Tomato growers occasionally encounter their diseases due to insufficient or excessive plant nutrition or for other reasons. If you do not deal with these problems, the plant may die or the crop will decrease significantly. Consider today why tomatoes can get sick, how they look, how to prevent diseases.
What makes tomatoes sick?
In order to prevent disease, you need to know what to fight, and what you should not do when caring for tomatoes.
Plants are sick for different reasons:
- Defeat fungus.
- Malicious bacteria.
- Infectious virus infection.
- Damage due to solar activity.
- Temperature mode.
- Ground moisture
- Activity of insects (bears, butterflies, beetles).
If this happened due to the human factor, then it is enough just to change the approach to caring for plants. For the prevention of everything else requires an integrated approach.
With proper care and prevention of diseases, tomatoes bring a big and tasty harvest, and their fruits contain so many useful vitamins and minerals that no effort will seem wasted.
What you need to take care when growing tomatoes:
- About the balance of nutrients in fertilizers.
- Accuracy when dealing with them. Broken branches can cause illness.
- Using mulch will improve the properties of the soil and protect it from drying out.
- Determining the most suitable time for planting will save tomatoes from hypothermia.
- To choose the most stable and tasty variety, it is better to experiment, plant several species at once.
- Tomatoes are best planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse, it will protect plants from adverse weather conditions.
- We must not forget about the distance between the tomatoes, they need to be planted no less than 50 centimeters from each other, so that they do not take away the necessary minerals and vitamins from the “neighbors”.
Mineral fertilizers are saved from pests.
In order for Medvedka not to interfere with growing tomatoes and other cultivated plants, it is necessary to use hot pepper diluted with water, which should be poured into the mink of the bear.
If a few days before planting to bury the raw cleaning of any vegetables, and over time, dig them up and burn along with the fact that they have stuck, so you can get rid of the larvae of beetles. When digging the beds also should not forget to destroy them.
How to determine that a tomato is sick? The color changes to non-standard in leaves and fruits, the nature of growth changes.
How to determine the lack of minerals in the diet?
If there is a lack of such nutrients as phosphorus, potassium, zinc, nitrogen, magnesium, molybdenum, then the lower leaves will have abnormalities.
The leaves are small and pale - this means that there is not enough nitrogen.
And if on the contrary - thick and large, it means that there is a surplus of nitrogen fertilizer, which is also not a positive thing, since all the forces of the plant will go into the growth of shoots and fruits will not be formed.
Each of the minerals has a specific function for the plant:
- phosphorus is responsible for frost resistance and root development,
- potassium - for disease resistance, plant growth and water use,
- zinc - for the growth and durability of crops,
- magnesium - for yield,
- molybdenum - for the neutralization of nitrates.
If problems first appeared on the upper leaves, the plant lacks calcium, sulfur, iron, chlorine.
With a lack of calcium, the leaves become faded and the flowers fall off, the fruit darkens from above.
The result of a lack of sulfur is the reduction of photosynthesis, that is, the leaves do not have enough nutrition for development.
With a lack of iron leaves turn yellow, and the flowers are stunted.
Chlorine regulates the absorption of nitrates, thanks to him the plant fights viral and fungal diseases.
The leaves turned yellow, because of what is happening?
If the yellowness begins in the middle of the leaf, and then its pigmentation changes completely to yellow color, this means that the tomatoes lack potassium. Its deficiency can be compensated by any potash fertilizer or ash. To do this, 200 grams of ash diluted in 10 liters. water, you can water half a liter at a time.
Also, the yellow color can be affected by the irregularity of removing old leaves.
The color changes to brown, first on the leaves, then on the shoots and fruits - all these are signs of late blight. The disease can destroy a significant part of the crop, so that this does not happen, they use Barrier or Zaslon drugs, diluting them in 10 l. water.
And to avoid this disease, it is necessary to carry out prevention. Limiting humidity in the air can help. For example, you can water through a plastic bottle, dug into the ground, after watering cover the container with something.
You can also spray garlic tincture with potassium permanganate (it needs to use 10 liters of water, a head of garlic and 1 gram of potassium permanganate) or use a solution with sodium chloride.
In addition, the phytophthora loves cracked soils, which gardeners specifically create, for fear of soil oxidation.
As with all living things, immunity for the plant plays a very important role. With a lack of trace elements such as potassium, iodine, manganese, copper, tomatoes weaken, and the possibility of infection increases.
Alternaria or Macrosporia
Alternaria disease is differently called dry spot due to the appearance of spots on the leaves and on the fruit. Their size can reach several centimeters and in any weather they will be dry. The leaves turn yellow. A distinctive feature of this disease is black blotch on stains.
In wet and warm weather, macrosporosis develops very quickly.
The early ripening varieties of tomatoes are often infected.
To prevent this disease, tomatoes should be planted in the beds where legumes, onions, and grass used to grow.
In no case should you plant potatoes and tomatoes next to them, macrosporosis can spread from potatoes. Just as you can not plant tomatoes in the same place for 3 years. Also for the prevention should be sprayed tomatoes Bordeaux liquid or copper oxide. And for the destruction of the disease is used Ridomil Gold MC and Metaxil.
To combat this disease often use fungicides containing zinc. Sprayed with this tool tomatoes three times a year. Be sure to use when detected and need to be repeated after two weeks. But it is better to treat with these drugs until the fruits appear, after their appearance one should switch to more benign biological preparations, for example, Fitosporin.
The external differences of this disease include depressed spots on the fruit or faded upper leaves. Infection usually manifests itself at the end of the summer season.
Sources of infection can be last year’s plant residues, manure, seeds.
Anthracnose resistant hybrids have been developed, and they include: Shelf F1, Longf, and Life F1.
For prevention, seeds are soaked in an immunocytophyte or Agate-25, and tomatoes are processed with Quadris, Flint or Strobe. To destroy the disease using drugs based on hay sticks.
Septoriosis or white leaf spot
This disease can halve the harvest. She first strikes the old leaves below. The leaves become brown in color, curl and dry. The spots in septoria are watery-white with a brown edge. On the spots you can see the pycnidia of the fungus, which look like dark dots. The disease spreads with the help of pycnospores, which are carried by rain, wind or humans, infecting healthy plants.
The development of infection contributes to rainy weather. And the source of the problem is the remains of diseased plants.
Fungicides, Bordeaux liquid and copper oxychloride can also be used to treat the disease.
The following tomato varieties are least susceptible to septoria: Amiko, Ballad, Horeb, Worthy, Joker, Odeta, and others.
Cladosporiosis is an olive leaf spot, which first appears as tan spots, then changes its color to a reddish-brown hue.
In the prevention of this disease, it is necessary to remove old leaves in a timely manner and disinfect the soil before planting and constantly air the greenhouses.
As with all fungal diseases, moisture contributes to the development of cladosporiosis, therefore at the first manifestations it is worth limiting watering.
When choosing a plant resistant to cladosporia, attention should be paid to F1 Athletics and F1 Semko.
Gray patina is the hallmark of this disease. Spreading through the stem of the disease causes the flow of water to stop and as a result of the death of plant tissue.
Injured stems of tomatoes contribute to the infection, so when caring for a plant you should be careful and do not damage it. If it is necessary to cut the branches, then it should be done in dry weather with a sharp knife.
The fungus can move from cucumbers, salads and other crops.
At the first manifestations of gray mold it is recommended to use a paste with fungicides. Prevention should be carried out using treatment with Trichodermine and Glyocladin. It is better to spray in the daytime so that the plant dries up in the evening.
In relation to resistance against gray rot, hybrids are not bred.
However, it is possible to save the crop by using Euparin multi and Byeleton.
Fungus infestation begins with lower leaves that become watery and discolor. Everything is covered with white bloom. Infection starts from the ground, from where the disease penetrates into the lower part of the plant. Therefore, the main method of dealing with white rot is the destruction of all residues and disinfection.
Soils containing clay and sand are most susceptible to contamination. The disease appears when landing in a greenhouse was cold (about 15 degrees) and wet. The optimum temperature for the greenhouse is 18 ° C.
In the prevention and strengthening of immunity of tomatoes, copper sulphate, urea and zinc dissolved in 10 liters should be used. water.
Brown rot (fomoz)
The spot is formed in the fruit around the stem and is 3-4 cm in size. The spread of the disease inside the fruit is much larger than it looks from the outside. The fungus penetrates due to mechanical damage to the surface of the tomato, which can be caused by wind or rain.
For prevention should be treated with copper oxychloride and Bordeaux mixture. A rotten fruit is required to immediately remove.
Infection begins with a white residue on the leaves, resembling dust or flour. Then he moves to the rest of the plant. Ulcers appear on the leaves, they turn yellow and die. Plaque interferes with photosynthesis. Being fixed on the plant, the fungi pull everything useful out of it, thus parasitizing.
Here are the rules that must be followed in order for tomatoes not to become infected:
- Watering is possible only after the top layer of the earth dries. But in no case can not overdry it.
- Old leaves need to be cleaned.
- Observe the distance when planting.
- Reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizers and add phosphorus-potassium. If the plant is infected, then it is not necessary to fertilize at all.
If you still could not avoid the problem, you should cut off and destroy all the affected areas.
At the initial stages, the following solutions can be used: on the basis of potassium permanganate, with soda and liquid soap, using dry mustard, ash, garlic, horsetail or copper sulfate.
The following drugs can be used for treatment: Fundazol, Topaz, Scor, Vitaros and Previkur.
Root rot or black leg
Root rot and blackleg are two names for one fungal disease that begins with overwetting or oversaturation with soil fertilizers, lack of soil disinfection before planting or contaminated instruments, gloves ...
In this disease, first blacken, and then rot and roots stalk. Also, when it is characterized by lethargy plants, brown spots and drying of the leaves.
If one plant is still infected, it is better to remove it in order not to risk the whole crop.
For prevention, you can use drugs Psevdobakterin-2 and Ross, as well as a solution of copper sulfate.
Before sowing, seeds should be etched with fungicides. Plant better in the beds after the peas or sunflower.
Bacterial wilting of tomatoes (bacteriosis)
Bacterial wilting can be recognized by the rapid wilting of a tomato and rotting of the stem core. In the late stages, you can see stripes on the stem, and if you cut it, rings of affected vessels appear before your eyes.
In order to avoid infection, it is necessary to properly water the plant, not falling on it.
Diseased plants are destroyed, and for neighboring tomatoes, prophylaxis is carried out using Fitolavin-300 solution.
Necrosis of the stalk of tomatoes
Necrosis is characterized by spots on the leaves, visible only in bright light, stripes and aerial roots on the stem, and cracks appear in the lower part.
Prevention is the destruction of residues, seed dressing and spraying of plants. If the plant is sick, then it should be removed along with the land adjacent to it.
The most resistant to the disease hybrids - F1 Red Arrow, F1 Mayeva, F1 Resento.
Tomato Viral Diseases
Such diseases cannot be cured, they can only be prevented. But it is difficult to save tomatoes from all viruses at once. Therefore, choosing what kind of tomato you want to plant, you need to focus on resistance to various diseases.
If the affected plants on the site prevail, then it does not make sense to get rid of them, it remains only to continue to care for them.
The virus is carried by aphids, seeds and plant debris. Often infection occurs through damage to the stems.
Mosaic appears in stripes on fruits and leaves, yellow or brown spots, twisting leaves and their death.
The virus is very tenacious and tolerates even high temperatures, up to 90 degrees. Seeds before planting should be processed in solutions of potassium permanganate or trisodium phosphate.
Disease-resistant hybrids: Annie, President, Belle, Sors, Semko ...
Chlorotic curl of tomato leaves
The virus is carried by the greenhouse whitefly (small white butterfly).
Infection is expressed by a change in the size of the leaves, they become small and faded, shrinking. The fruits are also shrinking.
There are no hybrids for this disease. The only way to combat the disease - the destruction of pests, for this you can use solutions (garlic, yarrow, tobacco, dandelion) or fumigators and traps.
Vertex rot looks like a brown flat spot formed on the bottom of the fruit. Where rot has formed, fungi can appear. But the disease itself is not fungal.
Causes of appearance are heat and a small amount of moisture, salinity of the soil, lack or excess of calcium.
This year, she herself faced such an attack on tomatoes. The summer was very hot. In the fertilized garden there were almost no such fruits - only 1 bush. And on poorer beds, a lot of bushes suffered. Especially Königsberg is pink.
Thus, to avoid disease, the plant is watered and fertilized.
The reason for the cracking of the skin can serve as temperature fluctuations at different times of the day, lack of irrigation, dry and hot weather. The choice of tomato variety can also influence. For example, hybrids with dense, hard skin are more prone to this deformation.
After the pinching procedure, the tomatoes may crack under the pressure of water coming from the roots, due to the loss of part of the evaporating surface.
Yellow or green spot on the stem
Such a phenomenon does not occur on all fruits, this is due to a lack of potassium and phosphorus, an overabundance of the sun. Tomato becomes inedible. In order to avoid this problem, the greenhouse during the emergence of the fruit should be darkened, and in the heat must be aired, and do not forget about feeding.
Phytotoxicity of the soil is the result of improper use of fertilizers and pesticides. Lack and excess of substances can have a negative impact on plant development.
Also soil moisture is affected by humidity and temperature. When deviations from the norms appear diseases that are difficult to cope.
Observing the rules and regulations of nutrition, plant care can achieve an excellent harvest of tomatoes without diseases.
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Diseases of tomatoes and their description
Among the causes of the disease of tomatoes there are several groups:
- Fungal infections
- Diseases of a bacterial nature
- Viral infection
- Sun damage
- Temperature factors
- Ground moisture
- Pest infestation: butterflies, beetles, bears.
Alternaria (macroscopic disease)
Due to the appearance of slightly indented dark spots on the fruits and leaves of the plant, alternariosis is called differently dry spot. The size of the spots can reach several centimeters and in any weather they will be dry. The disease causes yellowing of the leaves of the plant. Its distinguishing feature is the appearance of black patches on the spots.
Macrosporia develops very quickly in dry warm weather. Tomatoes of early ripening varieties are more prone to infection.
A good prevention of the disease is planting tomatoes in the beds, where before the onions, grass or legumes grew. It is contraindicated to plant tomatoes next to potatoes, from which macrosporosis can spread. For 3 years you can not plant tomatoes in the same place. With the preventive purpose in 2-3 weeks spend spraying tomatoes with copper chloroxide or 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Metaxil (25 grams per 5 liters of water) and Ridomil Gold MC (0.5% solution) are used to treat the disease. These means are recommended to spray tomatoes three times a year. Mandatory processing is carried out at detection and repeated after 2 weeks. It is better to process the plants before the appearance of the fruit, and after that use more benign means, for example, Fitosporin.
This infection usually manifests itself at the end of the summer season. Its external manifestations are faded upper leaves and depressed spots on the fruit. Infection most often occurs from manure, seeds, plant residues last year. High resistance to anthracnose have hybrids Life F1, Shelf F1, Longf.
For prevention, it is recommended to soak seeds for 3 hours in Agat-25 preparations (7 grams per 1 liter of water) or Immunocytophyte (1 tablet per 1 tablespoon of water), and process the tomatoes Strobe (5 grams per 10 liters of water), Quadrice (solution concentration 0.2%) or Flint (5 milliliters per 10 liters of water). Effective for the treatment of the disease means based on hay sticks.
White leaf spot (septoria)
This disease can halve the yield. First, it infects the old leaves below, which turn brown, curl and dry. The color of the spots in septoria is watery white with a brown edge. One can see on the spots dark spots of pycnidia fungus. The disease is spread by pycnospores that are carried by the wind, rain, or man.
Rainy weather contributes to the development of infection. The source of the problem is the remains of diseased plants. The disease is treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid (treatment frequency is 2 weeks), fungicides.
Septoriozu least susceptible varieties of tomatoes Worthy, Ballad, Joker, Amiko, Horeb.
Septoriosis (white rot)
Fungal diseases affect plants from the lower leaves: they become discolored and become watery. All parts of tomatoes are covered with white bloom. Starting from the ground, the disease gradually reaches the bottom of the plant. The main method of dealing with white rot - disinfection and destruction of all residues.
The most susceptible to contamination are soils that contain sand and clay. The disease occurs when wet and cold weather with a temperature below + 15 ° C was observed when planting tomatoes in the greenhouse. The optimum temperature for planting in the greenhouse is about + 18 ° С.
To prevent and treat the disease, the immunity of tomatoes should be strengthened using copper sulphate, zinc, and urea. They fight white rot by treating plants with copper oxide, Zineb (40 grams of powder for 500-600 milliliters of water), Horus (2 grams for 10 liters of water). Plants sprayed with an interval of 7-10 days.
Fomoz (brown rot)
The disease begins with the formation of a 3-4 cm spot around the stalk of a tomato. Inside the fetus, it spreads much more than outside. The penetration of the fungus inside promote mechanical damage to the surface of the fruit caused by rain or wind.
For prophylactic purposes, the plants are sprayed with a 1% Bordeaux mixture and copper chloroxide. Also required to immediately remove rotten fruit.
Black leg (root rot)
Fungal disease that begins with soil oversaturation with fertilizers or overmoistening, lack of soil disinfection before planting, contamination of gloves or tools. The roots and stalk with this disease first turn black and then begin to rot.
Plants become lethargic, brown spots appear on them and leaves start to dry out. When one infected plant appears, it is recommended to remove it in order not to risk the whole crop.
The main source of infection is contaminated soil. The disease spreads with plant debris, clumps of soil, partly with seeds.
For the prevention and treatment of black legs it is recommended to use a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. It is necessary to carry out processing 2-3 times with an interval of 20 days. Seeds before sowing need to be etched with fungicides. It is better to plant them in the beds after sunflower and peas.
Bacteriosis (bacterial wilt)
The disease is recognized by the rotting of the stem core and the fast wilting of the plant. Symptoms of the disease may appear within one night. Later, stripes appear on the stem, and when cutting, the rings of the affected vessels are visible.
To avoid infection, it is necessary to properly water the plant, without getting directly to it. The disease can not be cured. Diseased plants are destroyed; neighboring tomatoes are treated with a solution of Fitolavin-300 with a concentration of 0.6-1% for prevention.
Under each plant is recommended to make at least 200 milliliters of solution. Plants can be sprayed with a solution of the same concentration. Sick tomatoes will not cure it, but infection with healthy ones will delay.
Such diseases can only be prevented, but not cured. It is difficult to save tomatoes from all viruses at once. Choosing varieties of tomatoes for planting, you need to consider their resistance to various diseases.
If the affected plants predominate at the site, it makes no sense to get rid of them. We must continue to care for tomatoes.
Mostly tomatoes growing in open ground suffer from mosaics. The virus is carried by seeds, aphids, plant debris. Infection occurs through damaged stems. The mosaic is shown by stripes on the leaves and fruits, brown or yellow spots, twisting and death of the leaves. A resilient virus tolerates high temperatures up to 90 ° C.
This unpleasant disease is practically not treatable: it is better to simply remove diseased plants. The only remedy against mosaic is prevention. Before planting, the seeds should be processed in trisodium phosphate or potassium permanganate solutions at a concentration of 1%. Resistance to the disease are different hybrids Belle, Anyuta, Semko, Sors, President.
Leaves on the top of bushes
Spun leaves on tops of tomato bushes appear for several reasons:
- lack of air to the roots due to a strong overflow of soil,
- poisoning of tomatoes with herbicides accidentally caught on the leaves of plants,
- spraying growth stimulants unbalanced in composition.
Frequent loosening and hilling of tomatoes will help to normalize air exchange in the soil during overflow. Herbicide-treated plants must be removed.
Lack of nutrients
The appearance of abnormalities in growing tomatoes can be caused not by a disease, but by a lack of certain nutrients. In this case, you need to pay attention to which part of the bush there is a problem: on the old leaves below or above, on the young ones.
A problem starting from the bottom leaves may be caused by a deficiency. such batteries:
- Nitrogen - One of the main elements necessary for the growth of tomatoes, responsible for the leaves and fruits. With a lack of nitrogen, the plant becomes pale, shallow. An excess of nitrogen can lead to the "fattening" of tomatoes, when the leaves become huge, the stems are thick, and the fruits may not be tied up at all.
- Phosphorus - an element responsible for the energy supply of the plant, the development of the root system, resistance to mechanical damage and cold.
- Potassium - an element that increases resistance to disease, frost, drought, strengthens plants and improves the quality of fruits.
Magnesium increases the intensity of photosynthesis, the formation of chlorophyll. Treatment is recommended with 0.5-1% solution of magnesium sulfate.
- Molybdenum - regulates phosphoric and nitrogen metabolism, the formation of chlorophyll.
The problems that started from the top of the bush can be caused by the deficiency of such elements:
- Calcium - stimulates the development of the plant and its root system.
- Boron - is responsible for pollination and fertilization, takes part in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, increases disease resistance.
- Sulfur - the initial product of amino acid biosynthesis. Element, which is part of proteins. Stems with its lack become rigid, fragile and thin.
- Iron - One of the main nutrients of tomatoes, the lack of which is manifested by chlorosis of the leaves. Plants require treatment with complex preparations containing iron.
- Chlorine - deficiency of the element is less common, but can cause wilting of young leaves.
- Manganese - takes part in protein and carbohydrate metabolism, promotes activation of enzymes. Manganese deficiency resembles viral mosaic symptoms.
Yellow leaves from the middle of the tomatoes indicate the need to feed any potash fertilizer. Wood ash can be used: dilute a glass of ash in 10 liters of water and water the plants to the root by 0.5 liters. Tomatoes' yellowing can be caused by aging. You need to regularly remove them from the bush.
Diseases of tomatoes can be felt suddenly. Although this plant is unpretentious, but for its successful cultivation you need to know some of the nuances associated with the care. Sometimes seedlings are sick even with a sufficient degree of illumination, normal temperature, watering and enrichment with nutrients.
A common disease called “mosaic” is a deviation that is characterized by viral nature. Mosaic is an unpleasant and complex defeat of vegetables. The leaves of the diseased seedlings change their color. Their coloring becomes motley, reminds a mosaic pattern. The leaf alternates between green and black. For fruits with a characteristic yellow spot.
Mosaic is difficult to treat. Therefore, when the first signs of disease appear, the affected vegetable bushes need to be removed. Most often, the disease develops in tomatoes growing in open beds. The main source of infection is the presence of infection in the seeds. For prophylactic purposes, it is necessary to dress them before planting.
In the pictures you can often observe bacteriosis, implying bacterial wilting of the plant. The fact that tomato seedlings are unhealthy is evidenced by the sudden withering of the bush at a rapid pace. Symptoms of the disease sometimes makes itself felt in one night. A healthy shrub completely fades, which alarm the gardeners. However, do not worry about not enough abundant watering. Humidity does not affect the situation.
If you carefully consider the vegetable culture that has died, in the stem you can see the void and the liquid. The internal tissue fibers of the tomato stem are brown in color. It is impossible to get rid of such a disease of seedlings of tomatoes with its progression. Damaged bushes are immediately removed. Next, they need to burn. The surrounding plants on the neighboring beds, which have no signs of illness, must be processed.
Experienced gardeners are advised to use Fitolavin-300 solution for manipulation. Concentration should be between 0.6 and 1%. To achieve a positive effect, at least 0.2 l of solution is poured under each bush. Applying the specified concentration, it is allowed to use means for spraying of vegetable culture. Such measures will not be able to cure infected bushes, but they will prevent the negative impact of pathogenic microorganisms and delay the damage for 14-21 days.
Dangerous late blight
Phytophthora, or late blight, is a very common disease, tomatoes suffer from it when grown on open ground. Phytophthora is considered a fungal disease. The best development of the dispute occurs in damp, wet places. Under what conditions does late blight develop? Its appearance is caused by sharp fluctuations in air temperature. Initially, blackening and drying of the leaves, then the vegetables themselves.
Effective disease control is carried out by experienced gardeners who have been able to delay the negative processes as much as possible, which makes it possible to harvest a large crop. Growing tomatoes can include activities for which empty plastic containers are used. They cut the bottom in advance. On the side of the bottle, make small holes with a nail or other convenient device. Next, the bottle is inserted into the soil near the root of the bush. This should be done with every bush. Watering will be carried out not on the surface of the soil, but in the bottle. From above each vessel is covered with a lid.
Performing these actions will facilitate the entry of moisture to the root system itself (moistening of the roots will be sufficient). At the same time the air does not become wet, the foliage in the lower part of the bushes will not be able to sweat. Because of this, there will be no favorable conditions for the reproduction of fungal spores.
Tomato protection against disease (late blight) in greenhouses and in open beds is done by regularly spraying seedlings with whey. It is enough to spray it every 7 days. Lactic acid will inhibit the development of spores. Effective remedies for the prevention of phytophthora:
Viral and fungal diseases
A significant threat to the culture is the necrosis of the stems. Ailment refers to the viral type. The first symptoms appear during the formation of brushes with fruits. Necrosis is noticeable on well-developed stalks of bushes. Below on the trunks you can see the cracks, initially their color is dark green. After some time, the beginnings of air roots begin to form on the deformed areas.
Subsequently, signs of necrosis may be:
- wither sheets,
- bush is located in the horizontal direction,
- the plant dies completely.
Necrosis fails to harvest, because tomatoes do not have time to keep up. Patients with a virus or infected soil provoke the development of the disease.
To avoid the development of necrosis, you need to plant a vegetable crop on a protected ground. Already diseased bushes ripped from the roots, then destroyed. The soil is disinfected with Fitolavin-300 solution. The drug is diluted in water so as to obtain a concentration of 0.2%.
Among the many ailments, attention should be paid to the disease of seedlings of tomatoes - alternariosis, or macrosporosis. This is a dry or brown spot. The disease itself is of fungal origin. There is a deviation from the normal state of various parts of the plant:
- fruits (relatively rare).
In this disease of the tomato, the foliage at the bottom of the stems first becomes ill. Characteristic spots appear on it:
- big size,
- Brown color,
- have concentric zonality.
When Alternaria such changes contribute to the death of the stems or provoke dry rot. Spots may occur on the fruit and stalk itself. Their color is dark, the surface in places where the spots appear is slightly dented. If tomato seedlings are watered abundantly at this time, then a high level of humidity will cause the formation of dark, velvety fungal spores.
The high temperature of the air contributes to the activation of such diseases of tomatoes. Especially dangerous is its increase to the levels of 25-30 ° C. Pathogenic fungi are able to survive on plant residues. If the culture grew in a greenhouse or greenhouse, the fungus can be found on the overlap. Sporulation occurs in copious amounts, which contributes to the spread of the fungus through wind and raindrops.
Prevention of these diseases in tomatoes is performed with the help of antifungal drugs that contain copper. How to sprinkle tomatoes if the first symptoms of dry blotch appear? Skor or Ridomil Gold will do.
These drugs of chemical origin have a strong effect. They can be used before the formation of the ovary. This is the optimal time, since immediately after processing vegetables cannot be eaten. It should take about 50 days. Against diseases and pests in the presence of ripe tomatoes using biological products.
Diseases and pests of tomatoes are complemented by chlorotic leaf curl. Affected seedlings are easily recognizable by their light green or yellow hues. She has:
- Chlorotic species.
- Curly tops.
- Short stature
The presence of such a disease of tomatoes is associated with tobacco necrosis viruses and tobacco mosaic. Infection of seedlings of tomatoes occurs through seeds or soil. Это серьезные болезни томатов, и меры борьбы с ними похожи на алгоритм устранения мозаики (обеззараживаются грунт и семена). Есть помидоры нельзя, их нужно удалять.
Известна болезнь, помидоры при которой приобретают бурую оливковую пятнистость, — кладоспориоз. Она имеет грибковое происхождение. Ее часто можно встретить, если происходит выращивание томатов в парнике.
На начальной стадии кладоспориоза болеют листья. On the outer surface, yellow and chlorotic spots are visible, which have a rounded shape. Over time, they merge into one. Bottom leaves will be covered with brown and velvety patina. This indicates the appearance of fungal spores. Next, the sheets will curl and wither. The manifestation of this disease of tomato is observed in the flowering period or at the initial stage of fruiting.
If the infection occurs at the beginning of the growth of the vegetable crop, then it represents a great danger. The flow of cladosporia is very acute under the following conditions:
- degree of air humidity is about 95%,
- light day is from 10 to 12 hours
- light level is low.
Damage to vegetables occurs in rare cases. This happens if there is no treatment at all. Otherwise, the tomatoes become dark brown in color, become soft. They can not eat.
Causes of Tomato Disease:
- Watering is carried out excessively cold water.
- The air temperature is changing dramatically.
- High humidity.
It is necessary to treat the plant by treatment with special preparations. Before starting treatment, the affected leaves should be broken off. A good protection of tomatoes from diseases is to use preparations containing copper, for example, Barrier, Bordeaux mixture, etc.
Damage to the stem of a tomato blackleg is often observed in greenhouses. Its severity depends on how well the quality of care for tomatoes. Fungal spores begin to penetrate the root of the neck. The color of the stem of the tomato becomes darker, the trunk itself is thinning and begins to rot.
Progression occurs under these conditions:
- on unprotected ground
- significant temperature fluctuations
- high humidity,
- thick crop,
- insufficient ventilation.
How to protect culture? It is necessary to change the place of landing of the vegetable every season. Before planting, a soil decontamination procedure should be carried out.
Among the various types of rot known:
Fighting with them should be carried out by loosening the soil, planting a layer of sand during planting, which will contribute to the drying of the soil, while additional roots can be formed. It is necessary to carry out liming, watering the soil with potassium permanganate. On 10 liters of water, approximately 5 g of the active substance is added to the solution.
Threaten a vegetable crop can:
- the appearance of silver spots on the leaves,
- leaf swelling.
It must be remembered that sometimes it is possible to harm a plant (hauling, excessive watering, failure to observe the rules of cultivation), therefore, before taking any action, it is necessary to accurately understand the condition and symptoms of plant disease.
Sometimes the soil phytotoxicity adversely affects the culture. This is a negative transformation of its properties. On the leaves first appear spots of purple, then the twigs dry. You should not get involved in dressing, use pesticides in copious amounts. The reason for the development of diseases and even the death of tomatoes can be an insufficient amount of incoming nutrients.
To determine the causes of deviations, it is necessary to find out where the problem is concentrated (in the upper part of the bushes, in small leaves, on the bottom of the stems). So you can guess the element that the bush lacks.
Although there are a lot of diseases of this culture, there is a resistance to every ailment. Fight against them should be carried out competently and in a timely manner, which will help avoid complete loss of the crop, wasted time and money.
Alternaria (dry spotting).
Not less damage tomatoes to tomatoes than phytophthora - Alternaria, or dry spotting. The causative agent is a common fungus. Dry spotting manifests itself earlier than late blight; after picking up seedlings in open ground, the first symptoms can be noticed, although the growth of seedlings in the greenhouse also cannot guarantee that this disease will not hit the bushes there.
All aboveground organs are affected, dry spots appear on tomato leaves, their shape is round, the borders are strongly pronounced. On fruits, the spots have a brown color, a dark shade, they look pressed inward, a black patina appears. Long, dry spots appear on the stem. Further, the leaves of tomatoes begin to turn yellow, which is not characteristic of late blight. So you can distinguish these two pathogenic conditions.
Prevention: plant residues, tops, leaves, must be collected in the fall and burned, away from the garden. Do not plant bushes after: potatoes, peppers, eggplant and cabbage, observe crop rotation. The best predecessors are: perennial herbs, siderata, onions, beans and cucumbers. Apply mineral fertilizers under the bushes, their basis should be potassium.
Chemicals: At the first symptoms, use the fungicides: Gold MC 68WG (60 grams per 10 l of liquid), Acrobat MC, Quadris, Tanos, Tattu. It is necessary to begin work at the first symptoms, after which spraying is systematically repeated, up to 4 such procedures are carried out during the season.
Exposed to this ailment, only ripe, and overripe fruits. It can cause irreparable damage to the crop, which did not have time to remove. The causative agent is Collethotrichum mushroom. Most often, anthracnose is found in regions with high humidity, it is terrible and other vegetable crops, such as: potatoes, peppers and eggplants.
The fungus is found, both in the soil and in other plants, weeds, biological residues, waking up after wintering, it is transported with moisture, whether it is watering, or ordinary rain. A suitable temperature for anthracnose activity is +22 .. + 24C, and on very wet days, especially when moisture remains on the leaves for a long time.
Signs: Unfortunately, they appear only on ripe fruits, although the infection can live on a tomato and you cannot find it until the fruit is ripe and you do not remove it from the bush. At first, there appear small depressions on the tomato, a round shape, further as the progression of the rings appear. Cracks appear on the damaged areas, infection re-penetrates, and the process of decay is exacerbated.
Prevention: Buy seeds from proven manufacturers, if you are not sure of their quality, or collected home, conduct a disinfection procedure, in potassium permanganate. Observe crop rotation. Weed control. Do not fill the bushes with water, especially for leaves. Tie up the plant to the support. Spraying with fungicides throughout the season, with interruptions, will minimize the risk of anthracnose.
Septoriosis or white spot.
Septoria is dangerous, they should not be neglected, because it can carry up to 50% of the crop with it. Basically, the fungus infects old leaves that grow closer to the ground. Spots of brown color appear on them, then their shape changes, and subsequently the leaf dries and disappears.
Good conditions for the prosperity of white spots are considered to be increased air humidity, as well as temperatures within + 15 ° C to + 27 ° C. Pathogen lives in the remnants of last year's harvest.
Prevention: Many varieties of tomatoes are resistant to Septoria, but still you should follow all standard procedures, harvesting all plant residues in the fall, crop rotation, and seed disinfection. Unfortunately, there are no chemical or folk remedies that could cope with white spot in the active phase.
Verticillous wilting of tomatoes.
A fairly harmless disease, it does not cause significant damage to crops. It manifests itself in the form of chlorosis and necrosis on old leaves, then the roots die off. The peak of pathogen activity occurs during the period of fruit set. First, the plant begins to wither in the hottest hours of the day, the leaves may fall off if you take no action for a long time. Further symptoms appear on the shoots, leaves remain only at the top, because of this, the fruits can burn in the sun, they develop poorly, the plant itself stops growing.
Verticillosis is often confused with fusarium, but this can be checked by looking at the vascular bundles, on sections of the stem, they change their color, but with fusarium, they do not.
The development of pathology occurs at relatively low temperatures from + 20 ° C to + 24 ° C. At the same time, there is practically no spread on acid soils, there is a fungus, as a rule, on alkaline and neutral soils.
Prevention: Compliance with the rules of crop rotation, sufficient watering, as well as good drainage of the site virtually negate all the risks. It is also possible to cultivate varieties resistant to this fungus and hybrids.
Root rot, as a rule, affects tomatoes in hothouse conditions, in the open field it is found quite rarely, only in a pool of overmoistened areas. The development of the disease occurs in parallel with the development of the plant. At the same time, crop losses are quite insignificant.
How it manifests itself: a blackening is observed in the bush near the root collar and near the rhizome, this condition is often called the blackleg. Then begins the process of wilting, or the manifestation of other associated diseases.
The most common cause of blackleg is excessive watering, and failure of disinfecting measures. The fungus lives in the soil, or substrate, sometimes on seeds.
In advanced cases, the bushes are sprayed with a drug called “Rhodomir Gold” 0.25%.
Stem Cancer or Ascochitis.
Interestingly, stem cancer shows itself differently depending on the material of the shelter. For example, in film greenhouses, it is able to destroy almost the entire crop, but in glassy ones, ascochitoz almost does not spread, it practically does not occur in conditions of open ground.
As a rule, stalks and leaves are rarely affected by cancer. On the basis of the stem, new growths appear, their color is brown, and liquid is oozing out of them. Peduncles cease to develop, when the disease spreads to the fetus, the same spots form on it, the mummification process begins.
Disease develops in cool weather with high humidity. The pathogen lives in biological residues, as well as in seeds.
Prevention: for this it is necessary to disinfect the soil, then it is treated with Trichodermin. The bushes themselves are treated with the help of the growth regulator “agate 25” or “immunocytophy”. Themselves or specks smeared with a paste in the composition of chalk and rovral.
Fusarium wilt (fusarium).
Very difficult disease to diagnose at an early stage. All norms would seem to be observed, the soil is quite wet, but not too humid, all top dressings were carried out in time, and the leaves of tomatoes wither, what to do in this case? Fight with the fungus that causes fusarium, how to do it?
The first is of course necessary to be 100% confident in the diagnosis. Unfortunately, the fungus affects the plant at any stage of development, up to the planting of seeds for seedlings. But symptoms appear only during the growing season, when flowering or even fruiting occurs. What to look for:
- Lower tomato leaves begin to turn yellow and fade.
- Then the process of yellowing leaves goes to the upper leaves.
- The cut vessels at the cut will have brown flowers.
- Place the cut stem in a room with high humidity, and after a couple of days, a white mycelium forms at the cut point.
- Chur frequent landing in a small area.
- Little light.
- Short light day.
- Under planting deposits of water.
- You did not observe crop rotation.
- Wrong watering.
- Excess chloride and nitrogen fertilizers.
Fight against fusarium:
- Prevention: disinfection of the soil and seeds before planting. The implementation of a whole range of activities, eliminating adverse factors, that is, timely and proper watering, providing high-quality lighting and so on.
- Treatment when the disease has already manifested, includes spraying both biological and chemical preparations.
Resistant varieties: Hybrids fj - "Raisa", "Monica", "Raspodia", "partner semko", "sorento". Hybrids f1: "charisma", "Spartak", "Ural", "Vologda". Sort - Blitz.
How to treat the seeds when planting seedlings.
- Using a strong solution of potassium permanganate in hot water (+ 60 ° C).
- Picker the seeds with a fungicide called Strekar.
- You can use the drug "benazole", "foundation".
It is also important to comply with the 3-year crop rotation.Crop rotation scheme
In the later stages, the mycelium clogs all the vessels, as a result of which the tomato dies from a fungal disease, and in this case it cannot be cured. Efficiency means retain only in the initial stages.
- Trichodermin in a substrate for growing seedlings, about 2 grams of the drug for 1 seedling,
- Trichodermin to soil 1 kilogram per 10 square meters.
- Water the tomatoes with “pseudobacterin” - 2, or “planrizom”, prepare the solution following the instructions on the packet.
Chemical means are much more effective than biological ones to cope with fusarium on tomatoes; however, from the moment of spraying, it is strictly forbidden to eat fruit for the next 3 weeks. Which is better to apply:
When lime and dolomite flour are introduced into the soil, the risk of fusarium wilt is significantly reduced.
Southern late blight.
Very rare form, while it manifests itself only with the wrong care for plantings. First of all, the root collar suffers, it begins to blacken and deform, then the process of decay starts. Further, the disease rises, leaving behind a white coating of mycelium.
The second option is a manifestation on the fruits, dark spots appear on them, and tomatoes gradually fall from the bushes.
Prevention: sterilize the soil and cut off the affected part of the bush. It can be treated with a chemical preparation “pseudobacterin-2” during planting, and with a 0.01% solution “sodium humate” after.
This disease rarely manifests itself in seedlings, so its activity has to wait until the beginning of fruiting. This is quite a terrible condition in which the summer resident may lose a third of the crop. If the humidity and temperature start to rise, the situation will become even worse.
Symptoms: The most frequent and significant symptom is wilting of the bush, as a consequence of the blockage of the vessels with bacteria, the vessels themselves begin to turn black, according to this symptom you can definitely make a diagnosis. At the initial stage, wilting is one-sided, one-sided leaf slices are the first to suffer, the tomato leaf starts to curl upwards. Further in almost any part of the bush, small ulcers of brown or red color may appear. The stalks dry out on them. Cracks appear from which the infected fluid oozes. The process of withering, as a rule, occurs from the bottom to the top.Often the question of why the leaves of tomatoes are curled can be answered - because of bacterial cancer. This is one of the first manifestations of this disease.
Protection and prevention:
- Soil disinfection is necessary before planting in it both seeds and seedlings.
- There must always be fresh air in the greenhouse, therefore constant airing is a must. Also, when the first manifestations of bacteriosis occur, stop sprinkling over water.
- To restrain the development of the disease process, it is necessary to reduce the concentration of the nutrient solution, as well as increase the acidity of the substrate.
- Crop rotation.
- Remove damaged plants, do not allow them contact with healthy ones.
- If you work in a greenhouse where there are infected bushes, treat healthy ones first, then take on infected ones.
- Before planting, warm the seeds by Vovk.
- During the growing season, the bushes are treated with fungicides that contain copper.
One of the most dangerous diseases is tomato. It can destroy almost all the bushes planted on the site. Most often it develops in the southern regions with a subtropical climate. In the temperate and northern strip is very rare. Often, bacterial wilt switches to potatoes.
- Acute form. It flows almost at lightning speed, the bushes begin to wither and die. Unfortunately, this process is not accompanied by any signs.
- Chronic. In this case, on the leaves you can see a weakly stripe of brown color. In the stems voids are formed, aerial roots appear. There is a process of stunted growth. If the stem is cut into yellowish rings, these are damaged vessels, if liquid (bacterial) oozes out to press on them. Fruits are affected by vertex rot.
Photo of bacterial wilting of tomatoes.
Most often, the causative agent of the disease is stored on potatoes, and most often it is from the repository where the tubers are laid the pathogens move to greenhouses. To avoid this, you must adhere to safety. Do not work with one inventory in the storage and greenhouse, as well as wash the shoes when moving from one room to another.
When the disease is already rampant, infected bushes are removed under the root, and under neighboring plants (up to 10 meters) it is necessary to add the Fitolavin 300 solution (0.6% -1%) to the soil, 200 ml of liquid per well. By adding 0.15% liquid glass to this solution, you will receive a spraying liquid, which will create a film on the bush, which in turn will protect it for 2 weeks from the spread of infection.
Wet fruit rot.
В основном мокрая гниль встречается в условиях открытого грунта, в тепличных условиях практически безвредна. Инфекция проникает в плоды сквозь небольшие повреждения.
Проявление: плоды начинают буреть и становится мягкими. Несколько дней, и от плода останется лишь кожура. Развивается бактерия в условиях резких колебаний температуры, повышенная влажность, а также жаркая погода +30С и выше.
Carriers of infection are insects, so the fight against them is considered the most effective means. Also cultivation of varieties resistant to wet rot.
Necrosis of the stem.
If you make mistakes in the process of growing tomatoes, they are likely to develop stem necrosis. The first to suffer the most developed bushes. Brown spots are formed on the stem, after a while they begin to crack, and the fruit will start to wither. Ideal temperature indicators for the development of the disease is considered to be a temperature of + 27C plus, minus one, two degrees. But the temperature above + 40C is detrimental to the bacteria.
The most common source of infection is raw seeds.
The method of prevention will be the treatment of seeds before planting, as well as proper care, as well as the cultivation of resistant hybrids and varieties: “red arrow”, “Resento f1”, “Mayeva f1”.
Black Bacterial Spot.
Quite a dangerous disease, as a result of the spread of which you can lose the entire crop. The causative agent of this disease of tomatoes, when black spots appear on them, is the rod-shaped bacterium Xanthomonas vesicatoria.
Symptoms: The first signs are small dark olive spots of oily structure. Over time, they become darker and spread throughout the plant. The difference from phytophtora will not be the merging of spots into one big one, but their crushing, which is more like a rash. Then the leaves begin to dry and fall off, the fruits stop developing, gradually it will begin to rot.
Most often, the pathogen is in the seeds, so be sure to carry out the decontamination procedure before planting on seedlings. Regular soaking of seeds in hot water (+ 60C) for 20 minutes will be enough. The bacterium is able to penetrate the plant through mechanical damage, small cracks.
Suitable conditions for the development of black bacterial blotch:
- Air temperature from + 25С to + 30С.
- Increased humidity, 75% and higher. Moisture on the leaves is the main source of infection.
Methods of struggle and prevention:
Unfortunately, there are no resistant varieties and hybrids to this disease of tomatoes yet. Therefore, special attention should be paid to prevent bacteria from entering the bushes. It is best to treat the seeds before planting the drug "trisodium phosphate."
- To do this, wash the seeds, wear gloves on, and pour a small amount of the drug granules on the seeds. This method is used when processing fresh seeds.
- Processing purchased seeds, dry. It is necessary to dissolve the drug in water at the rate of 12 grams per 100 milliliters of water. Soaking process will take about an hour. Then wash them very thoroughly under running water, you can leave them under the open tap for 20 minutes.
Spraying biological drugs in the midst of the disease will not bring results. Of the chemical use of copper-containing bactericides - 1% Bordeaux liquid, "HOM", "Oxy".
On an industrial scale on large farms, spraying of fields is carried out: “acrobat”, “mancozebom”.
- Remove the lower leaves on the bush, after all the fruits have already fastened, and in August you can remove almost all the leaves, leaving up to 5 upper ones.
- Avoid thickening landings.
- Affected leaves should be cut off immediately.
- Crop rotation.
In many ways, the harmfulness of the virus depends on its type, as well as on the strength of the infected plant, and environmental conditions. The main manifestations of aspermia will be increased bushiness, a frail stem, and an underdeveloped generative organ. Flowers begin to grow together, and change color, become small.
Carriers of the virus are insects and other pests. The control method will be the destruction of all pests in the greenhouse.
A rather dangerous virus that has become increasingly malicious over the years. Dangerous it is for film shelters, and for open ground. Sometimes, with serious atrocities of the virus, summer residents and farmers could lose the entire crop.
Young fruits are affected, rings appear on their upper parts, with time they turn brown. After some time, the same pattern appears on the leaves. After a week and a half, the spots increase in size, and near them areas of chlorotic tissue are formed. Around the rings is the death of the tissue.Bronzing tomato on the sheet, photo
Thrips often become carriers of the virus. Sometimes the infection penetrates through mechanical damage.
- The destruction of weeds, at a distance of 15 meters from the landings of vegetables.
- Removal of vectors can be treated with insecticide.
- Glue traps will help reduce the number of thrips in the area.
- Resistant varieties and hybrids: "Romatos", "Senzafin f1".
Yellow leaf curl.
Not a very terrible disease that can only harm the presentation of the fruit. The main manifestations are considered: the abscission of flowers, while the fruits will be small, and ribbed, not attractive appearance. Leaves strongly curl, turn yellow, shrink. The virus is not transmitted through seed or juice. Whiteflies are the only source of infection. Actually the whole fight against yellow curly will be in the fight against whiteflies.
Sustainable hybrid to yellow curl is "Senzafin f1".Photo whitefly.
Fighting whitefly and other flying insects in the greenhouse.
Frequent insect sources in greenhouses are small, flying insects. Fighting them is an important stage in the formation of a rich harvest.
Effectively hang traps throughout the greenhouse, they effectively cope with the destruction of the whitefly population. They can both buy and make at home on their own. To do this, just take the cardboard, cut it into pieces, repainted in bright yellow. And cover the surface of the workpiece with a mixture of honey, rosin, and castor oil. And fasten on a thread to the frame.
Pretty new, and dangerous diseases of viral pathology. Manifested in the winter on the seedlings. White dots form on the lower leaves near the veins. Further, they gradually grow, and turn brown. The central vein begins to be rude. Farther tomato leaves begin to curl. The disease rises, the uppermost leaves begin to curl around the axis.
The virus spreads through the seeds, as well as through mechanical damage, is transmitted by pests, such as peach aphids.
Effective methods have not yet been developed, so it is necessary to reject diseased seedlings immediately and disinfect planting material before planting in pots.
The causative agent of the mosaic is the Tobacco mosaic virus. The disease is common both in greenhouse conditions and in the open field. The symptoms are different, depending on the stage of development, the external environment, and the strain of the virus.
But the most characteristic symptom are the light and dark areas in a chaotic manner found on the fruit or leaf plate, there are also areas with normal color. Also visible is the deformation of the leaf. Internal necrosis may develop on tomatoes.
Transmitted by mechanical contact, distributed with the juice of an infected plant. If he falls into the wound on a healthy bush during picks or other work in the garden or greenhouse. The infection persists in seeds, soil, biological plant residues. Also, carriers can be insects.
Resistant varieties and hybrids: "Semko-99 or 98". “Partner Semko”, “Zhenaros”, “Kunero”, “Belle”, “Madison”, “Source”, “Anyuta”.
Proper and timely care for the plant, the destruction of weeds and insects, can significantly reduce the risk of infection with mosaics.
Very dangerous disease that can completely destroy the crop. When it leaves deformed, stretched, become thin, filiform. On the bush do not appear flower ovary. Sometimes die the top of the plant. In the greenhouse, the disease spreads aphid. It carries the infection from foci located nearby, the plants that host the virus can be: ornamental and perennial flowers, weeds, as well as other cultivated plants and vegetables.
A rather rare disease occurs in a combination of genetic and agrotechnical factors. Manifested by the appearance on the green fruit of brown and white spots. If a third of the fruit is damaged by necrosis, the summer resident will observe black spots on them. Most often suffer varieties with large tomatoes on the ovaries. Many factors that trigger the apical rot mechanism, among them are the following:
- Lack of calcium ions.
- Incorrectly cooked soil mixture.
- The soil acidity ph is less than 6 units.
- Increased temperature.
Resistant varieties "f1 bolero."
Hollowness of the fetus.
The seeds are cooled in the fruit. However, it does not bear other harm in itself. Occurs as a result of a number of factors, mainly the culprit is a sharp temperature drop, or improper care during the tying of tomatoes, or the absence of pollinators.
There are a number of resistant varieties.
Stolbur or phytoplasmosis.
It occurs most often in the open field, in the conditions of film and glass shelters it is very difficult to meet.
Symptoms: plant mutation occurs, manifests itself in compaction of the root bark, and changes its color to brown, the fruits become dense, the leaves decrease. If the infection occurred in the early stages of growth, such a bush will lag far behind in size from its neighbors. Fruits if they have time to ripen will be firm and tasteless, sometimes it is possible to save up to 70% of the crop, but the next generation will be completely infected, so you cannot use seeds for the next year when there was an epidemic of stolobur in the greenhouse.
Cicadas spread the disease, especially often outbreaks of the disease are recorded in dry and hot weather.
Methods of struggle: eliminating tsikadok.
How to deal with tsikadkami.
Spend the destruction of weeds, there she often hides. Spray the planting tobacco dust, garlic tincture. Pennits are very sensitive to chemicals, for example: foliar spraying with 30% solution of karbofos. After processing, the plants must be sprinkled with wood ash, 30 grams per bush.
How to protect tomatoes from diseases.
- Crop rotation.
- Steam and disinfect the soil.
- Remove all biological residues after harvest.
- Choose resistant varieties and hybrids for planting.
- Weed and pest control.
- Trichodermin. From powdery mildew 8 liters per hectare. If it is necessary to overcome the phytophtora, Alternaria, add "Gaupsin" 5 liters per hectare, and 5 liters per hectare of tank mix.
- Pseudobacterin-2. Against: root rot, blackleg, phytophtoras, and brown spot. Spraying before planting, and twice during the growing season. On 100 milliliters on each bush.
- Fitotsid-R. Against fungi and bacteria, as well as to strengthen the immune system. Processing before sowing per 100 grams of seeds 5 ml per half liter of liquid. For soaking seedlings - 10 milliliters per 3 liters of liquid. Processing during the growing season - 7 milliliters per 10 liters of fluid, once a week and a half, only four times.
- Quadris (ai. azaxistrobin, 250 g / l). Against phytophthora, Alternaria, and powdery mildew, use the instructions for use.
- Ridomil Gold MC, Vdg. (ai mancoceb + mefenoxam, 640 + 40 g / kg). The targets of the lesion are phytophtora, alternariosis. Processing four times per season.
- Rinkozeb. The goals are phytophtora, alternariosis, three times per season.
- Strobe. The goal - late blight and powdery mildew.
That's all, we have described to you all the sickness of a tomato that you can encounter when working in the garden or in film shelters. As you can see, there are methods of dealing with them, and they are very effective. Only in some cases, the battle for the harvest can be lost without a chance of winning. Use all available methods, and you will not be afraid of any disease, we wish you success in this difficult struggle.