General information

Types and varieties of garden chrysanthemums, how to choose a flower for the garden

From mid-summer to the very cold, many homesteads, summer cottages and front gardens are decorated with bright bushes of garden chrysanthemums. The plant blooms even when many flowers have already withered after the first frost. Even the most experienced gardeners are amazed at the variety of colors of a flower, its types and forms. You can learn about the varieties and peculiarities of growing the “queen of autumn” by reading our article. A photo of chrysanthemums will help you to choose the types of flowers suitable for the garden.

The size of the inflorescences

Perennial chrysanthemum flowers are divided by diameter into three groups:

  • small flowers,
  • mid-flowered,
  • large-flowered.

Small-flowered or Korean plants can be simple and terry. A large number of inflorescences grow on one bush. with a flower diameter of 2-10 cm. The bushes themselves can reach a height of 25 to 120 cm. The leaves of the plant are in the shape of oak leaves. Flowers are frost resistant, undemanding to the composition of the soil and easy to maintain. Their flowering begins in mid-September and lasts until frost.

Medium-flowered or decorative chrysanthemums can be grown not only to decorate the garden, but also to cut. They also grow well in pots at home. They can decorate balconies, loggias and terraces. Ornamental shrubs grow to 30-70 cm, and have a flower diameter of 10-18 cm.

Large-flowered chrysanthemums are spectacular tall plants. The length of their stem can reach from 80 to 120 cm. They bloom with large flowers with a diameter of 10-25 cm. This type of chrysanthemum does not tolerate frosts. Only some of its varieties can winter in open ground. These flowers are intended mainly for cutting into bouquets.

The shape and height of the bush

The shape and height of the bush garden chrysanthemums are divided into three types, each of which has many varieties.

Tall. The stems of this type of garden chrysanthemum can be very tall, and require supports in the form of frames, metal nets or wooden pegs. Supports are installed during planting bushes. Planted by a group of plants can be used as a hedge. Most popular varieties tall garden chrysanthemum are:

  1. "Amber Lady" - the plant is distinguished by inflorescences of golden hue.
  2. "Umka" - chrysanthemums with white flowers, the shape of which resembles a pompon.
  3. The “Daughter of Rosetta” is covered with flat inflorescences with pink and white flowers.

Sredneroslye. The bushes growing up to 30-50 cm look very impressive both on the flowerbed and along the paths, fences, arbors. With their help, you can realize various designer fantasies. The best varieties of medium growth garden chrysanthemums are considered:

  1. "Dawn" - the plant has a yellow-brown color, which is just suited to the autumn mood.
  2. “Dune” is a truly magical variety, the flowers of which during flowering can change their color. They bloom yellow-brown, and after a few days become yellow-gold.
  3. "Lily" will add brightness to any composition with its dark crimson flowers.

Curb. Small plants grow to only 30 cm. This type of chrysanthemum is considered one of the most beautiful garden flowers. Curb Chrysanthemum Bushes have the form of a ballstrewn with little flowers. In this group the most popular varieties:

  1. "Barbara" - a plant with delicate lilac-purple flowers.
  2. "Evening lights" - the variety is distinguished by scarlet buds that resemble festive salute.
  3. The “talisman” is covered with bright beet-crimson flowers.

Flower shape

Garden chrysanthemums have Five different types of flower shapes:

  1. Pompon flowers are an assembly of reeds, which are collected in a ball, resembling a pompon.
  2. Anemid flowers consist of large petals, which are collected in one, two or three rows. The flowers themselves are small and very similar to anemone flowers.
  3. Single row and double-row inflorescences are bordered with flowers similar to tongues. In the center of such inflorescences grow small flowers-tubules. Border of flowers can be located in one or two rows.
  4. Semi-double flowers consist of three rows of reeds, which are located around the central flower.
  5. Terry inflorescences resemble semi-double, but their flowers are more lush, because they are diverse in appearance and shape.

Landing features

Chrysanthemums love sunny patches. For planting flower buds the plant needs a lot of light. Even in the penumbra chrysanthemum will not bloom.

The soil should be rich in organic matter. Therefore, when digging into one square meter of soil, you need to add one bucket of manure, compost or peat. It is not necessary to bring in more organic matter, otherwise only leaves will grow rapidly in the bush, and the plant will bloom in very small flowers.

Planting garden chrysanthemum, it is recommended:

  1. For large-growth bushes, the distance between the holes should be made at least 50 cm, and for small bushes - 25 cm.
  2. It is recommended to add drainage or sand to each well.
  3. When planting the plant strongly into the ground can not be deepened.
  4. Near large, high bushes, you must immediately install a support.
  5. The leaves of the plant can be sprayed with “Appin”, which will help it to adapt better. “Kornevin” is also suitable, with a solution of which the bush is watered.
  6. If frosts are still expected, then the young bush should be covered for the night with non-woven material.

Care rules

While caring for garden chrysanthemum, special attention should be paid to its watering, because the plant depends on soil moisture level. Water the bushes need to be timely, otherwise the flower will throw all the buds.

The volume of water for watering a bush depends on its features. Plants with small, hard leaves can be watered less frequently than bushes with soft, large leaves that evaporate a lot of moisture.

Chrysanthemums respond well to top dressing. To do this, use complex mineral fertilizers containing magnesium and potassium, and organic in the form of humates. During active growth of green mass, the plant is fed with nitrogen.

The care of garden chrysanthemums includes the formation of a bush. Its needed regularly pinch and trim. For the first time, the top of the plant is removed when the central shoot grows to 10 cm. After some time, when the side shoots grow to 10 cm, they also pinch the top of the head. After that, the bush grows until flowering.

In the period when the chrysanthemum blooms, it is necessary to regularly remove faded and faded buds from its bush. Thus it is possible to extend the flowering period.

If you want to get big beautiful flowers, you can make a total pruning of lateral shoots. As a result, only one stalk and one flower stalk will remain on the bush. All the forces of the plant will go to the formation and growth of the flower.

Care for garden chrysanthemum in winter

To plant a plant in the garden as beautifully and abundantly bloomed the next year, you need to take care that it is well wintered.

In frosty winters even cold resistant varieties require shelter. Therefore, after flowering, the stalks of the bushes are cut to the ground. The plant is tucking and covered with fallen leaves.

Chrysanthemums with large flowers of subzero temperatures are afraid. Therefore, they need to dig along with the earthy clod and put in a suitable container. Plants are stored until planting in the spring in a room with a temperature of 0-5 degrees. Care for them is a rare irrigation earthen coma, which should not dry out.

Diseases and pests of perennial chrysanthemums

With proper care, the plant is rarely affected by pests and practically does not get sick. However, the bushes regularly need to inspect as soon as possible to identify the problem and begin to treat the plant. A threat to garden chrysanthemums is:

  1. Spider mite is a pest sucking sap from a plant. It can be detected by spider formations on the back of the sheet. If the leaves of chrysanthemum become gray-brown, begin to darken and fall off, then, most likely, a tick settled on it. The plant must be treated with special chemicals.
  2. Leaf nematodes - the disease is manifested by the deformation of the leaves, and their darkening between the veins. In this case, you need to change the soil and cut off the damaged areas.
  3. Verticillosis is an infectious disease that penetrates through the roots. Therefore, the leaves begin to turn yellow and fade from the bottom of the bush. At the initial stages will help spraying biologics.
  4. Mealy dew first infects the leaves and buds, on which white bloom appears. The affected parts of the plant are removed, and the bush itself is treated with Bordeaux liquid.

Dividing bush

Shrubs can be divided in spring, but only after the threat of frost has passed. To chrysanthemums bloom better, their shrubs are recommended to divide every three years. To do this, the plant gently dug and divided into several small bushes. The roots of the plant will need to be cut. Delenki planted in the ground and watered.

Cuttings

Propagation by cuttings is the easiest way, because chrysanthemums take root quickly and well.

  1. A cutting with 3-4 leaves is cut off under a leaf pattern. Its length should be 6-8 cm.
  2. The tank is filled first with peat, and then with sand, in which the cutting sits.
  3. The soil is sprayed and the box is covered with glass.

The temperature for rooting should be within 13-15 degrees. When the roots appear, the cuttings will need transplanted into separate pots. In the open ground young bushes are planted only when they pass frost.

Observing the rules of planting and caring for garden chrysanthemum, you can achieve beautiful and spectacular flowering during half of the summer and almost the entire autumn. Any part of the garden where the “queen of autumn” will grow will be a luxurious decoration of the garden.

Non-shag varieties

Chrysanthemum has about 160 species and more than 1000 varieties. Depending on the shape and type of inflorescence garden bush chrysanthemums are divided into three groups:

  • non-curved,
  • semi-double,
  • bulging.
Non-curly chrysanthemums look like daisies. They have an almost flat shape with an open center. The tongues of the petals of different colors are placed in one or several rows along the edges of the middle. Petals are wide, slightly curved at the tips.

Often in the literature when describing planting material you can find another name for this variety of chrysanthemums - simple. After all, varieties of this type really have the simplest one-or two-tier form.

Simple chrysanthemums are early varieties, resistant to low temperatures, well propagated, unpretentious in the care. The most popular non-double flowers, which take root well and grow in our climate, are:

  • El Dorado
  • Masquerade
  • Evening lights
  • Ruby stars
  • Tsarevna Swan
  • Autumn bouquet
  • Joy
  • Kibalchish boy
These varieties are planted in May, and they bloom from June to October. Flowers reach 60 cm in height. The Masquerade variety is blooming with very beautiful multi-colored heads. The flowers of this variety in the center have a yellow border, and from the center of the petal to the edges the colors change from one color to another.

Incredibly luxurious Ruby stars. Perennial, in height reach 80 cm. Possess a charming fiery red color. Frost-resistant, suitable for moderately dry soil, slightly shaded places.

Semi-double varieties

Chrysanthemums of this variety have a flat shape, but their middle is slightly raised and more luxurious than non-terry species. Reed petals of different colors are arranged in three to five rows along the edges of the middle. Belong to the early, cold-resistant varieties. It is better to take root in the garden and for a long time please their owners with delightful flowering such semi-double chrysanthemum varieties:

  • Amazon
  • Natasha
  • Pearl
  • Enchantress
  • Isabel
Amazon - branch chrysanthemum (flowers do not grow on each individual stem, but grow a crown on one). It has a rich lilac color, with a green middle. Blooms in October. Resistant to frost.

Natasha - blooms with large yellow heads, reaches a height of up to 90 cm. It blooms in September.

Enchantress - blooms with delicious white heads with lemon center. It blooms from October to frost. This variety is resistant to night frosts, diseases and pests. It survives well in our climate.

Isabel - delicate pink chrysanthemum. Unpretentious in the care, resistant to cold and dry climate.

Anemoid varieties

Also refer to the form of simple chrysanthemum. Unlike the previous species, these plants have a convex, raised lush center, from which the edges extend from two to five rows of petals. Inflorescences are like daisies.

In the group of anemovirus varieties white chrysanthemums are very popular. They have large heads of snow-white color. Especially beautiful color varieties Eleanor white. It has white, yellow or pink shades, its diameter is about 15 cm. It blooms profusely and for a long time.

Bent varieties

Bent varieties refer to the type of terry chrysanthemums. The flowers of the plant are large, decorated with a large number of rows of petals. They received this name due to the fact that their petals are bent downwards. Used for cutting and composition of luxurious bouquets. Long does not fade. The most popular varieties are cream Gillette, yellow Max Riley and pink Crimson.

Flat varieties

Flat varieties are very similar to daisies or daisies. They have an open, even middle part, at the edges of which it departs from two to five rows of petals. Tongues are located perpendicular to the middle of the flower. Petals can be both monochrome, and combine several completely different shades (for example, white and yellow, pink and burgundy, lemon and purple). The heads of plants are large, from 8 to 15 cm in diameter. Height reaches from 50 to 90 cm. They belong to the early flowering varieties.

Hemispherical varieties

Chrysanthemums of this variety have terry inflorescences consisting of a large number of petals. Petals can be both bent and curved. All languages ​​depart from the edges of the middle, without overlapping it. Bright representatives of large-flowered species. Their head in diameter reaches 15 cm. They bloom in September, they are resistant to cold, they winter well in open ground.

Among the most popular varieties of this group stand out:

  • Gazella
  • Zlata Prague

Spherical varieties

Petals of this variety are bent upwards to the center and unite above the middle. The middle of the flower is completely covered with tongues of petals. Outwardly, the inflorescences may resemble a ball, sphere or cone. Bloom profusely. For the winter, be sure to cover the plants.

The most suitable for planting in the garden are such varieties:

  • Umka
  • Arctic
  • Burly
  • Broadway

Curly varieties

The inflorescences of such chrysanthemums are most often spherical, rarely hemispherical. Petals are densely and chaotically, often bent upwards. This form gives the flower a slightly disheveled look, hence the name. Large chrysanthemum heads, reach up to 12-15 cm in diameter. These varieties include:

  • Anastasia Green
  • Anastasia Leela
  • Vesuvio

Spider varieties

Chrysanthemums of this variety are very beautiful. The petals are long and very thin, slightly twisted at the ends. They can be located perpendicular to the center of the flower, be slightly raised or lowered. The chrysanthemum garden spider variety thanks to the thin chaotically located tongues resembles a spider.

Pompon varieties

The plant has round, dense inflorescences. The heads form a large number of small petals. At the same time, the flowers are small, with a diameter of about 6 cm. Petals are located close to each other, creating a fluffy effect. The most popular representatives are:

  • Grace
  • Denis
  • Bean
Description of varieties of chrysanthemums will help you understand the variety of these beautiful plants and choose the desired variety. In addition, it is important that the climate and soil of your garden fit the physiological characteristics of the plant, which must be reviewed when purchasing planting material. In this case, the plant will take root well and will delight you with its flowering.