The content of the article:
- Insect fishing gear
- Cultivation requirements
- Breeding recommendations
- Possible pests and difficulties in growing
Sarracenia (Sarracenia) belongs to the family of the same name Sarracenenia (Sarraceniaeae), which includes carnivorous plants of the order of Heather flowers (Ericales). There are also three more modern genera. "Green Predator" got its name in honor of the naturalist from Canada Michel Sarrazen, who lives in the XVII-XVIII centuries. To date, about 10 varieties of sarration are already known. Homeland of the growth of this plant is considered to be in North America, its southern regions, and in South America, south-eastern areas. Even in the pre-revolutionary times in Russia, this amazing plant was grown indoors, but with the advent of the new government, many private collections of gardeners were simply destroyed. However, some representatives of the species can be seen in the botanical gardens. Thanks to the efforts of breeders, a certain number of sarracenias have been developed, which are successfully cultivated in the conditions of rooms, and if the care requirements were properly maintained, then the “green predator” will delight in flowering.
Basically, all plants of this genus grow in swampy areas and are characterized by a developed rhizome. This explains why sarracenia has become carnivorous - the soil on which it grows is very scarce in nutrients. Represent perennials with herbal form. Lower leaves are represented by scales. A rosette is drawn over these leaves, which consists of twisted leaf plates on short petioles, which have the function of catching insects. The appearance of these leaves may resemble a jug or a urn with a bend-lid at the top. This kind of "visor" does not allow water to get inside. Segments of vessels differ ladder perforation. Some sarratseny types with the size of their jug leaves reach a meter height, but mostly their measurements range from 10 to 45 cm.
Flowers of sarration of both sexes and the location of unambiguous parts of the bud are spiral and cyclic (they are spirocyclic). Themselves stamens free, the fruit ripens in the form of a box with a large number of seeds. The color of sarration flowers is very diverse and depends on the type of plant, there may be red, yellow and purple shades. The aroma in some species is very similar to the smell of violet flowers.
The mechanism of catching insects in sarratsenii
It is clear that the victim falls into the sheet rolled plates ("jugs"), in which the limb-cap, resembles a "visor". Sweet nectar begins to stand out in the upper part of the jug, and it attracts insects to the “network” of sarration. The folded leaf plate of the plant inside is completely covered with slippery hairs, the direction of growth of which leads down. Once inside the “jug”, the victim simply slides to the base, even the spiders, which nature has endowed with the ability to get out on any surface, cannot escape from there. But not only the aroma of nectar attracts insects, sarrasenia also uses the color of its “jugs” for bait. Their neck is very attractive and temptingly colored. Sometimes even small frogs inadvertently fall into the traps of the "green predator". The leaf-visor covers the jug, and the prey that has got there cannot get out.
There is another plant that uses a similar principle of hunting - this is Nepentes. Inside the jug there is not only nectar in which the victim begins to get stuck, but also the digestive juice is dissolved insect. The process of digestion takes up to 8 hours for the plant, leaving only the shell of chitin.
The predator plant receives nutrients from the formed liquid. However, some insects have acquired immunity from digestive enzymes sarrasenii, can infect whole colonies of plants. They damage the tissues of the leaf-jugs and destroy the insects caught, after which the plants will no longer be able to catch their “food”. An example of such insects can be the night moth and its larvae, the wasp spax, which arranges itself inside the nest traps. Sometimes some birds use sarrasenia "jugs" as peculiar feeders. Birds simply hatch from the middle of the folded leaves of undigested insects, while injuring the plant.
Sarratsenia is a specific flower, but in cultivation it is not complicated. Unfortunately, many species are threatened with extinction, as marshlands are increasingly being drained. If the climate allows, then the plant can be grown outdoors on swampy soils, but in our strip it is still preferable to contain it in rooms.
Requirements for cultivation of indoor sarration
- Lighting for the plant. Sarrasenia likes good lighting. Staying under the sun should be from 8 to 10 hours a day. With the arrival of the autumn-winter time, it will be necessary to arrange the illumination with fitolamps in order to increase the duration of daylight hours to the required limits. Therefore, the pot with the plant must be put on the window sills of the southern and western windows. Even spending some time in direct sunlight will not harm its growth and appearance. Having brought the “green predator” into the house, it is necessary to immediately select a permanent growing place for it, since the sarration does not respond well to frequent movements. It is important to remember that the plant loves the flow of clean air, but is afraid of drafts.
Temperature content He feels more comfortable with moderate room temperatures of 23-25 degrees in the spring-summer months, but he can also achieve a performance of 35 degrees. With the arrival of cold weather, it is necessary to lower the temperature for sarration, it can be kept within 10–15 degrees. A flower can survive a short fall to +5, but no more. For this predator, it is necessary to arrange a cold wintering (about 3-4 months), which can be done by separating the window sill and the plant pot from the whole room. Used in the manufacture of cold greenhouses screen film. If this condition (of cold rest) is not fulfilled, then the sarration cannot keep its decorative effect for a long time and will wither. With the arrival of constant warm temperatures in the spring and summer months, it is possible to arrange “holidays” for the “green carnivore” by exposing the pot to a balcony, terrace or garden. It is only worth it at first to accustom her to bright sunlight, this is done gradually. But one should not keep sarratsinia constantly in wet conditions (greenhouse) with illumination, since at the very beginning active growth begins, and then the flower quickly ages and dies - a certain life rhythm fails.
Air humidity. This condition is not too important for the plant, since with sufficient watering all the moisture that is needed for sarration is obtained through the soil. It is necessary to withstand humidity within 50%. Spraying is not performed, since moisture ingress into the “jug” will negatively affect the plant if drops of moisture get inside, brown spotting will appear, and then rotting of the leaf plates. To increase the humidity at high temperatures, you can install a sarrazenium pot in trays filled with expanded clay, pebbles or chopped moss. Water is poured in there, as long as the bottom of the pot with the plant does not touch its surface. You can set the pot on a saucer.
Watering sarratsenii. In summer, the substrate is moistened in a pot using the “bottom watering” method, when the pot is placed in a bowl filled with water. This is done on a regular basis once every three days, and as soon as the month of October comes until mid-spring, this procedure is repeated every 5 days. For such irrigation, soft water is used, completely devoid of impurities and salts, otherwise the plant may die. Best of all, if the water is rain, thawed or distilled. You can navigate for watering on the substrate in a pot. It should always be wet, but water should not stagnate at the roots of the plant.
Top dressings for sarration it is possible not to carry out at all, as in the nature she lives on very poor soils, any additives can kill her. In the conditions of the rooms, it is even possible not to feed the "green predator" just to put it in the open air and she "hunt" herself. In no case can not feed her meat or something like that - it will destroy sarratseniyu.
When choosing a substrate, it must be remembered that the soil on which sarration grows is very poor in nutrients, and the soil should be light with good water and air permeability, normal or slightly increased acidity (pH 5-6). Soil mixture can be composed independently of the following ingredients:
- washed and disinfected silica sand (so that it does not contain any mineral substances), chopped moss and peat ground (in proportions 1: 2: 3),
After transplantation, it is necessary to water the plant very often - almost every day.
Recommendations for breeding sarrutsenia in indoor conditions
Basically, you can get a new plant by planting seed, it should be soaked in a bowl with water for a day. After that, the water is drained, and the seeds are sown one by one in small containers with a mixture of chopped peat moss and quartz sand. Substrate is moistened with distilled water only. Then the container is covered with plastic wrap or placed under glass to create conditions for a mini-greenhouse (with constant temperature and humidity). The containers should be placed in the refrigerator in the vegetable compartment for about a month (the stratification of the seed is taking place). With regularity 2-3 times a week, it is necessary to reach the pots and moisten the substrate with distilled water if it has dried. After this time, the containers are taken from the refrigerator and placed under the lamp so that the height to the pots is at least 17 cm. Plastic bags should not be removed. Seed germination can take almost a month, during this period it is necessary to constantly moisten the soil and maintain heat values in the range of 22–28 degrees. As soon as the sprouts of sarration appear above the soil, the film or glass is removed. A light day is kept about 16 hours a day. Plants develop very slowly at first. Once a year has passed from the time of sowing the seeds, the young sarrasenia can be transplanted into pots with a diameter of about 7–9 cm and a soil suitable for the further growth of adult specimens.
There is another way of reproduction - the division of the bush. It is used for the yellow plant variety. When the flower is already large enough, it is possible in the spring to divide the rhizomes. But it is impossible to repeat this operation too often, as the plant begins to shrink and may die. It is necessary to carefully remove the flower from the pot and with the help of a sharp knife to divide the rhizome so that each area has points of growth. Too small to share is not worth it, because you can ruin the whole sarrazeniyu.
Reproduction by daughter layers is sometimes used, but this method is laborious and requires sufficient skill.
Possible pests of sarration and difficulty in growing
Since the plant is considered a predator that feeds on insects, it can rarely be affected by pests. However, there are those that can harm sarracenia - it is aphid, thrips, spider mite, mealybug. The latter can affect not only the leaves, but also underground tubers. The difficulty in combating these pests is that sarration cannot be sprayed like any other plant that has leaves. It is impossible for special solutions (folk or universal purchased insecticides) to get inside the “jug”, onto the substrate or the roots of a plant. Therefore, only gentle wiping of sheet plates is possible.
From the difficulties of cultivation can be distinguished rotting and damage to rot (boot mushroom). This microorganism is the causative agent of gray rot and affects mainly diseased, injured, as well as young and immature parts of the plant. It is manifested by a gray bloom on sarrsenia sheet plates. When solving this problem, it is necessary to remove all damaged parts of the plant in the fall or with the arrival of spring. In the room where the pot with the "green predator" is located, the air should not stagnate, frequent airing is necessary. The temperature in the room must be lowered, the treatment with fungicides brings little benefit. Sometimes save the plant fails.
Too much waterlogging can lead to decay of leaves or roots, coupled with lower temperatures of the content or if the soil does not have sufficient drainage properties. Yellowing of leaves occurs if the amount of potash compounds in the substrate is increased. In this case, the soil is changed and the root sarration system is washed in distilled water.
Types of sarration
- Sarracenia purpurea (Sarracenia purpurea). The plant species is the most widespread, it moved the migration very well and grows in the peat bog areas of Western Europe. Of the 5 species of this variety, only two are cultivated. The first purple, different leaves of a reddish tone, which become even richer in sunlight, reaches 15 cm in height with a peduncle of 30 cm, the flowers are red, but sometimes mixed with green shades, leaves or green color are very rare. The second purple streak has larger-sized leaf plates in burgundy or green-violet tones, the flowers are also larger and painted in maroon, reddish-purple or pink shades.
Sarracenia yellow (Sarracenia flava). This species is distinguished by yellow-green leaf “jugs” with reddish streaks, outlined by ribs, reaching 60–70 cm in height, and flowers of yellow shimmer grow on drooping peduncles.
Sarracenia Psittacin (Sarracenia psittacina). The behavior of this plant is very aggressive, the leaf plate has the shape of a claw with a domed "visor". Painted "jugs" in maroon or almost black shades. Flowers have a red or yellow tone.
For more on sarration of purpurea, see this video:
Common types of sarration
The Sarracenia genus includes 10 species, many of which have more or less common subspecies. There are also garden forms, varieties and hybrids, differing in shape, color or size of leaves and flowers.
Purple (S. purpurea) is the most common species in nature and in culture. After the introduction, it has perfectly adapted and now grows in the wild in peat bogs in Western Europe. Five subspecies of purple purpurea are known, of which two are the most popular in culture:
- purple purple (S. purpurea ssp. Purpurea) - with reddish leaves, which in the sun acquire a rich color. The height of the leaves is about 15 cm, and the peduncle is up to 30 cm. The flowers are red, sometimes greenish-purple, trapping jugs are horizontally oriented. However, there are forms of the same subspecies with yellow and green leaves.
- purple veined (S. purpurea ssp. Venosa) - with larger maroon or greenish-purple leaves. Flowers are also larger than those of the purple subspecies - dark maroon, red-violet or pink.
Yellow (S. flava) is a species that is characterized by a wide variety of forms and varieties. In a typical variety, the leaves are yellow-green with red veins, noticeably ribbed, 60–70 cm tall, and the flowers are also yellow on the hanging droppings. In addition, there are varieties with large leaves, painted only in green or in combination with red veins, with a neck and a “lid” of copper color, and the red forms are especially appreciated among collectors. After sarration, purple is the second most common species grown in room culture.
Psittacin (S. psittacina) is the only species among the representatives of the genus that is distinguished by aggressive behavior. Trapper leaves are widely spread and resemble a claw with a dome-shaped canopy. When insects get inside, they stick. Окраска листьев тёмно-бордовая, иногда почти чёрная. Цветы красные, но существует и жёлтоцветковая форма. В естественной природе растения этого вида растут на самых влажных почвах, иногда даже погружаются в прибрежные воды.
Красная (S. rubra) – растение, произрастающее в юго-восточных районах США и отнесенное к редким видам. Длина ловчих листьев 20–60 см, каждый завершается длиной красной губкой, служащей для привлечения насекомых. The main color of the leaves and flowers is also red: from scarlet to dark burgundy. There are several subspecies, the rarest of which is Saracene red Alabama (S. rubra ssp. Alabamensis), in which young leaves are light green with dark green veins, and adults become orange-brown. Flowers are brown.
Very rare species in the wild and in culture include white-leaved sarrats (S. leucophylla), small (S. minor), pale (S. alata) and Farham (Sarracenia farhamii). All the leaves are mostly green, often with reddish veins, sometimes lighter on top. Flowers are red, burgundy, yellow, rarely white or cream.
Care and Cultivation of Sarrhenia
Sarrasenia does not apply to plants that are difficult to care. If you create suitable conditions for it, then an excellent predator can even be grown by novice gardeners.
Under the open sky it is grown in swampy soils and only in mild climates. In room culture, 3 parts of high-moor peat, two parts of pure quartz sand and one part of sphagnum are mixed as a substrate. To improve the beneficial properties you can add a little charcoal. As a dishware, it is better to use not one, but two deep pots or a pot and a pot. The inner walls of the tank, which is bigger, are lined with sphagnum and a smaller pot with a plant is inserted into it. In addition to the substrate at the bottom of the smaller dishes must be a drainage layer of foam, broken bricks or shards from old clay pots.
In order for the leaves and flowers of sarration to be beautifully saturated in color, it needs a lot of light. In the room the southern window will be the most suitable for it, and for the summer the plant can be taken out onto the open balcony. The length of the day during the growing season should not be less than 8-10 hours, so it is desirable artificial lighting up.
In the active phase of growth and flowering, the optimum content temperature should be 23–25 degrees Celsius, but the air temperature is + 30 ° C. In winter, there is a period of rest, at which time the temperature should be reduced to at least 10-15 degrees Celsius. At home, you can arrange a cold greenhouse directly on the windowsill, separating the plant from the rest of the room with plastic film or glass, the backlight is removed during this time. Without a cold wintering, sarration will still be pleasing to the eye for some time, but gradually it will lose its attractiveness and will wither.
The soil has increased requirements for soil moisture. Therefore, from April to October, watering should be abundant and regular. Watered into the pan, immersing the lower earthen clod in rainwater or distilled water by 2-3 cm. During rest, the frequency and intensity of irrigation is reduced, but the substrate should remain slightly wet. Preferred moderate relative humidity. In hot weather, it can be maintained by wetting the sphagnum layer between the pots or placing the dishes on a wide tray with wet sand. Spraying from above is not recommended.
Any fertilizing sarrasenii contraindicated, insects at home to feed her is also optional, especially large, which are poorly digested and can cause leaf rot. Indoors, it is important to ensure a constant flow of air, she does not like when the pot is turned or often moved from place to place.
A transplant is recommended once every two years or annually, depending on how much the roots fill the dishes. The most favorable time for transplantation is early spring. Under natural conditions sarrasenia can grow up to 30 years, but in room culture this period is much less.
Reproduction of sarration
Sarraseniyu can be propagated by rhizome segments and seeds. The division of the root system is most easily tolerated with. yellow, but this is often not recommended, so as not to weaken the plant.
Seeds must undergo cold stratification. Before sowing, they are soaked for 24 hours in distilled water, then sown in a moist substrate of sphagnum and sand in shallow dishes. Cover it with polyethylene and put in the fridge for a month, not forgetting to moisten the substrate. After cold keeping, the seed containers are placed under artificial light lamps, without removing the protective film. Germination occurs within a month, then the sprouts dive. In separate pots, seedlings are planted only in a year.
Diseases and pests
Diseases in the form of rotting of roots and leaves can be caused by overmoistening in cold weather or due to poor drainage properties of the soil. Due to an excess of potassium in the soil, yellowing of the leaves is possible. In this case, the substrate is recommended to change, thoroughly washing off the root system from the old soil.
Under room conditions, the plant can suffer from common pests - aphid, spider mites, thrips, and mealybugs.
Predator plant - sarracenia and its varieties
The sarrasenia family includes three genus: sarracenia (Sarracenia) - 10 species, Darlingtonia (Darlingtonia) - 1 species and Heliamphora (Heliamphora) - 6 species common in southern North America and northeastern South America in tropical, subtropical and temperate areas. All members of the family are marsh plants, and to a large extent their “carnivorousness” is due to a lack of nutrients in the soil.
Sarracenia (Sarracenia), a genus of plants of the sarrasenie family. Ten species and diverse subspecies belong to this genus of carnivorous plants, but many species are endangered in nature, expressed in varying degrees.
Spread from Canada to the northern part of the Gulf Coast and west to Texas in the United States. In Western Europe, they are grown in the open field, and purple syrrance is even naturalized in the marshes of Ireland and southern England. There are garden forms, hybrids and varieties of sarration, differing in the form of leaves, color and size of flowers.
In Russia sarratenii known for quite some time. Some representatives of this plant were still in pre-revolutionary Russia, however, after the revolution, large private collections were lost and representatives of the genus were preserved only in the botanical gardens. E. Regel, in his book on indoor plants, mentions 5 species of these amazing “green predators”. In Moscow, a lot of time and effort dedicated to insectivorous plants, including sarratsy, famous florist Nikolai Evgenievich Metlov. To date, breeders managed to bring a lot of beautiful and interesting species of this plant, which can be grown indoors, and if this plant is properly cared for, it can bloom.
As you know, many species are endangered in nature. Species growing in the southern part of the range are particularly affected by external influence, since their range is limited to several separate areas that are affected by improper management, changes in the groundwater level and excessive collection. Fortunately, many species have adapted to experiencing adverse living conditions, as they can grow from rhizomes. In addition to this, recent measures are being taken to restore the level of groundwater in order to provide the necessary moisture of the substrate and its acidity, and also try to cause natural fires necessary to eliminate competing plant species. Sarration populations respond favorably to such measures.
All sarrasenium species, with the exception of psittacine sarratation, catch insects with jugs of prey. Sarrasenia is a twisted leaf coming from the root system, forming a trap. At the top of the plant, the leaf expands, forming a kind of "canopy". The color of the plant is varied: the color depends on the type of flower belonging. In late spring - early summer, Sarracenia blooms with red or purple flowers.
White-leaved sarratsenia is the most elegant type of sarration. Jugs are gently woven over a net of red or green veins. It is distributed in the east of the northern part of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in pine savannas and flowing marshes. In the red list of 2000, this species is classified as in danger.
Sarracenia psittacin. The red-flowered sarrasenia with a yellow-flowered form is sarracenia psittacin, in which unique traps of jugs are formed. It differs from other sarracenias by the formation of open jugs that resemble lobster claws. When an insect enters the dome of the trap apparatus, it eventually sticks. This species is found in pine savannas and flowing marshes in the northern part of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, as well as along the coastal plains of Georgia.
Sarracenia purpurea (Sarracenia purpurea) is characterized by purple or greenish-purple flowers that appear in spring. It is widespread in the eastern United States and Canada and is easy to culture.
Sarrasenia purple subspecies purpurea is the most widespread species found in the least danger in the territory from Canada to the north-east of the United States. This species was introduced to the peat bogs of Europe. Horizontally oriented jugs may acquire intense red color, there are also yellow and green forms of this sarration.
The second subspecies, sarracenia, is a purple subspecies, anneaceous, which grows in the eastern part of the United States and in the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico in coastal savannas, and sometimes in flowing marshes. The mountain species is found at significant elevations, while the Burke variety with pink flowers is found in the northern part of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico.
Sarracenia red grows throughout the southeastern United States, but in the Red List is attributed to rare plants. One of the rarest subspecies is the red sarrasenia subspecies of Alabama, confined to the unextended marshy parts of Alabama and included in Appendix I of CITES. It forms stocky jugs up to 75 cm in height with a wide entrance and a lid with a wavy surface. In the 1960s, this subspecies was more widely distributed and represented by 30 populations. Changes in habitat conditions, including lowering of groundwater levels, as well as improper management of natural forest fires, have reduced the number of habitats by almost 60 percent in the last 40 years. Currently in Central Alabama, only 11 points of growth of this subspecies of the sarration are preserved, most of which are privately owned.
Sarracenia is a red subspecies of Jones, which is protected by federal law and is also included in Appendix I of CITES. Also known are anthocyanin-free forms of red sarration. Their trapping devices reach 15–25 cm in height and form a bulge. Sarrasenia red subspecies of the Gulf of Mexico is confined to the flowing swamps of the western part of the Florida peninsula.
Sarracenia yellow - one of the most widely known species, confined to savannas and flowing marshes. It is extremely variable and has seven known forms. The most popular among collectors are red forms.
Sarrasenia yellow is characterized by the presence of several varieties. The typical species yellow is widespread on the Atlantic coastal dunes. In the blood-red variety, red leaves develop. The large green colored varieties are large, the varieties decorated with red veins and the copper varieties with the copper colored lid of the jug also grow on the coastal plains of the Carolina and Northwest Florida. All varieties are listed on the 1997 Red List and CITES II.
Sarracenia are very popular and easy to culture. Initially, this plant was wild, but gradually domesticated and passed into the category of indoor plants.
Sarratsenia can be grown indoors or in a swampy area of a garden without providing protection from the cold in a warm climate. They are planted in a substrate prepared on the basis of moss, and immersed in the growing season in rainwater for 2-3 cm. When the plant passes into the dormant period, remove the old leaves and keep the substrate slightly moist. In order for trapping jars to become intensely colored, most species need intensive lighting.
To grow them at home requires intense, but not direct sunlight, acidic barren soils, immersion of the underground part in the water during the growing season, the preferred temperature is 2-35 degrees, the plant is not frost-resistant.
Sarrasenii grow well in the room without much care. For planting, it is better to take a pot with pots or insert one pot into another with a gasket made of sphagnum, which will allow to preserve moisture in the soil mixture longer, although sarration is more likely to suffer from overwetting, especially with poor drainage. For the device drainage, you can use the shards of pots or pieces of foam. The soil mixture should be loose and not nutritious: washed quartz sand, cut peat moss and high-moor peat (1: 2: 3) with the addition of pieces of charcoal.
The optimal place for them in the apartment is the window sill, best of all under the constantly ajar window, in winter time it is acceptable to lower the temperature to 10-15 ° C. Water sarratsenii should be distilled or pure snow (rain) water.
For sarration it is useful to build a winter cold greenhouse by isolating the window sill from the side of the room with glass. In the summer of plants can be taken out on the balcony. At first, they should be shaded from direct sunlight until they get used. All year round to keep sarrasenia in a wet greenhouse with lighting should not be, in this case, the plant seems to lose its rhythm, and although it develops well at first, then it quickly grows old and eventually dies.
Sarratsenia can be propagated by seeds, which are conveniently sown in Petri dishes on peat, followed by picking into pots. Sarrazenia yellow reproduces perfectly with segments of rhizomes, which, in principle, is due to its simplicity in culture.
Undoubtedly, the most interesting thing is to observe how these predator plants catch various insects: sarracenia grab cockroaches and flies, Venus flytraps prefer flies and mosquitoes, and tiny gnats and ants stick to the sticky leaves of Zhiryans and dews.
The sarrasenia family includes three genus: sarracenia (Sarracenia) - 10 species, Darlingtonia (Darlingtonia) - 1 species and Heliamphora (Heliamphora) - 6 species common in southern North America and northeastern South America in tropical, subtropical and temperate areas. All members of the family are marsh plants, and to a large extent their “carnivorousness” is due to a lack of nutrients in the soil.
Sarracenia is a wild, carnivorous plant of the sarracenie family, which eventually turned into the category of indoor plants. Saraceny traps, where careless insects end up, are slightly modified leaves emanating from the root system. At the end of the trap expand, transforming into a kind of umbrellas, having different colors depending on the type of flower. The most widespread sarracenia are yellow, white-leaved sarracenia and purple sarracenia.
The optimal place in the apartment is the window sill, best of all under the constantly ajar window, in winter time it is acceptable to lower the temperature to 10-15 ° C.
The plant can stand in a dark place, for example, in a greenhouse protected from frost, covered with leaves.
Watering is always plentiful, only soft water. It is good to immerse the pot in wet peat or take it out for the summer to the garden, to the shore of the reservoir and dig into the ground to the upper edge.
Does not need spraying.
The culture of sarration is specific, but simple. They grow beautifully in a room without much care.
For sarration it is useful to build a winter cold greenhouse by isolating the window sill from the side of the room with glass. In the summer pots of plants can be taken out on the balcony. Initially, they need to shade from direct sunlight, but then shading is not necessary. All year round to keep sarration in a wet greenhouse with lighting should not be. In this case, the plants seem to go astray from the rhythm, and although they develop well at first, then they quickly age and eventually die.
Water sarratsenii should be distilled or pure snow (rain) water.
Sarration seeds are propagated by seeds, which are conveniently sown in petri dishes on peat, followed by picking in pots. Sarrazenia yellow reproduces perfectly with segments of rhizomes, which, in principle, is due to its simplicity in culture.
For planting, it is better to take a pot with pots or insert one pot into another with a gasket made of sphagnum, which will allow you to retain moisture in the soil mixture longer, although sarration is more likely to suffer from overwetting, especially with poor drainage. For the device drainage, you can use the shards of pots or pieces of foam. The soil mixture should be loose and not nutritious: washed quartz sand, cut peat moss and high-moor peat (1: 2: 3) with the addition of pieces of charcoal.
Sarracenia (Sarracenia) is a genus of carnivorous plants of the Sarrasenie family, comprising about 10 species. Естественная среда обитания саррацении – влажные торфяные почвы юго-востока США, область Великих озёр, Техаса и восточное побережье Канады.
Это растение относится к числу самых крупных насекомоядных, и, как и все насекомоядные, имеет довольно оригинальную форму. Розетки длинных листьев от самых корней закручены в кувшинчики-ловушки, наполненные вязкой пищеварительной жидкостью. Узкие снизу, кверху кувшинчики расширяются, и часть листа образует своеобразный навес-крышку. But, unlike many other insectivorous, sarration is a passive predator and when the insect gets inside the lid does not shut, the prey simply sinks in the accumulated liquid, gradually digesting and serving the plant as a source of nutrients.
Saracenia blooms at the beginning of summer as single flowers with a diameter of up to 10 cm, located on a long peduncle. Depending on the type of their color may be red, purple, purple or yellowish. The flower has a complex shape and consists of five sepals. Numerous stamens completely hide behind the overgrown “umbrella” of the stigma, on which pollen is poured from the anthers.
The most common type of sarrasenia in indoor floriculture is Sarracenia yellow. Its yellowish-green leaves with red veins reach half a meter (sometimes longer) and form jugs up to 8 cm in diameter. This species has seven different shapes, the most popular among which is red.
Although sarration is rather unpretentious in culture, but, nevertheless, for its successful cultivation it is necessary to adhere to a number of requirements.
Care for sarrazences at home
Lighting. Sarratseniya - sun-loving plant. For its lush and healthy growth requires about 8 - 10 hours of direct sunlight. If it is not possible to provide such a mode, then it is necessary to use additional illumination with special phytolamps, creating a level of illumination of at least 5000 lux.
It must be borne in mind that the plant does not like to change its position relative to the light source. Therefore, it is recommended to put it immediately on a permanent place and no longer rotate.
Temperature. Sarratsenia feels good both at high and at low temperatures. With sufficiently high humidity and abundant watering, it will be good and with heat at 35 ° C.
In winter, the plant is at rest and during this period the air temperature around it is desirable to lower to 10 ° C.
Water and watering. Sarrasenia does not tolerate hard chlorinated water. Therefore, for watering it is not enough just to defend or filter. If it is not possible to use thawed or rainwater, then it is recommended to water distilled.
Watering is desirable to carry out through the pan, which must be constantly filled with water. Considering that sarracenia is a marsh plant, it will be destructive for it to dry out of an earthy coma.
And when watering you need to remember that the less light the plant receives, the less it needs water. With poor lighting and abundant watering the roots can rot.
Humidity. With abundant watering the plant does not need high humidity. All that he needs is taken away from the soil. Sarratseniya feels comfortable with air humidity of about 40%.
Soil, landing. The soil mixture for planting sarration should be loose, not nutritious, with an acidity of 4.5 - 5.5 pH (very acidic). For those who want to cook it, they recommend the following composition independently: high-moor peat, sliced sphagnum, perlite or quartz sand in the proportion of 4: 2: 2 with the addition of charcoal.
When buying a plant, you need as soon as possible to get rid of the soil in which it was sold. Even if the composition of the soil mixture is suitable, watering in flower shops is not monitored and watered with the water that is, which for sarration can be destructive.
Transplantation is recommended every two years before the growing season. At the same time, all dried leaves should be cut off, the roots should be cleaned from the old substrate and transplanted into a larger pot. And, it should be noted that sarrácenia develops well in deep pots.
Top dressing. Sarratseniya does not need fertilizing with fertilizers. On the contrary, the soil should contain as little as possible nutrients. All the elements necessary for its full development, the plant extracts from insects it has digested, which, periodically, can be dropped into jars, but only into fully formed and ready for assimilation of prey. Although it is not necessary to do this, the plant may well feed itself. Once a month, some insect will surely fall to it, especially if you take out the sarration in the summer to fresh air.
Reproduction. Propagated by sarration seeds, daughter rosettes or segments of rhizomes.
With seed reproduction, the first flowering occurs in 3 to 4 years.
Pests and diseases. Of the diseases of sarration, the most susceptible to the disease is "improper care."
The main pests in room conditions are spider mites and aphids. Given the complexity that flower growers have to face when trying to remove these pests, it is better to regularly conduct preventive examinations and try to prevent infection.
Sarracenia - a plant predator and care for him
Sarracenia (Sarracenia) is a predatory plant of the Sarracenie family (Sarraceniaceae), which is home to wet peat regions of South and North America.
Sarracenia are perennial herbaceous plants with leaves twisted into jar-traps growing on the top of the rhizome. The leaves are elongated, narrow at the bottom and slightly widening at the top and a part of the sheet forms a cover. The leaves are about 8 cm in diameter, have a bright color, often with reddish veins, inside are covered with stiff hairs that are directed downward, which makes it difficult for the insects to get out of the trap.
Inside the leaves are digestive fluids, with which the plant digests the prey. The prey is attracted by the sweetish nectar produced by the trap leaves. Unlike other predatory plants, the lid does not slam when the insect gets inside, the victim simply drowns in the accumulated liquid, gradually digesting. Flowers solitary, on a long peduncle, with a diameter of up to 10 cm, depending on the type of their color can be red, purple, purple or yellowish.
Due to their relatively wide distribution and large size, sarrasenie are among the most common insectivorous plants. The Sarratseniyev family unites three kinds of close carnivorous plants:
- genus Darlingtonia (Darlingtonia) Includes 1 species - darlingtonia californian (D. californica),
- genus Heliamphorus (Heliamphora) includes 23 species of South American plants,
- genus Sarracenia (Sarracenia) includes 10 species.
Rod Heliamphorus combines plants called marsh or solar water lilies that grow in Venezuela, in western Guyana, northern Brazil. They are distinguished by relatively small flowers in the inflorescences. As a result of evolution, plants of this genus learned how to get useful substances by killing insects and controlling the amount of water in their traps. Most species of this genus use symbiotic bacteria for digestion of prey, and Heliamphora tatei produces its own enzymes. George Bentham in 1840 described the first species (H. Nutans) of plants of this genus.
Sarracenia is a plant with brightly colored trap leaves that resemble flowers. They are large, solitary, and their shape has an extension at the top. A purple-red pattern on a green or yellow background and a fragrant smell attract insects. Each part of the sheet has its own functional features. Outside is a landing site for insects. Further in the mouth are nectar glands.The inner part is covered with sharp hairs pointing down. This allows the insect to easily get inside, but then it is hard for him to get out of there. The lower part of the flower is filled with a liquid in which it sinks. Plant cells produce digestive enzymes. There is also another kind of cells that absorb split elements. Thus, the plant replenishes its tissues with reserves of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium and potassium.
Scientists have proven that epidermal cells in the lower part of the water lily have the ability to secrete antiseptic substances. Due to this, the decomposed parts of insects on the bottom of lily pads almost do not emit a putrid odor. If the jug is located with the mouth upwards, then the liquid placed in the middle is rainwater, but if it is covered from above with an outgrowth, then the liquid is released by the plant.
Birds use these plants as troughs, pecking out non-decaying insects. Some insects have adapted to life inside sarrasenia water lilies. They release substances that resist the digestive juice of the plant. These include night moth and its larvae, meat fly larvae, wasp spax, which is able to build nests inside.
Sarracenia white-leaved (Sarracenia leucophylla)This species grows in the east of the northern part of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. It is a very gentle and elegant plant. Water lilies covered with a grid of red or green laces on a white background. During the flowering period the plant is decorated with purple flowers. Prefers swampy terrain and humidity of 60%. Since 2000, protected as an endangered species.
Sarracenia psittacin (Sarracenia psittacina)In nature, it grows in the north-southern states of America and to the south of the Mississippi. The lamina of the plant has the shape of a claw and a dome-shaped visor. Water lilies of this species are bright red, almost black. The lid covers the funnel and does not allow it to fill with rain water. It grows in the lowlands, where there are flooding during heavy rains. Hood does not protect under water. The lid creates a narrow entrance channel leading into a tube covered with hairs. A mini-trap is formed for tadpoles. If they swim in, they can't get out. The only way is forward, to the bottom of the funnel. The plant prefers a bright light and can grow as a home plant on the western or southern window sills.
Sarracenia red (Sarracenia rubra)This sarration is a rare species. Plant height - from 20 to 60 cm. A distinctive feature is the presence of red lips. It attracts insects. The color of the leaves smoothly changes from red-burgundy to bright red. In spring, the plant blooms with small bright red flowers that have dangling long petals.
Sarracenia purpurea (Sarracenia purpurea)In nature, it grows in eastern America and Canada and is a common species. This species was introduced into the marsh of Central Ireland and well caught. The plant has purple or greenish-purple flowers growing in spring and a pleasant aroma of violets.
The leaves of the trap of the purple purpurea are often submerged in the moss. therefore prey plants become not only flying insects, but also creeping. Rainwater does not affect the effectiveness of digestive enzymes.
The unusual nature of sarration of purpurea is that it does not produce enzymes for digesting prey, but is still a predator. On its lid nectar is produced and hairs grow. But she needs help to digest prey. Caught insects drown and go to the bottom. And there the snake-like larvae of the Metrioknemus mosquito eat them, dropping small particles into the water. Above them are the larvae of the mosquito Vayomaya. They suck up small particles and create a stream of water. The larvae secrete waste products into the water, which are absorbed by the plant. The natural environment is unique because both species of larvae are found only in such plants.
Sarracenia yellow (Sarracenia flava)The plant was first described in 1753 by the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus. In nature, it is found in the United States on porous soil and in swamps.
Sarratseniya yellow has leafy water lilies of bright green color with red veins, on which ribs 60-70 cm high are outlined. Yellow flowers with a sharp unpleasant odor are placed on the wilting peduncles. The flowering period is March-April. Jugs have a horizontal lid, which prevents water from getting inside. Nectar has a paralyzing effect on insects. At home, with abundant watering and proper care, the plant can live without top dressing by insects.
Sarracenia minor (Sarracenia minor)This species was described in 1788 by Thomas Walter. A relatively small plant, 25-30 cm tall, with a green jug color and with a reddish tinge at the top. Flowering occurs in March and May. Flowers are yellow with no smell. More attractive is for ants. This plant has a hood in the upper part that covers the trap jug. But from this his trapping ability does not decrease. In the canopy there are thin translucent areas. They are designed to disorient the insects. When they want to fly out of a water lily, they fly into the light and hit the closed window and fall back into the liquid again.
Some types of sarrasenium were grown as a houseplant in pre-revolutionary Russia, but after the revolution, many private collections were destroyed. Today, breeders are working to develop more bright new varieties. With good care, the plant can please you with flowers.
Saracenia (from the Latin. Sarracenia) - refers to the predatory plant genus Sarracenie (perennial rhizomatous herbs).It is named after the biologist Michel Sarrasen. The plant looks very extravagant, unlike anything else.
A sarratsenia flower, large bright unusual, towering above the leaves.
The trap itself is a swirling trap, something resembling a water lily leaf.
It contains special glands that secrete aromatic nectar, which serves as a bait for insects.The victim sits on a trapping sheet, and then rolls down the honey path below until he falls into a trap, from which it is no longer possible to get out. Following is the process of "digestion." It is known that antimicrobial substances are released in the lower part of sarracene, which is why victims who get there do not emit an unpleasant smell.
The carnivore of the plant is due to a lack of nutrients in the soil.Predatory plant native to North and South America. In places where sarration grows, it is usually very humid - these are swampy soils, water bodies. Only one species, “Sarracenia Purple”, taken out of the country, caught on a new territory - in the marshes of Ireland.
The Sarrasenie family have three genders.
1) The genus Heliamphor, numbering 15 species. Habitat - Venezuela, Brazil, Guyana.
2) The genus Darlingtonia, has 1 species - Darlingtonia Californian.
3) The genus Sarratseniya has 11 species and, perhaps, it is the most popular genus. Color as a rule, plants have purple.
Sarracenia Venosa Red (lat. SarraceniaVenosaRed) - One of the most suitable for home maintenance, as it does not require particularly complex care. It is worth noting that sarracenia burgundy and red shades (for example, Sarracenia Dracula) are more popular with gardeners. The plant has a very small height, reaches a maximum of 20 centimeters. The leaves are broad, red-burgundy color with veins. Red sarration, as well as other species, must provide very abundant watering. Water for irrigation should be as soft as possible, it is best to use distilled. Drought is detrimental to this plant. If this condition is met, then there will be no need for additional humidification.
The saturation and brightness of the color of all types of plants will directly depend on how much light it hits.For successful growth of sarration, you need about 8 hours of direct sunlight daily. In this case, the plant is not recommended to rearrange even within the same sill and twist around the axis.
A balcony will be a good place to keep a carnivorous plant, as it normally tolerates temperature drops and even strong drafts. Sarration needs to be done at a temperature not higher than 5 ° C.
Do not forget to water the plant a couple of times a week, avoiding dry soil.
Yellow SarratseniaYellow appearance, which is also called Sarracenia Flava (Sarraceniaflava)quite famous. The first time they learned about the plant in the 18th century thanks to the European biologist C. Linnaeus.
Reaches a relatively high altitude - about 1 meter. The species grows mainly on porous soil in the USA and on marshes in Ireland.
The plant has yellow-green leaves with red veins, but there are species with green-copper leaves.
Sarratsenia Flava blooms in yellow buds.Carefully consider the choice of soil for a predatory plant.
Universal mixes presented in stores will not work.
It is necessary to independently create a mixture of 2 parts of perlite, 4 parts of peat and 1 part of sand. There is no need for additional dressing.