Kalina is a perennial shrub with large green leaves and red bitter-sour berries. This plant contains many vitamins and elements that are beneficial to human health:
- vitamins A and C,
The leaves contain acids: acetic, oleic, valeric. Viburnum berries have on the body different types of positive effects:
From viburnum prepare broths, preserves, infusions, masks and use raw.
Types of viburnum
Among the main types of emit:
- Red (ordinary) - it has large inflorescences and leaves, shaped like a frill of a full skirt.
- Black (Buryat) - high (up to 3 m) shrub with pointed leaves and corymbose inflorescences.
- Fork - has bright red fruits and large beautiful leaves that become purple in autumn.
- Gordovina - black viburnum up to 6 m high, on the leaves has short white hairs.
- David - undersized shrub with large, ellipsoid, leaves and berries up to 6 mm.
- Wright - reaches 2.5 m, leaves are oval, saturated green color, large inflorescences, size up to 4 mm.
- Sargent - shrub up to 4 m high, with oblong dark green leaves, berries of pale yellow color.
Among the less popular species of viburnum are: Zubchatuyu, Canadian, Laurelleaf, Wrinkle-leaved, Slivolistnuyu and Three-Bladed.
Varieties suitable for cultivation in the suburbs
In the area of the Moscow region Kalina grown in open ground. The climate here is suitable for growing popular varieties, both fruit-bearing and ornamental. Frost resistant varieties that do not require special care are preferred.
- Rozeum Does not form berries. This variety is a purely decorative value. The inflorescences in the form of large balls in the course of flowering become from green to white, from white to pink.
- Kalina ordinary Compactum. A short, round plant with light green leaves and creamy inflorescences.
- Nanum Dwarf spherical bush with small openwork leaves.
- Aureum. It has bright red berries and leaves of an unusual golden color.
- Xanthocarnum. Shrub with large leaves and berries of yellow color.
How to choose seedlings
Kalina can be propagated in two ways: saplings and cuttings.
Seeds of viburnum, suitable for planting, should be smooth, dry, dark brown. On the cultivation of seedlings, ready for planting in the ground, it will take two years. In the first year, the sprout will pick up no more than 15 cm in height. Seed similarity less than 50%. Before planting, the seeds should preferably be subjected to stratification - to endure for a long time at a low temperature. This will partially increase germination. From 10 seeds will sprout from 2 to 4. For each estimated plant you need to plant 5 seeds. Therefore, it is preferable faster and easier to buy ready-made cuttings.
Not all planted cuttings take root. To ensure that you get 2 plants, you need to plant 5 cuttings. Viburnum cuttings should have 3-4 buds. If the cutting has an open root system, you should especially carefully examine the roots. They should be strong, elastic, with clearly marked branches. The color of healthy roots is light brown. Darkened areas indicate the presence of disease or frostbite. The cuttings themselves should be elastic, easy to bend and not break. If the cutting is elastic, but the buds are dry, the plant will not take root. Saplings with a closed root system (sold in a container with the ground) must be unbreakable, with a flat, flawless bark.
Preparing for landing
Kalina likes open, sunny places. In the shade the plant takes a long time to take root, does not give fruit, and dies in a few years. Land for planting should be in direct sunlight for most of the day. The soil before planting needs to be fertilized. Improving the nutritional properties of the soil will help fertilizing with manure. Cow or bird manure should be applied in advance so that the soil has time to be enriched with microelements before planting the plant, otherwise fertilizer will not benefit.
If planting is scheduled for spring, the soil is fertilized in the autumn the day before. Manure is dug up with the earth, evenly distributing at the landing site. In November, weeds and leaves are laid out on the ground and left until spring. By spring, they rot and become food for microorganisms that inhabit the soil. Covering the ground with insulation is not necessary, it will violate the natural ventilation.
Kalina is well tolerated next to raspberries, plums, apples and pears. Neighborhood of other shrubs nearby she does not like. You can not plant next to coniferous plants, close to flower beds. If there is a reservoir on the site, it is better to plant viburnum far away from it, so as not to expose the root system to excessive moisture.
Planting and care
At least 10 days before disembarking, you need to prepare a landing pit. The size of the pit should be 1.5 times the length of the roots. The ground taken out of the pit is mixed with humus, leaf soil collected in the forest, or with special fertilizer. Universal fertilizer for garden trees - diammofosk. But its action lasts one season and the plants will need additional feeding. At the bottom of the pit lay drainage: expanded clay or gravel.
In the spring it is better to plant seedlings with a closed root system. An earth lump around the roots allows the plant to take root in a new place without much stress. Saplings with an open root system are planted in the fall. Before the cold, the plant will take root and immediately after the winter will grow.
In the period of rooting and active growth Kalina needs regular watering. For her, both the lack of moisture and its abundance are equally harmful. For the first year of life is enough fertilizer, introduced during planting. Excess fertilizer contributes to the violent growth of the crown, but the flowers and leaves will not appear. Later fed once a year. With proper care, she will pick up the color the next year after planting.
Pests and diseases
In the second year of growth, viburnum already needs pruning. First of all, dried and damaged shoots are removed. If this is not done, pests can appear on the plant:
- black aphid
- viburnum leaf beetle,
- comma-shaped shield,
- knob moth.
Also, viburnum can affect fungal diseases: powdery mildew, gray mold. It is sick because of too humid climate or too thick crowns, when the leaves are in tight contact and the moisture evaporates more slowly than necessary. Therefore, regular pruning is necessary.
How to harvest and store crops
Season viburnum - the first frost. While freezing, it loses its bitterness, becomes a little sweet. The main thing is to have time to collect it before the winter birds start pecking berries. You cannot wash and pick berries from the stalks. So the harvest will deteriorate faster.
You can store crops in several ways.
Fresh berries are stored up to six months. They can be collected in small bunches and hang out on the balcony. If the balcony is not, it is better to put in the fridge.
So that everything is not moldy, the storage container must be ventilated. If there is none, viburnum needs to be boiled or frozen.
Dried viburnum does not lose its useful properties, and you can store it in an ordinary glass jar or bag of natural fabric. Natural drying is a time consuming process. It must be laid out on clean paper and covered with a light cloth. In the process of drying the berries need to be mixed.
Dry viburnum - wrinkled and light, falls on a hard surface with a thud.
Frozen viburnum is stored in containers. Before being placed in the freezer, the berry must be separated from the brushes, rinsed and left on the fabric for several hours. This will save them from excess moisture. Frozen berries can be stored until the next season.
Rubbed with sugar viburnum - it is jam without cooking. The ratio of sugar to Kalina should be 2: 1, you can 2.5: 1. Cleared of debris and washed berries combine with sugar and fray until smooth. The easiest way to do this is with a blender, but scrolling through a meat grinder will do. The resulting mass is laid out in sterilized jars and stored in the refrigerator.
Convenient to store it in the form of juice. To do this, squeeze the berries, and clean the filtered juice is mixed with sugar in a ratio of 1: 1. Juice can only be stored in sterilized containers in the refrigerator, tightly covered with a lid. To extend the shelf life, the juice can be boiled for 10 minutes.
Proper assembly and storage ensures that the berry saves all useful properties.
Where better to plant viburnum?
Kalina is undemanding to growing conditions, tolerates shading and at the same time is durable - lives up to 80 years and more. However, in order for her to be well, fertile and moist soils are needed without stagnant water. Kalina is placed in single and group plantings, including with other shrubs, deciduous trees and conifers. Different types look great on the lawn, near the fence, in the hedge. Plants secrete volatile production and purify the air from dust.
For seedlings, pits of 60 × 60 cm are dug at a distance of 2-4 m from each other, 8-10 kg of humus or peat compost, 200 g of superphosphate, 80 g of potassium chloride, 30 g of ammonium nitrate are introduced into them. All this is thoroughly mixed with the soil. After planting, they are abundantly watered (2-3 buckets per bush) and mulch pristvy circles and peat or compost mulch. Saplings easily take root and grow quickly.
How to care for viburnum
Leaving consists of regular loosening and mulching of tree trunks, watering during drought and spring dressing, first with nitrogenous, and after 10-12 days with complex fertilizers.
Pruning is carried out regularly in 2 stages. In the spring, dry, old and thickening shoots are removed. After flowering, the bushes are thinned, but most importantly, all side branches are shortened by 1/3, which guarantees lush flowering and a good harvest in the next season. Aged shrubs need rejuvenating pruning.
Diseases and pests
Kalina is greatly affected aphids. Symptoms: leaves are twisted, shoots are deformed, colonies of small green or brownish pests are visible at the tops.
Aphids are washed off with a strong jet of water from a hose, sprayed on bushes with a solution of household soap. In case of severe damage, insecticides are used - a spark (1 tab / 10 l of water), kinmiks (2 ml / 10 l of water). It is also necessary to limit the spread of friends of aphids - ants.
Viburnum leaf beetle lives only on Kalina. At the beginning of summer, the larvae are able to destroy most of the leaves. Adult beetles damage fruits and young shoots. With mass reproduction, the pest will leave without harvest. Spring and autumn drug treatments are performed against it: Actellic (1.5 ml / l of water) or fufanon (1 ml / l). In the spring, it is necessary to inspect the bushes and, as soon as the yellow-green with black specks of leaf beetle larvae appear, immediately spray them.
The greatest damage Kalina cause fungal diseases. At defeat powdery mildew on the tops of the shoots appear white bloom. It gradually turns gray, becoming covered with dark fruit bodies of the fungus, the causative agent of the disease. The leaves die off quickly. Damaged shoots are cut and burned. In the spring, before bud break, viburnum is sprayed with a 3% Bordeaux mixture or iron sulphate (700 g / 10 l of water).
Viburnum is propagated by seeds, layering, dividing the bush, undergrowth - root suckers, lignified and green cuttings.
Green cuttings harvested in June - early July, while they are flexible. On each handle the length of 10-15 cm should be at least 3 knots. Slices are treated with root and planted cuttings in the greenhouse in wet sand, deepening 2 cm. Cover with foil, watered and sprayed regularly. Rooted plants are transplanted into pots with nutritious soil.
When breeding layering spring annual shoots laid in the grooves, sprinkled with earth and attached with staples. Tops must remain outside. The escape itself at the base must be pulled over with wire and incised. By the fall, roots will appear in the nodes of the layers, and shoots will grow from the buds. The next spring, the processes are separated from the parent plant and transplanted.
Viburnum berries are harvested after the first frost, when bitterness disappeared. They can be dried, frozen, make blanks.
The benefits of viburnum
On the healing properties of Viburnum was mentioned in herbalists of the XVI century, it is used by modern medicine.
A unique component of the chemical composition of viburnum - ticoside viburnin - improves immunity. During heat treatment, it is destroyed, therefore, for medicinal purposes, viburnum is consumed raw.
Infusions of berries and fresh berries with honey help from stomach ailments, colds, jaundice, promote health. Infusion of flowers - a great lotion with a slight whitening effect. Viburnum bark also treats many diseases. Apply it in the form of alcohol tincture and decoction.
The basis of the dishes of viburnum and viburnum - the juice - without pulp and with pulp. It has a pleasant refreshing taste, normalizes blood pressure, improves blood formation, increases appetite, has antiseptic and wound healing properties. Useful for stomach ulcers, liver and gallbladder diseases. It is taken with honey as a tonic and tonic - 1 tbsp. spoon on an empty stomach.
Time and place of landing
In the spring, viburnum is planted in the ground before young leaves unfold, and in the fall - before the onset of frost. Where to plant viburnum on the summer cottage?
This plant is not capricious in terms of soil quality, and it can even grow on a slope. Place Kalina to determine preferably in an open area. In the shade it will not perish, but it will be much more modest to bear fruit. In addition, both young and mature bushes are in dire need of water, with its lack of flowers will fall off before the ovary appears. Accordingly, the plant needs a moist soil, and the presence of groundwater for viburnum is only a plus. The most favorable place for planting this plant is near the pond.
A pit for shrubs are dug in size 50 to 50 cm and 40-50 cm in depth. When planting several bushes, the distance between plants should be about 3 m. The pit should be filled with soil mixture consisting of the upper fertile layer and humus, add 2 cups of Nitrophoska. The soil in the planting hole is formed by a knoll and a sapling is placed on it, straightening the roots. Then the pit is filled with the remaining soil and compacted, forming a small roller along the diameter of the pit, planting it abundantly with water.
When planting, it is important to arrange the seedling so that the root neck is 5-6 cm below ground level.
Growing viburnum from cuttings
You can grow a viburnum plant from seeds, basal layers, by dividing the bush using cuttings and cuttings. The best option - planting cuttings. They are cut from well-fruiting viburnum bushes in the first half of summer during the flowering period. At this time, they are still green and flexible. For cutting, the middle part of the shoot is used, each should have at least 3 knots, the cutting height is about 15 cm. The cut should be oblique, the upper leaves are shortened, the lower foliage is removed.
The lower section of the cutting is dusted with Kornevin or soaked for 10-12 hours in Heteroauxin solution. Then placed in the handle. Plant cuttings in the substrate should be tilted and cut down, so that the surface of the oblique cut is located horizontally relative to the ground. The stalk is covered; now, in order to settle down, the cuttings need a high temperature - 28-30 degrees and high humidity. Rooting occurs within 3-4 weeks. In the rooted shoots will begin to grow shoots from the sinuses. From now on, the cuttings should be gradually hardened, taking shelter in the warm time of the day. Fully settled cuttings can be transplanted into garden pots and prikopat in the garden. By landing in the ground bushes will be ready next spring.
Reproduction by horizontal layouts
This is another simple way to propagate bush viburnum. In the spring, a strong one-year-old shoot is shortened to 1/5 part and bent to the ground. The earth is pre-cleared from weeds, dug up and made a small groove 4-5 cm deep. The shoot is pinned to the ground in several places and they wait until new shoots grow up to 10-15 cm from the buds. After that, the furrow is covered with loose soil mixture or peat, leaving the young shoots on the surface.
During the summer, each shoot must have young roots. During the season you can spud growing shoots 2-3 times. In the fall, branches with grown shoots are cut off from the main bush, rooted shoots are separated from each other and planted in a permanent place. There is a way in which shoots are planted in pots with soil mixture, which are added in the garden. So it will be convenient to care for a young plant, it is convenient to cover it for the winter. And next spring, plants can be planted in a permanent place in the usual way.
The first is to take care of young plants. Regardless of the degree of soil moisture, watering is done every seven days: 2 buckets of water for 1 low bush and 4 buckets for a large plant. Mature viburnum quality watered in the spring - when young branches begin to grow in the summer - in the process of fruit ovary.
Soil fertilizer is equally important. Существует 4 этапа развития растения, когда обогатить почву необходимо для полноценного развития и пышного урожая: весной — во время раскрытия почек, затем — во время появления и распускания цветков, в середине сезона, а также осенью — во время созревания ягод.
Обрезка и формировка растения
How viburnum will grow - shrub or small tree - depends on you. In the presence of free space on the site, viburnum is left to grow in the form of a bush. In order for the plant to bear fruit well, the length of the branches is shortened to 40 cm. As soon as the first heat comes in the spring, it is necessary to prune the useless branches in order to renew the shrub and thin it.
If there is little space and every square meter is expensive - Kalina can be formed in the form of a tree. You can start this process in the second year of the plant’s life. For this, all young branches are cut from below to a certain height (usually about 1 m). In the future, all the shoots to this level will need to be plucked regardless of the time of year (to conduct pinings). After 3 years, viburnum will be formed as a tree, the top will need to be shortened, then the crown will gradually grow and become more magnificent.
After the crop is harvested, autumn pruning is carried out. Her goal - to remove all dry and affected branches, as well as dried brush.
How and when to pick berries viburnum
In Moscow, the berries of Viburnum begin to gather in the first half of October. A dry berry should get into the basket, so do not rush if it has recently rained. In dry weather, it is better to pick viburnum after 9 o'clock in the morning, when the night dew has already disappeared from the berries, but without waiting for noon. No less suitable time - evening or throughout the day, if the sun does not go out because of the clouds.
Brush viburnum gently cut with scissors for grapes and put in a basket or special bags for harvesting.
Growing this valuable shrub does not cause much trouble, it will decorate any area in spring, summer and autumn. Among the positive aspects, in addition to the undoubted benefits of berries, it should be noted the rapid growth of this plant, a beautiful look and aroma of its flowers.
Rapid growth and development
Unlike most fruit trees, viburnum grows quite quickly, especially if you plant a stalk. It is well acclimatized and increases in length by almost 1 meter in 3 months. After a couple of years, this plant will turn into a mature tree or shrub. By the way, the fruits of viburnum begin to form and ripen, compared with fruit trees, a few years earlier.
In late autumn, when all the flowers had stopped blooming, grapes and apples were gathered, the garden looks sad. But if somewhere on the plot viburnum grows, the beauty of the autumn pore does not leave it.
Especially elegant viburnum looks in the late spring and early summer. Depending on the species, the flowers can be of different colors: white, pale pink, pale yellow. The inflorescences and the flowers themselves come in different shapes and sizes. In ordinary viburnum inflorescences look like umbrellas, in the middle there are flowers - fruits, on the edge - more noticeable flowers, they are larger and more attractive to bees.
As for the viburnum leaves, they please no less. In ordinary viburnum leaves spiky, medium size. In ornamental species, the shape of the leaves looks more like an oval. In the warm season, they are lush green, in the fall they become yellow, light red and burgundy. Sometimes there are colorful leaves.
Feathered guests - garden advocates
Beautiful viburnum berries attract the gaze not only of humans, but also of hungry birds. In the autumn, when the entire harvest at the site has already been collected, the visit of feathered guests will be even to the advantage. Arriving at the site, they will try not only viburnum berries, but also insects - pests that are still active in the trees and in the soil.
But there are some inconveniences associated with the location of viburnum and care for her.
Place on the site
Like any other bush, viburnum, one way or another, takes a certain place on the site. It often happens that its area is so small, and I want to plant more. There are several solutions to this problem.
- The formation of the tree. The bush, with all its beauty, takes up more space than a slender tree.
- You can transplant viburnum outside the site. Near the gate, and along the fence, it will also look beautiful.
- Kalina is a rather modest plant with respect to “requests”. It does not require a level soil, and it will be great to grow anywhere in the corner of a plot near a water source.
The taste of berries, sweet varieties
All beautiful viburnum, except the taste of berries. For birds, this moment does not matter, but a person is so simple a handful of useful, but hardly bitter fruit will eat. Therefore, the hostess is always trying, at least, to grind Kalina with sugar. But if you wait for the cold, the need for additional sweetness will be gone. Frozen berries lose their bitterness. In addition, you can always lower the purple harvest in boiling water and the unpleasant taste will disappear.
And for those who do not want to wait, today already semisweet and sweet varieties are bred. Here are some of them:
- Vigorovskaya - one of the sweetest varieties. The taste can not be called homogeneous: a little sour, a little bitter. But in general, the aftertaste is pleasant.
- Red bunch It is famous for the highest content of vitamin C (140 mg). The taste of berries is sweet and sour, barely palpable light bitterness.
- Viburnum berries Maria slightly tart to the taste, bitterness is almost not felt, sweet and sour aftertaste, pleasant smell. This variety is practically resistant to diseases and insects - pests.
Not all species of viburnum are lucky, most are still subject to attack by parasites, the main of which is aphid. It uses in food barely opened leaves of viburnum, there dwells and multiplies. The "suppliers" of aphids are ants. However, the situation is not hopeless.
To prevent the appearance of parasites on Kalina, it is necessary to wrap the trunk in advance with adhesive tape designed for flies or to make a trapping belt. The main thing is that she is well kept and firmly clings to everything that concerns her.
In spring, young twigs should be cut to 15-20 cm to prevent the younger generation of aphids from spreading.
In addition, there are methods for treating the affected plant with chemical and biological preparations, as well as with the help of infusion of celandine.
Summing up, it should be noted that no difficulties should prevent the appearance of viburnum on the site, since its benefits will pay back a hundredfold care effort.
Kalina ordinary grows in an elderly neighbor in the country, feeding ardent love for its fruits. And I somehow did not reach my landing. Once it happened a long time ago that the roots of a neighbor tree were soaked, it is necessary to plant trees again. here I am prompted. Therefore, the planting of two seedlings of viburnum in his country house and with him I spent under his strict guidance, guided by friendship and mutual understanding.
This tree prefers fertile and fairly moist soil. It develops best and brings a rich harvest in open, well-lit areas. The plant is self-growing, so one specimen is enough to give berries. Kalina is winter-hardy, like an irga and a barberry, it frosts under -40 and suffers from strong cold winds. The plant can be shrubs and trees. The latter reaches a height of 4 meters.
How to plant a tree seedling
We plant trees in the spring. The distance between the seedlings take 1.5-2 meters. The landing pit will have a depth of 50, 50-60 cm wide. In the pits we place the earth from a compost pile, 200 grams of superphosphate and 50-60 grams of potassium sulphate and urea. For acidic soil, add 200 grams of fluffy lime. A sapling of viburnum is planted 5-6 cm deeper than it grew. We spill 2-3 buckets of water.
Care of viburnum
Caring on the site for viburnum, loosen the soil, water, feed with mineral and organic fertilizers. In the spring we spend root dressing with urea - 10 grams per bucket of water. In the autumn, after the final gathering of berries, scatter 100 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate under the bushes. For the first couple of years in the spring, viburnum is fed up in the spring or early summer with nitrogen fertilizers: a 10 tsp water of azofoska.
In natural conditions, viburnum grows on the forest edges, respects the banks of rivers and lakes. Its flowers form corymbose inflorescences.
The benefits of viburnum berries
The berries of the tree are very juicy, red, the flesh is yellow, ripen in September and immediately go to the jam (here is its recipe). Fruits sugar, pectin, organic and valeric acid, carotene, glycoside, tannins.
Viburnum berries raise the tone, help with neurosis and vascular spasms. Vitamin tea from them has a tonic and soothing effect, which my neighbor uses with success.
Features planting viburnum
A place for planting a young bush is better to choose in advance. Kalina is a moisture-loving plant, and needs either frequent watering or the presence of at least a small body of water or a high level of groundwater. It grows well in the penumbra, but it is best to plant viburnum in the open sunlight.
Viburnum propagation occurs in several ways:
- bush division,
- root suckers,
At home, you can grow a full-fledged Kalina from seeds, but this is a very time-consuming and lengthy process, since the sprout usually appears only in the second year. It is much easier and more efficient to use cutting for breeding viburnum.
It is recommended that several cuttings be rooted at the same time, this will ensure cross-dusting in the future, and adult viburnum will regularly produce a good harvest.
Viburnum is planted, like other plants, in spring or autumn, but early spring (April – early May) is still preferable for more reliable rooting. The pit is not very large, about 50 by 50 cm, between different specimens of viburnum you need to keep a distance of one and a half to two and a half meters.
The seedling is placed vertically in the recess and powdered about 3-5 cm above the root collar. Then it is necessary to pour a young shrub abundantly, compact the ground around and grind it (you can put a layer of peat about 7-10 cm). Three years after planting, it is advisable to dig up the ground under a bush and replace the layer of mulch.
Easy care for viburnum
Unpretentious and resistant viburnum does not require special care. Like all plants in the garden, it needs periodic weed control, regular watering and loosening of hardened soil.
For the correct formation of the crown and increase the yield, it is recommended to cut Kalina every 5-7 years. Dry and damaged branches are removed completely (this operation is recommended every year), and healthy shoots are shortened so that 15-25 cm is left to the ground - this leads to the rejuvenation of the shrub. Kalina belongs to long-lived, and one shrub feels great and actively bears fruit for 30-50 years.
From time to time you need to feed viburnum. The easiest way is to make every spring under a bush near a bucket of rotted compost. It is also recommended at least once every few years, and preferably annually, in springtime, feed viburnum with phosphorus (50 g), potassium (20 g) and nitrogen (40 g), the proportions are calculated per square meter.
Protection of viburnum from pests
Tough and strong, viburnum rarely gets sick, but it can be susceptible to pest attacks. Shrubs are often affected by viburnum bark beetle (or leaf beetle), and also a comma-shaped scytiform can be found on the branches.
In the first case, viburnum should be treated with 0.2% chlorophos, in the second case a 0.1% solution of karbofos will help protect the plant. From the appearance of aphids and powdery mildew well helps tobacco and garlic infusions.
Kalina is an ideal inhabitant of the garden plot, the berries of this shrub are very useful, help to reduce blood pressure and saturate the body with essential vitamins. Spectacular bush viburnum will be the pride of the site for many years.
Natural watering and good lighting
Not far from viburnum there is a drain pipe from the roof. The side where viburnum grows is south. And the fact that viburnum moisture-loving and needs good lighting, we have already studied earlier. Therefore, every year we see the magnificent flowering of viburnum, and its abundant fruiting.
Watering is obtained naturally - with rain water, and mineral supplements (urea - 30-40 g, complex mineral fertilizer - 70-80 g) are made no more than twice a year. We feed once in spring and late autumn.
Since the bush of viburnum became quite large, every autumn I do thinning (sanitary) pruning. I clean mostly older branches (6-7 years). Branches that are intertwined or have cracks, fractures, pruned in early spring for the reason that in the fall they still have some berries for birds. To viburnum blossomed lush, strongly growing young branches, I pinch when they reach a length of 25-30 cm.
When caring for viburnum, it is very important not to miss the moments in spring and summertime when aphids appear on the leaves, especially leaf beetles. These pests can in a short time greatly spoil the appearance of viburnum and adversely affect the yield of berries. To prevent the emergence and reproduction of leaf-eating caterpillars, to enable Kalina to form a crop, every year before the bud breaks it is necessary to process the bush with chemical preparations. During the flowering and ripening of fruits, Kalina is better to process with herbal infusions or decoctions (red hot pepper, garlic, marigold, calendula, wormwood, sprouts of tomatoes).
In my work, I very rarely process trees, berry bushes, including viburnum, with chemical preparations. "Garden without chemicals" - this is my slogan in this matter. And on our site, and throughout the garden community there are enough plants and herbs, which in full give the possibility of protection from pests of the garden. Necessary herbs need to be harvested for future use, they can be stored for 2-3 years.
And if you add to them the soap, an infusion of ash, dried orange peel, lemon, mandarin and a number of other additives, a good harvest of viburnum, like other berries and fruits, will be provided. And beauty, and medicine Kalina - an ornamental plant. It is beautiful both during the flowering period (end of May - June) and during fruiting. The flowers of viburnum are white, fragrant, gathered in large umbrellas, the flowering bush of viburnum is visible from afar, and its smell attracts both the person and the hard-working bee. In winter, when there is snow and frost around, the cottage is decorated with bright red clusters of viburnum. Cluster fruits are firmly held on the branches during the autumn and winter.
Kalina is a special medicinal plant, because everything has healing properties: flowers, fruits and even bark. Fresh fruits are used as a vitamin and fortifying agent.
But especially we love viburnum, which is caught by a light frost. We cut its clusters, bundle it up and store it hanging on the balcony. Tea from such viburnum, and just berries, scalded with boiling water, is a real pleasure and a good medicine for many ailments. Kalina from one of our bush is enough for us (me and my wife) and the families of two daughters.
Every year we leave part of the clusters of viburnum on the plant. In addition to the beauty, which I have already said, viburnum helps to transfer the winter cold to many of our feathered mates. After all, they, the birds, like us, do not forget our beautiful summer house either in summer or in winter. For this, we always try to thank them in return.
Plant and grow at least one bush of viburnum red, it is worth it!
How to choose high-quality seedlings
It turns out that thanks to the efforts of breeders, the culture that is familiar to us today differs from the one celebrated in folk art and is very diverse. Therefore, first you need to decide what you want to see in your garden. You will have to choose from ornamental varieties, on which there are never berries, fruit-bearing, tree-like or bush-like, tall, dwarf and ground cover species.
All roots should be fresh, even, smooth and clean. To ensure freshness of the seedling, lightly scratch the bottom of the rhizome. If fresh greenish wood appeared at the wound site, it means that viburnum is suitable for planting.
Her shoots should also be healthy looking. Choose small specimens, as they take root faster and more easily adapt to new conditions, they are easy to maintain. Experts positively respond to seedlings obtained by the vegetative method. They say that such samples begin to bear fruit already in the second year after planting, it is advised to prefer only seed methods when plants are propagated at home. It is also recommended to choose for planting two-, three-year saplings.
Choosing a place
Reflecting on a suitable area for viburnum, note that it is very demanding on soil fertility and lighting.
Culture prefers to grow in an open area with good lighting or in a small shade. For viburnum a great option would be an economic courtyard, where luxurious bushes will hide ugly buildings.
Regardless of the species and varietal differences, viburnum quickly takes root and grows well on light nutrient-rich lands with a neutral or slightly acidic pH.
The main thing is that the selected area was not wet, because the stagnation of water during a thaw or in bad weather will have a detrimental effect on the plant. Идеально подойдут для него хорошо взрыхленные черноземы, легкие супески и торфяники.
Как правильно посадить саженцы калины
Калиновые кусты и деревья совершенно не доставляют хлопот садовникам, но все же на начальных этапах культивации требуют некого внимания. Выясним, когда сажать калину и, как это сделать правильно.
Посадку калины можно осуществлять весной либо осенью. In the first case, the plant will take root well and will have time to adapt to frost, and in the second case it will increase the root system and with the onset of heat will quickly start growing.
If you plan to plant seedlings in the spring, you need to have time before budding in the trees. And be prepared to constantly moisten the soil under a young plant. Autumn planting is done during the period of massive leaf fall. It is important to rooting at least 2 weeks before the first frost.
Before planting young seedlings need to clear the selected place from weeds and dig up the soil well. Acid correction is recommended in the oxidized areas, which is carried out with the help of dolomite flour, well-known fuzz or old plaster.
Check the pH reaction can be ordinary vinegar. If, when a few drops fall on a lump of earth taken from a 15-centimeter depth, they begin to foam and hiss - in the area an alkaline medium. You can acidify it with citric acid.
When the land on the plot is prepared, and the roots of the seedling are treated from drying out with a special clay mash, you can proceed directly to planting. To do this, dig a recess with a half-meter height and width.
Mainly focus on the size of the roots. In the pit they should not be cramped. At the bottom, lower the thin layer of claydite or brick dust, top with a mixture of equal parts of peat, humus and 60 g of mineral complex fertilizer. Then pour the hole (in the spring it should be done until the ground absorbs water), put a seedling on top, straighten its roots and fill it with fertile soil.
Experienced gardeners are advised to shake the trunk so that in the process of planting the voids formed in the roots fall asleep. Do not forget to thoroughly tamper the trunk circle after this. If you want a few species of viburnum to show off, retreat from neighboring plants for at least 2 m. At the end of all the work, pour the area again and grumble.
Watering, weeding and loosening the soil
Young seedlings need to pay much more attention than mature shrubs. They need frequent watering, but in small portions. Viburnum bushes are very moisture-loving, so they should be moistened to the extent of drying the top layer of the earth. At the same time, it is not necessary to transform pristvolny wells into swampy slime. Excess moisture is fraught with fungal diseases and putrid infections.
In such conditions, the plant is likely to wither. The amount of water during irrigation depends on the age of the shrub and weather conditions. Under the three-year-old seedlings poured about two buckets of liquid. The main thing is that the ground under the plant is soaked to a half-meter depth.
The role of mulch
According to gardeners, the best material for mulching is compost, sawdust or peat. Cover up mulch soil in pristvolnyh circles under viburnum necessarily several times a year.
The best period is April-May, when the ground is still wet, but already warmed. This is done in order to protect the roots from overheating, retain moisture and live on the earth with useful substances, which are obtained as a result of the decomposition of mulch.
Agronomists do not advise using coniferous hairpins and sawdust for this purpose, since they contribute to the oxidation of the substrate.
If you choose the right terrain, you will water and mulch it in time, then you will not have any problems with dressing, as it is easy to take care of the viburnum, and you will not need to correct the substrate.
In such conditions, it is enough to apply any organic fertilizer to the trunk circles at the rate of 3-4 kg per square meter.
In the spring, when viburnum still does not bloom, mineral complex fertilizers are applied under the bushes, about 75-80 g per each landing hole. Organic agronomists advise to make the fall when plowing the site.
Cropping and crown formation
The above diseases are also accompanied by a heavily thickened crown. Therefore, it is important to clear the crown in time from the shoots competing with each other and directed inside the bush. After the procedure, all branches should be evenly lit and not cast a shadow on each other. You can do a haircut in the spring and autumn. But most experts are prone to the March scrap, when the juice movement has not yet begun. At the same time, it is necessary to remove a part of old shoots, replacing it with young ones.
Of these, you need to choose the strongest and most viable instances. And if the time has come for a cardinal rejuvenation, cut off all the old sprouts low near the ground - a developed root system will quickly increase the biomass on the remaining young shoots.
This is necessary in order to activate the expansion of the crown.
Mature viburnum bushes tolerate even harsh winters, as viburnum is adapted to moderate climatic conditions. Therefore, such copies do not require any preparation for winter. But the young seedlings, especially in the first years after planting, need human help.