of this type of pear is promoted by its ability to take root in areas with low and changeable temperatures, unpretentiousness to care, and significant yield indicators. Since Lada belongs to the early ripening varieties, it is not necessary to wait long for the moment to enjoy the tasty and juicy fruits.
Pear Lada is a representative of the type of stem. The tree has an average height and crown in the form of a funnel or a pyramid. The bark of the main trunk and adult branches - gray. Young shoots with a smooth surface painted in light brown tones, decently grow in length and slightly curved. The number of shoots inside the crown is moderate, so that it is moderately dense.
The presented variety is medium-green, and the leaves themselves are dark green in color with a glossy shine, resemble an oval in shape, slightly elongated. The leaf structure is dense, there are small teeth at the edges, and the leaf is slightly curved toward the central vein. The length of the stem is not more than 2.5 cm, while the stipules crumble early. During flowering, the tree is covered with white raceme-shaped inflorescences with 7 cupped flowers each.
Pear pearls abundantly, but the size of the fruits is small, the maximum weight of one fruit is 110 g. But pears have a shiny smooth skin, while it is thin and painted yellow with a barely noticeable blush of a pale red hue. Fruits are attached with a short stalk (about 2 cm) and have no funnel. In the seed box 5 brown seeds.
Harvest from pears can be removed when the skin of the fruit turns yellow around the cutting. By the time it is around the beginning of August.
The taste of pears is not bad, what is the merit of the increased amount of sugars. In this case, the fruit has a slight sourness, the flesh of a light yellow color has a pronounced grain and medium juiciness. The aroma of the whole fruit is practically not felt, only when it is cut, a delicate sweetish odor appears.
The described pear variety Lada is presented in the photo below:
Characteristics of the variety
Young seedlings of Lada pears begin to bear fruit in the third year of life, and they will fully show their “abilities” from the 7th year of cultivation. If you follow the rules of care, an adult tree can produce up to 50 kg of fruit. Pears are ideal for eating and preserving.
The benefits of the variety include:
Description varieties pear Lada would be incomplete, if not to mention its shortcomings. There are only two of them in the Ladovsky variety:
- Short period of storage of fruits after harvest (not more than 2 months).
- Low transportable characteristics of pears.
WITHOrt is self-fertile, that is, even a lonely growing tree is able to bear fruit. However, to increase the amount of the crop, it is recommended to grow it together with pears of Severyanka, Chizhovskaya, Cosmic or Rogneda varieties.
The main nuances of growing varieties
Despite the fact that seedlings almost always take root well, you should pay attention to such moments as Lada pear planting and further care.
In general, the variety is not too whimsical to the soil, however, to preserve the yield, poor soil should be fertilized. The most suitable soil for planting the Lada is fertile loose soil (black soil, loam). If the garden is broken up in an area with poor soil for nutrients, the soil must first be enriched with mineral fertilizers and organic matter. At the same time, the amount of fertilizer applied should exceed the normal feedings on nutrient soils.
Pear Lada is very sensitive to the lack of trace elements (especially organic). If you do not correct the situation, the tree may soon get sick or even die without surviving the winter.
As for the care of the Lada pear variety, special attention should be paid to the irrigation regime. This is due to the fact that the variety has low drought-resistant abilities. In the summer, the tree needs regular watering on the principle of "rarely but abundantly." The most demanding pear in relation to watering during the growth of shoots and ripening fruits - from May to July. Under young trees, at least 30 liters of water should be applied at one time, and up to 50 liters under an adult pear.
In parallel with the irrigation, you can feed the pear, with the first application of fertilizer must be carried out before the start of flowering (nitroammofoska or organic). In the future, it is necessary to make at least two additional feedings - when the tree fully flourishes (urea or saltpeter) and after the formation of fruits (urea).
In addition, under the young trees in the autumn you need to make wood ash (per 1 sq. M. 150 g). Also prepare pears (both young and old) for wintering, by putting a mineral mixture of the following composition (calculated per 1 square meter) into the tree trunk circle:
- 1 tbsp. l potassium chloride,
- 2 tbsp. l superphosphate
- 10 liters of water.
In general, the variety tolerates direct sunlight, but in the case of too hot and dry summer, young seedlings should be protected from the sun. Otherwise, the foliage may turn black and dry.
According to the description above (with photos) of the Lada pear variety, it is perfect for growing in order to obtain an early harvest. Despite the fact that the fruits are not stored for a long time after removal, they can stay on the tree for a long time, since they do not crumble. Due to this, the crop can be removed in parts and gradually processed. Several seedlings of this variety to replenish the garden and will provide more than one family with healthy fruits.
Description and characteristics of pear varieties Lada
Parents of Lada are Forest Beauty and Olga. The plant is of medium height, reaches 3 m. The crown changes as the pears develop. Up to 3-4 years old, it has a funnel shape. When an adult tree begins to bear fruit, the crown resembles a cone or pyramid. The bark is colored dark gray on the trunk and gray on the skeletal branches.
Shoots elongated medium thickness, slightly curved, round in cross section, brown color. Buds cone-shaped, have a dark color. The leaves are green, oval-shaped, medium in size. The surface of the plate is smooth. The leaves are jagged at the edges. The length of the petioles is average. Cupped flowers, corolla white. The edges of the petals are solid. The color of the buds is also white. Inflorescences are racemes, of a shield-like type, in each there are 5–6 flowers.
Fruits are obovoid, in weight reach 100-120 g, covered with a thin skin. Their color is pale yellow. Also on the fruits you can see a weak reddish blush. Fruits have subcutaneous spots, but they are not very noticeable. The stem is short, there is no funnel. The saucer is small, knobby, narrow in shape. Open cup. The seeds are brown in color, each fruit is up to 5 pieces.
The flesh has a fine-grained and not very dense structure, yellow-white color. The taste of the fruit is sweet, with a slight presence of acid, aroma is not pronounced. On a five-point scale, fruits are rated at 4.1–4.4 points. They contain:
- 15.7% solids
- 7.2% sugars,
- 12.2% soluble elements
- 0.27% titratable acid,
- 92 mg / 100 g P-active elements.
The main difference of Lada from other varieties, in particular from Chizhovskaya, is the period of ripening - the variety is considered to be early summer.
Advantages and disadvantages
Lada pears are valued by gardeners for such features as:
- excellent fruiting
- good winter hardiness
- resistance to scab and bacterial burns.
However, gardeners need to take into account the following culture deficiencies:
- low transportability,
- short shelf life of fruits
- susceptibility to drought.
Land for planting Lada should be on the southeast or south side. For pears undesirable effects of winds. Therefore, you should choose a place that will be protected from drafts by buildings or other plants.
Important! Pear Lada prefers loamy soil with a neutral level of acidity. Groundwater should be located at a distance of 2 m from the ground.
It is possible to plant a pear in the spring (in April) or in the autumn - before the onset of frost. The most suitable periods are the end of September, since in October a rather warm temperature is still preserved, and the root system of the plant will have time to harden before the cold weather.
To prepare the site proceed in advance. What is necessary to do the following:
- If planting is expected in the spring, in the fall they dig a hole 80 cm deep and 1.3 m in diameter.
- The resulting soil is mixed with 700 g of dolomite, 600 g of ash, 10 kg of manure or compost, and 200 g of azofosca.
- Then the mixture is poured into the recess.
During the autumn planting, the land also needs preliminary preparation, the best time for this is August. At the selected site, it is necessary to sprinkle 25 g of potassium salt, 50 g of superphosphate and 7 kg of compost evenly (the specified amount of fertilizer is used per 1 m²), then dig up the soil to the level of a spade bayonet.
Lada is planted in the fall or spring
The process of planting itself has such features:
- Gardeners use a sapling aged 1–2 years with 7–8 developed branches, which will later become the basis for the formation of the crown of the tree. The plant should not have mechanical damage and dried roots.
- Then a pit 70 cm deep and 1 m wide is dug on a previously prepared area. The bottom should be loosened and 10 raw eggs should be added, which in the first year will provide the pear with the necessary nutrition.
- A stake is set in the middle of the pit; it should exceed the soil level by 50–70 cm.
- Then a sapling is placed in the recess, straightening the roots. And sprinkle the plant with soil.
- The root collar should be placed 5-6 cm above ground level.
- After that, they tamp the soil and pour 30 l of water on a seedling.
- Приствольный круг мульчируют слоем перегноя или навоза толщиной 10 см.
Груша Лада является частично самоплодной культурой – она способна давать урожай без опылителей. Но их наличие позволит улучшить завязи и увеличить количество плодов.
Important! Such varieties as Memory of Zhegalov, Otradnenskaya, Kosmicheskaya, Moskvichka, Chizhovskaya, Skorospelka, Severyanka and Rogneda are used as pollinators for Lada.
Lada hardly endures drought, so you should pay special attention to its watering. Young tree up to 3-4 years moisturize as the soil dries. Regular irrigation depends on weather conditions and the state of the plant itself. It is possible to moisten a pear at this time once a week. For 1 m² of pristvolnogo plot will need 20 liters of water.
When the tree reaches the fruiting period, it is watered 2 times during the vegetative season:
- before flowering,
- after this stage.
You can perform this procedure in two ways:
- Sprinkling. Watering is carried out using rotating nozzles that spray water drops.
- The use of grooves. Around the tree they dig a hole 20 cm deep and feed water into it.
From the second year after planting the pear must be fed. Young trees under the age of 3 years are fertilized only within the near-stem circle (within a radius of 1.5 m). After the start of fruiting, fertilizing is also introduced in the aisle.
- 4 g / m² of phosphorus and 6 g / m² of potassium are required for one tree from 4 to 12 years old,
- for pears aged 12–20 years, phosphorus consumption should be 6 g / m², potassium 8 g / m²,
- the norm for plants older than 20 years is 8 g / m² of phosphorus and 12 g / m² of potassium.
Fertilizers are applied in spring - before flowering, and also in autumn - before frosts, when soil is loosened in a pristvolny circle. Dig up the soil by 10–12 cm.
To form a crown and ensure uniform illumination of the tree will help pruning. The procedure is carried out in the spring - before blooming buds (in March), or in the autumn time - until frost (in October). The first pruning is done immediately after landing. Shorten the central shoot by ¼ length. Then select the 4 most developed branches and cut them 20 cm below this level.
The following year, shorten the center conductor by 20–25 cm. Cut the branches by 5–7 cm. The upper shoots should be made shorter, and the lower ones, which extend at an obtuse angle, should be made long. Pruning in subsequent years is to eliminate overgrowth and damaged branches, as well as thinning the crown.
Important! Slices with a diameter greater than 1.5 cm, process garden pitch (250 g of grease, 200 g of wax and 50 g of resin).
Whitewashing and mulching
Before the onset of winter, the trunk and skeletal branches must be whitened - this will help protect the tree from rodents. To prepare the solution, you need to dilute 0.5 liters of copper sulphate and 2.5 kg of lime into 10 liters of water. For the procedure using a paint brush.
Protecting the root system from freezing will help mulching the soil in the region of the near-stem circle. For this purpose, suitable grass or sawdust. Mulch is laid in a layer of 15–20 cm. Young trees up to 4 years old for the winter period are wrapped in paper or lapnik.
What kind is it?
Skoroplodny grade with high productivity and resistance to scab. Fruits of universal purpose, suitable for processing and for fresh consumption.
When the pear tree “Lada” ripens and when to harvest? The terms of ripening pear "Lada" are early summer, its fruits before all will delight you with juicy and tasty fruits.
Fruits keep firmly on the stalk and are not prone to shedding, therefore, harvesting Lada pears is possible in mid-September, as soon as they become amber-golden in color and a blush appears.
Among the summer varieties should pay attention to the Cathedral, Victoria, Krasnobokuyu and Lyubimitsu Yakovlev.
Breeding history and breeding region
The variety has a recent history and owes its birth to the Agricultural Academy, which is located in Moscow. Employees received a new look, by crossing two varieties "Forest Beauty" and "Olga".
The characteristics of the resulting tree exceeded expectations in their performance. Since 1993, the variety "Lada" has been recorded in the state register.
Received widespread in the Moscow region, and is also actively grown in Central, Volga and Central Black Earth regions.
Pear variety "Lada" its full description and photo of the fruit later in the article.
Pear "Lada": description of the variety and photos
The height of an adult pear tree "Lada" reaches medium size with a small density of crown and foliage. Young seedlings differ from mature trees in the funnel-shaped crown, which becomes pyramidal with age.
The main stem of the trunk is gray, while the skeletal branches are lighter. The shoots are long, with a pronounced brown tinge, a slight curvature, the cross section is rounded. Short sections of the stem in internodes and relatively small thickness of shoots. Chechevichek on the trunk a bit and they are not very pronounced.
The shape of the leaves is pointed, ovate-elongated. The surface of the sheet is shiny matt, while the back side is more matte and rough. The sheet plate itself is of medium thickness and very elastic.
Vegetative buds in the form of a cone, slightly pointed and elongated at the end. Over the course of time, the most round and deviated bud begins to develop corymbose inflorescences.
Usually they have 5-7 buds, consisting of large flowers, whole petals and a bright corolla.
Fruits do not differ in large size, their maximum weight is about 120 g. The shape of the fruit is beautiful, typical of most pears.
Smooth and thin skin has a light yellow color with a delicate red blush.
Typical subcutaneous points are almost invisible. The rust is weak, barely perceptible only at the base of the stem. The funnel is absent, the stem is short and medium in thickness. The fruit has 5-7 brown, medium sized seeds.
The light yellow flesh of the fruit has a loose structure and an average juice content. The taste is sweet with a slight sourness, without a strong aroma. Fruit tastes are high, average score of about 4.7 points.
Characteristics of the properties of pear Lada variety:
For more information about the variety and see the pears "Lada" can be in the photo below:
"Lada" is considered samoplodnym grade.
The presence of any of these varieties at the site significantly increases the yield and quality of the fruit.
Variety "Lada" is considered skoroplodnysince already for 2–4 years after planting, it is able to produce a good harvest.
Mature tree with proper care and regular pruning on average brings about 50 kg of pears every year.
High yields bring such varieties of pears: Hera, Noyabrskaya, In memory of Zhegalov and Yakovlevskaya.
Winter hardiness varieties at a high level. Trees in winter you can not even coversince it is not required at all. Given the overall thermophilicity of this culture, such resistance to low temperatures is rare.
The winter-hardy varieties include pears: Sverdlovchanka, Fairy Tale, Uralochka and Svarog.
Planting and care
When planting seedlings must take into account the time of year. Ideal if you plant a young tree in the spring. It is not recommended to plant in the autumn, because of possible weak rooting in the autumn-winter period.
The variety is not very whimsical to the choice of soil, therefore, distributed almost everywhere. But the most favorable soils for growing Lada are black earth, forest and loamy.
Before planting, organic fertilizers should be applied to the pit, such as compost, potassium salt and superphosphateand then loosen the soil well.
The dimensions of the pit should somewhat exceed the size of the rhizome, so that the plant is freely located during planting. The approximate dimensions of the pit 70x100, respectively, the depth and diameter.
The root neck when planting must necessarily look at 5-7 cm, and root shoots are neatly straightened and sprinkled with the ground in which the seedlings were grown.
At the final stage, the ground around the tree is compacted and irrigated abundantly. Around it is necessary to pour a little manure or humus. After all that has been done, the trunk of the tree should be carefully tied to a peg previously dug in.
The tree should often be watered only during periods of prolonged drought, because too frequent watering can damage the root system and cause various diseases. Up to the complete destruction of the plant. Watering should be carried out abundantly, two or three buckets of water under one tree.
In the spring, after wintering the plant, it is necessary to feed it with nitrogen fertilizers.. This should be done after the snow melts and the weather is dry.
Dry or damaged branches that form after the winter period are removed. The stem part of the stem is processed mainly with iron oxide or lime.
In the fall, mineral fertilizers are best suited.that contribute in October. The period of hibernation also requires care. It is necessary to ensure that during the thaw the sleet does not stick to the branches.
The severity of the snowy icy cover can easily break thin branches. Shelter trunk for the winter is not required this type of pear, because of his high frost resistance.
Pear cutting is done twice a year, in spring and autumn. Extra branches are removed completely, shortened too long with a sharp pruner to cause the tree as little damage as possible.
Places of cuts are processed with special garden putty.
Diseases and pests
Pear varieties "Lada" has a strong resistance to such fungal diseases as scab.
It will be right to start the pest control of a pear before sap flow begins in the spring.
This procedure will destroy all the pests that have successfully survived the winter on the tree.
But if the wood is treated with this solution later, the buds will swell.
Such common diseases as scab, bacterial burn, fruit rot, powdery mildew, rust are easier to prevent than to cure.
Basic rules for disease control:
- Spray the tree three times during the period from the start of bud break to the end of fruiting, regardless of the presence of the disease.
- Timely utilization of fallen leaves and weed removal.
- Avoid excessive aridity or excessive moisture of the soil.
The pear variety “Lada” is sufficiently resistant to all the listed diseases, especially scab. But the use of additional protection measures would be useful.
Pear pests: gall mite, brawler, hawthorn, miner moth, aphid, winter moth, goldfinder, scythe, apple tree beetle.
Basic rules for pest control:
- Especially effective planned treatment with special agents against parasites.
- Obligatory removal of weeds that are pests.
- Careful regular inspection of the trunk, branches and leaves on the tree.
Simple care and unpretentiousness of this type of pear give the opportunity to grow "Lada" in almost all regions.
The undoubted advantages of a pear are its unpretentiousness, frost resistance and, of course, the excellent taste of ripe fruits.