According to experienced poultry farmers, it is easiest to incubate chicken eggs. In ducks, they are somewhat larger, and the shell itself is stronger. In addition, ducklings need to "hatch" longer (26-28 days). Using an incubator, attention should be paid to:
- temperature conditions
- Do not overheat.
The eggs themselves before incubation must undergo a qualitative selection.
Duck eggs from chickens differ thicker and porous shell greenish. The main thing to consider before incubation is their freshness. It is advisable to take eggs no older than 7 days.
When choosing, you need to look at:
- The size. Very large and small - will not work. The optimum weight is 75-95 grams.
- Form. A healthy chick can only appear from a round and even egg.
- No defects and cracks.
- The purity of the shell. Preferably completely without dirt and litter.
Unsuitable for these parameters eggs are laid to the side.
Storage rules before incubation
Selected eggs are best kept at a temperature of 10-12 ° C. Refrigerator for these purposes will not work. It is best to use special trays. The level of humidity during storage can vary from 70 to 80%.
From eggs that are stored for longer than a week, chicks hatch weak, or are not hatched at all. This is especially true of the mulard. From indoutok they can be stored for 15 days.
Table of dependence of egg storage and the percentage of hatching chicks:
These are average indicators for these types. At home, the numbers may be different.
An egg incubator is a machine that supports the necessary parameters for breeding. For effective “hatching”, the following settings are adjusted in the car:
Proper setting of parameters allows you to automate the process of incubation, and the output to have healthy young animals in full.
There is a huge selection of incubators for breeding poultry chicks on the market. All models, from simple ones to innovative ones, in their configuration have:
- Trays for eggs. It is in them that the machine “incubates” chicks.
- The device for heating the air, and maintain the required temperature.
- Ventilation system.
- Signaling It should report overheating.
- The mechanism for turning trays.
Parameters of humidity and temperature
The level of humidity and temperature during incubation is also the key to successful hatching. Unlike chicken eggs, ducks for a long time need a high level of humidity and high temperature. Especially in the first period of "hatching". In the middle of the term, the temperature and humidity decrease a little. Toward the end, the temperature is made even less, and the humidity is set to "maximum".
Table of humidity and temperature:
In the final stages of incubation, high temperatures become life-threatening embryos.
How to lay eggs?
In the incubator itself, duck eggs need to lay out with a blunt end down. No need to stack them on each other, it will reduce the number of chicks raised.
It is desirable during storage of eggs, they are periodically turned over. But wash before bookmarking is not recommended.
Steps laying eggs in an incubator is as follows:
- The machine is installed and heated to a temperature of 38 ° C.
- In the lower part of the incubator is placed a tray with water.
- First, lay out large eggs, after 4 hours, medium, after another 4 hours - small ones.
- It is best to lay out horizontally, so ducklings hatch better, although they take up more space.
If done according to the instructions, the chicks will appear on the 26-28 day.
Development of duck eggs
Duck embryo goes through several stages of development. They are divided into 4 stages:
- The first stage. From 1 to 7 days, internal organs form in the embryo, and the heart begins to beat. High temperature is important here.
- The second stage lasts from 8 to 18 days. At this stage, the skeleton is formed. Ventilation in the incubator should work intensively.
- The third stage - the 18-26th days. The growth of the chick in the egg. There should reduce the humidity to 60%.
- The fourth stage is the appearance of chicks.
Duck shells are strong enough to help ducklings peck at them, in the last period they increase humidity and increase ventilation intensity.
It is possible to learn how the embryo develops when ovoscopic (translucent) eggs. However, experienced farmers do not recommend this procedure without the need. Especially shine eggs every day. Ovoskopirovanie optimally carried out in three stages:
- On the 4-5 day. During this period, fertilized eggs can be distinguished from unfertilized ones, as well as to detect already dead embryos (“blood rings”).
- On the 7-14 day of incubation. You can distinguish between healthy and lagging embryos, as well as remove dead embryos from the incubator. Including "frozen" eggs, which are not visible blood vessels.
- The last screening is done before hatching ducklings. During it, it is clear that healthy chicks occupy the entire egg. At this stage, you can find "gasps", chicks, which developed normally, but for some reason died.
If a large number of diseased or dead embryos are detected during transmission, you need to look for the cause (look at the humidity, ventilation, temperature in the incubation machine).
Shelf life and hatchability
With prolonged storage of eggs, the percentage of hatchability is significantly reduced. Let's look at the effect of egg storage on incubation.
Period of storage of eggs for incubation (days)
Duck eggs do not collect more than seven days. Subsequent storage will reduce the hatchability percentage.
Incubation of duck eggs at home begins only after the required specimens have been selected. Usually, before laying, each egg shines through the ovoscope. During this procedure, specimens with microcracks, uneven shell thickness, with dark spots inside, with spilled yolk are detected. Such samples are removed.
Ideally, the egg for incubation should look like this:
- The location of the yolk should be strictly in the center. However, eggs are allowed to incubate with small deviations.
- Protein should be transparent, without dark spots.
- The airbag should be located at or near the blunt end. It should not be large.
After ovescoping, you can start laying in the incubation of duck eggs.
Incubation rules for ducklings in an incubator
To produce healthy offspring, farmers have to deal with the preparation of eggs, the features of their selection and storage, the nuances of incubation. Basic rules:
- Only quality working incubators are used,
- it is necessary to observe the incubation mode,
- Only high-quality eggs are laid in the incubator.
Ensure timely receipt of offspring mozhnopri:
- uniform heating of the electric incubator to the set temperature,
- maintaining the required level of humidity
- ensuring ventilation and access of fresh air.
The equipment itself should also be prepared:
- trays are washed and dried,
- water is poured into special holes
- the temperature rises to the required performance.
After that, the loading of the electric incubator begins. The features of the preparatory stage should be dealt with in detail, because the quality of the offspring will depend on it.
First of all, experts advise to pay attention to the litter in the duck's nest. It changes daily - it allows you to avoid the appearance of parasites, infection with mold and other infectious lesions. After all, pathogenic microflora will remain on the shell, in favorable incubation conditions it will penetrate inside and affect the embryo.
Before laying the raw material in the incubator, you must carefully sort the eggs. Experts advise to keep them in well-ventilated rooms with a temperature of 8-13 ° C, it is desirable that the humidity in them should be about 75%. It is not necessary to collect them in the refrigerator, special plywood trays are ideal for collecting. Lay the testicles in one layer, the blunt end is directed down.
It is recommended to turn the prepared eggs three times a day. This will maximize hatchability. But it is better to use fresh eggs. In those who have already lain for some time, the development of utiazatormagazyvaetsya.
Duck testes are covered with a porous thick shell with a faint greenish tint. For incubation are not suitable those in which:
- non-standard form: excessively elongated, round,
- there are cracks, chips, shells deformation or other defects,
- there are lime growths,
- When diagnosing with light (ovoscopy), 2 yolks are detected.
It is advisable to take the testicles for the bookmark with the parameters shown in the table.
It is advisable to store raw materials for bookmarks for no more than 7 days
Select the best specimens allows scanning (ovoscopy). This procedure allows you to identify barely noticeable cracks, see the shell that is uneven in thickness. When radiating, the farmer may notice mold spots inside the egg or spilled yolk.
Having chosen the most suitable specimens, many farmers think about the permissibility of cleaning them from litter.
Is it worth washing eggs?
Poultry farmers know that duck eggs are among the most polluted. Therefore, the question of the need for cleaning bothers many. Some argue that they can not be washed. But experienced poultry farmers say that when the shell is contaminated by more than 50%, cleaning is required. Moreover, in the wild, ducks unknowingly cleanse their litters from their droppings, moving along them after bathing: wet paws and feathers perform a cleaning function.
But when washing should be extremely careful: any careless movement can cause damage. Cracked, punctured copies are not suitable for bookmarks.
In addition to washing, disinfection is required in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After all, duck eggs are most often infected with pathogenic fungi, mold, salmonella. Some experts advise when cleaning with a soft sponge clean visible dirt.
The hatchability of ducklings is influenced not only by the quality of the material used, but also by observing the incubation regime.
Eggs of Indo-ducks, Mulards and Wild Ducks: Comparison
As a result, it is not necessary to collect them on the first day. On the contrary, if it is necessary for the duck to hatch eggs, they are left in the nest until it becomes the hen. Moreover, she chooses a place for egg-laying herself, but it is not recommended to change it. Indo-egg eggs have a smooth surface, they are white. The weight of eggs reaches 75-80 grams. The shell is dense, so the eggs are hard to break. Indeliut pretty neat, so that usually the eggs in the nest are kept clean.
Mularda is a hybrid of ducks bred by crossing Indoot and domestic duck. In contrast to the musk birds, they are not black, but black or white in color. Eggs mulardov a few grams weigh less. Their weight is 50-60 grams. They have the same oblong shape as other birds.
However, they have a yellowish tint and dark speckles on the shell, resembling a turkey. Although it is found that representatives of the Favorite duck breed carry an egg of the same color. Incubation of ducks in agriculture yields positive results, despite the fact that mulardy are hybrids.
Wild duck eggs can have a different color: from white to brown-green with dark spots. The peculiarity of such eggs is that after the hatching begins, the shade disappears and they turn white. In the very first days of warming, females begin to make their nests.
When they are ready, the ducks start laying eggs. Rush regularly, every day, mostly in the evening. Egg weight - about 45 grams. Dimensions - 34X46 mm. Externally, wild birds resemble Bashkir ducks, although they are slightly smaller in size.
Differences between incubation and breeding in the hatchery: how many chicks hatch
If there is an opportunity to incubate ducklings with the help of a hen, then it is better to use it, since this process has many positive aspects:
- ducks are very good hens,
- the process of irrigation with water is much better and more correct for a bird than a person
- hatchability can go up to 100%, while the incubator gives about 70% positive results.
The incubation period in ducks lasts up to thirty days. It is worth remembering that when the hatching is done with the help of a hen, chicks can appear with a difference up to a day. Therefore, hatched and completely dried ducklings are taken away from the mother for some time, until all the kids hatch. This will give a guarantee that the duck feeds to the last.
Interesting breeds for breeding are:
- Bashkir ducks
- Peking ducks
- musk ducks
The number of eggs that are placed under the bird is much less than what can be placed in an incubator. On average, a duck can sit up to twenty eggs at a time, it all depends on the size of the bird. In the incubator, it all depends on the tray.as it comes in, so much and correctly.
Which eggs are suitable for incubation
The process of incubation begins with the selection of egg products. This is a very crucial moment, since the viability of future offspring depends on the quality of the eggs. And you need to pay attention not only to the appearance, but also to the purity of the eggs, because polluted shells will cause reproduction of dangerous pathogenic bacteria, which then can mow half of the young herd.
Important!A duck egg intended for a bookmark should look perfect - about the same size and oval or roundish, perfectly smooth and clean.
The main points that you need to pay attention to when selecting:
- weight - duck eggs are large enough, their weight should be from 75 to 100 g,
- form - it should be ordinary, one can say classical, without undue deformation, not elongated, not round and not distorted,
- the shell is clean, without pollution, smooth and thick, the color is usually slightly with a greenish tint. The main thing is that there should be absolutely no defects on the surface - neither chips, nor scratches, nor cracks or deformations, without growths and nodules.
Rules for storing eggs
- Only fresh egg products can be put into the incubator. Storage is allowed only for 5 days (maximum week), but no more. The storage form is a tray made of plywood, the storage temperature is about +12 ° C (minimum temperature is +8 ° C), and the humidity is within 70%. Also think about good ventilation.
- During storage, the eggs must be turned from one side to the other 90 ° several times a day. This will avoid displacing the yolk in any direction that will prevent the embryo from sticking to one of the sides of the shell.
- It is important in what position to store the product. So, it is better to place small duck eggs in such a way that they look with a blunt end at the ceiling, and sharp - down. But large ones are recommended to be placed so that they are in a semi-inclined position.
- In any case, it is best to lay the eggs as fresh as possible in the incubator. It is recommended that the poultry house be thoroughly cleaned in the evening, paying special attention to the nests so that the eggs are not contaminated and bacteria cannot settle there. But in the morning you can start collecting. Ideally, if you spend the collection every hour - in this case, you get completely clean, healthy and absolutely fresh specimens in the incubator.
Additional egg scanning
Ovoskopirovanie - so-called process of x-raying eggs under a light source - an ovoscope. Ovoskopirovaniya allows you to verify the viability of the embryo.
Learn what an ovoscope is and how to make it yourself, and also, learn how to properly equip eggs.
This procedure also helps to detect previously inconspicuous defects - for example, microscopic cracks, defects under the shell, moldy spots or spilled yolk.
Translucence is the method by which it is possible to determine the state of the yolk and protein inside and to identify incompatible with the vital functions of the deviation.
For example, under the translucent egg must meet the following requirements:
- the yolk should be located only in the center, without the slightest shift to the side,
- the yolk should not be absolutely still and stick to the inner surface of the shell,
- also the yolk should not hang from side to side without any binding to the center,
- the protein looks completely transparent and there are no additional blemishes or inclusions,
- the air chamber should be small and located only on the side of the blunt end or very close to it,
- there should be no dark spots inside
- The presence of two yolks is unacceptable.
If an egg meets all these criteria and there are no external damages or defects on it, then it is considered viable and suitable for incubation.
Do I need to wash before laying
On this issue, many poultry farmers argue. Причина спора заключается в том, что утиные яйца сами по себе довольно грязные, в отличие от кладок других птиц.
Узнайте, как мыть и дезинфицировать яйца перед закладкой в инкубатор и как правильно проводить дезинфекцию инкубатора.
In addition, the ducks themselves during hatching often touch the clutch with wet paws, and this does not affect the quality of the offspring.
Therefore, some farmers are of the opinion that washing the shells is useful and even necessary to get rid of pollution and possible bacteria.
Important!To avoid the loss of young stock, it is not recommended to wash the duck eggs before laying in the incubator.
However, in fact, this procedure is not entirely desirable. Washing eggs is a process that violates the microflora on the surface of the shell. During washing, the cuticle on the surface is damaged, which ultimately affects the hatchability of offspring. It is best to initially select pure egg products. Fulfillment of such a condition in itself provides some guarantee that the shell contains the minimum number of pathogenic bacteria.
However, despite the external purity of the eggs, they still need easy, but mandatory disinfection. To do this, just drop each egg in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for a couple of minutes.
All manipulations must be carried out very carefully and carefully, as even the slightest scratch or chip on the shell will adversely affect the final brood.
The process of laying egg products in an incubator begins with placing the device in a specially designated room. It is recommended that other poultry or animals should not be kept in the incubation room, this room should be used only for breeding ducklings. An important parameter of this room is humidity. It should be exactly the same as in the hen's nest and nest.
After that, the prepared duck laying starts to be immersed directly in the incubator. Check the products again for quality, enlighten with an ovoscope, examine every millimeter of the shell.
It will also be useful for you to learn how to choose high-quality eggs for incubation, as well as see the table for incubating duck eggs at home and the characteristics of growing ducklings from the incubator.
Further actions should be as follows:
- The incubation apparatus before laying the egg products is preheated to the required temperature.
- All trays before being placed in the incubator are well washed out and cleaned.
- It is necessary to put a container with water in the incubator pan, which is necessary for humidifying the air and maintaining the required level of humidity.
- Egg products are carefully laid in the incubator, placing it horizontally - this is the most optimal position for duck eggs. And although they occupy more space this way, it means that fewer ducks will come out of one incubator, but the hatchability in ducks in this position is much higher.
- The first to lay the apparatus of the largest copies, and after 4 hours - medium and small.
Incubation mode of duck eggs: table
After laying the egg products in the incubator, the process of incubation begins. In ducks, this period is quite long.
Important!If you have a modern incubator with the function of controlling humidity, temperature, air circulation and turning eggs, then you are freed from almost all the difficulties associated with incubating breeding ducklings.
All this time, you must carefully and daily monitor the incubation process and perform the necessary actions:
- At the time of laying in the incubator in the apparatus, the temperature should correspond to +38 ° C heat. This temperature regime must be maintained during the first 7 days, after which it is reduced to +37 ° C. Humidity at this time holds up to 70%. The position of the eggs during the day must be changed at least 4 times.
- All the rest of the time (from the 8th to the 25th day of incubation) the temperature is kept at +37.8 ° C. Turn the eggs up to 6 times a day, and the humidity is reduced to 60%.
- From the 15th to the 25th day, the products in the incubator begin to cool. This is due to the fact that duck eggs have a large heat transfer, and, so that they do not overheat, during this period, twice a day, you just need to open the appliance door, ventilate it for about a quarter of an hour (about 15-20 minutes).
- In the last days of incubation (from the 26th to the 28th), the temperature is slightly lowered to +37.5 ° C, but the humidity is increased to 90%. At this time, the eggs are no longer turned and do not air.
- From the 27th to the 29th day, the process of breeding chicks lasts. Ducklings should not be taken out of the apparatus until they are completely dry.
Important!To control the process of incubation, periodically carry out the procedure of ovoscoping. Translucence is done on the 8th, 13th and 25th days of the incubation period. Those instances in which no development is observed or any irregularities and defects are noticeable must be removed from the apparatus.
Stages of embryo development during incubation
During the incubation period, the duck embryo goes through 4 stages in its development. Taking into account these stages, the conditions of the regime inside the incubator are adjusted.
- The first stage. It starts from the first day of laying the egg products into the machine and lasts for a week. During this time, the embryo has time to grow to 2 cm in length. He has a heartbeat, laid all the internal organs. The embryo at this time begins to need more oxygen, and the oxygen contained in the yolk becomes insufficient for it. Air consumption begins through the pores in the shell. During this period, it is extremely important to warm the eggs to +38 ° C and keep them at high humidity up to 70%.
- Second stage Lasts for the next week - from the 8th to the 14th day of incubation. Now the temperature needs to be slightly reduced (to +37.8 ° C), but the ventilation should be increased. To do this, you can open additional ventilation holes in the incubator. Just at this time there is a laying of the skeleton of the future duck. By the end of the 2nd stage, namely from the 15th day, you can begin to cool the eggs. This is a prerequisite for waterfowl, because their eggs contain a lot of fat and little water, but because they have a large heat transfer. The heat inside the eggs themselves can reach +42 ° C, and this temperature is fraught with the fact that the embryos will overheat. To avoid this, egg products must be further cooled. To do this, simply open the door of the incubator for 20 minutes. At this time, it will not be superfluous to slightly spray the egg products from the spray gun with warm, clean and distilled water, the temperature of which is about +27 ° C.
- Third stage starts from the 18th day of embryo development. At this time, he was almost finished his formation. Humidity now needs to be reduced to 60%. The heat in the eggs reaches + 40 ... + 42 ° C, so you need to continue to cool and spray them twice a day.
- Fourth stage The incubation period starts from the 26th day. There is a direct withdrawal of ducklings. Since the shells of duck eggs are hard enough and ducklings find it hard to dam, it can be slightly softened. To do this, it is enough to increase the humidity inside the incubator, so during this period the humidity is increased to 90%.
Did you know?An egg with a frozen embryo can be determined very simply:if you take such an egg in your hand, it will immediately cool down, because eggs without a developing embryo are not able to keep the temperature.
What day do ducklings appear
From the first day in the incubator until the birth of chicks to the light passes from 26 to 28 days. Usually, the spitting process starts on the 26th day and can last a little more than a day. Some late individuals can hatch only by the beginning of the 29th day, but not later.
These dates relate to the most common types of ducks, although other breeds may have longer. For example, the incubation period of a musk duck lasts from 33 to 36 days.
Check out the features of incubating musk duck eggs.
From the moment of the first inclination to full hatching, it takes about 24 hours. Moreover, at the first signs of inclination, all incubation products are transferred to the output trays. The pioneers are left in the incubator for some time until they are completely dry.
And then transferred to a special room where the temperature would be about + 27-28 ° C.
Frequent newbie mistakes
Despite the fact that breeding ducklings is a rather unpretentious affair, nevertheless some novice poultry farmers make mistakes, which is why there is a high mortality rate not only of hatched chicks, but also of embryos during the incubation period.
The most common mistakes include:
- Too long storage time of egg products before laying in the incubator. After all, the longer the eggs lie, the less their hatchability in the end. They age, lose their properties, so the output of the chicks survival can be only 70-75%.
- Lack of disinfection. Duck laying is highly susceptible to infection by various fungi, mold and bacteria, for example, salmonella. After hatching, the chicks will be sick and unviable.
- Non-simultaneous laying of eggs in the incubator. This leads to a violation of developmental stages, their asynchrony, ducklings hatch at different times.
- Overheating germ. This leads to their death. Under natural incubation, overheating does not occur, since the hen-hens quite often detach themselves from the nest, and the future offspring during this time have time to cool down. In the incubator, the risk of overheating is very high. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly cool egg products and additionally spray with water from a spray bottle.
- Insufficient moisture. Compliance with this parameter affects the health of chicks and the ease of nesting their shells.
- Excessive moisture. This causes too much amniotic fluid to appear. It is dangerous to drown chicks in it even before they hatch.
- Overcooling during airing. May lead to the fading of embryos and cessation of development.
- A small number of coups. Because of this error, the chicks can stick to one side of the shell, which will cause developmental deformity, and the ducklings will hatch unviable.
- Too long illumination with an ovoscope. This is fraught with the fact that the eggs can overheat, because the ovoscope has a fairly strong heat transfer, so the scanning should take no more than 2 minutes.
Did you know?If a duck egg is applied to the ear at the last stage of incubation, then inside it you can hear the sounds made by the duckling - rustling, movement, and even squeaking.
It is also very important that all actions performed with incubated egg production clearly correspond to the stages of embryo development. In this case, you can count on a healthy and strong duck brood.
Egg laying in the incubator
To get strong, healthy ducklings, you need to lay eggs. This is done with a sharp end down, at a slight inclination. Musk duck eggs are arranged horizontally. The period of incubation of duck eggs depends on the breed of bird - from 23 to 28 days.
It will tell you how to perform the incubation mode, the table. Incubation of duck eggs is carried out with a gradual decrease in temperature and changes in humidity levels throughout the entire period.
Turning eggs (once a day)
In the morning and in the evening for 15 minutes
In different equipment incubation of duck eggs proceeds differently. Incubation mode (table above) shows the optimum temperatures for various device models.
Incubation of duck eggs at home: the rules and features
The simplest devices in which young ducks can be bred include the Model Mouth and IPH-5. These devices have some features.
This is the simplest model that allows you to simultaneously display 32-36 ducklings. The incubator is a foam housing with a removable tray inside. In the lower part there are light bulbs for heating. A stable level of humidity is provided by special baths with water. Air flow is provided naturally through the holes at the top and bottom of the case. The photo and structure of the “Hatching” incubator is shown in Figure 1.
Note: The only drawback of this device is the need to carry out a manual turn every hour for uniform warming up. This model can be successfully used for breeding of young stock (under the correct operating conditions, the number of breeding ducks is kept at the level of 80-85 percent). Figure 1. Photo and layout of the “Mouthless” incubator: 1 - ventilation holes, 2 - removable heater cover, 3 - ventilation flaps, 4 - quick-release leash for connecting the rotation mechanism, 5 - control unit, 6 - plug, 7 - removable cover, 8 - parallel rods for separator, 9 - transverse rods for the separator, 10 - bath with water, 11 - tray, 12 - heater (light bulbs), 13 - incubation eggs
It is important to maintain the correct temperature inside the chamber, since elevated temperatures cause deformities in the embryo. In addition, the incubation of duck eggs has its own characteristics in comparison with chicken. Since they are fatter, they need four times more oxygen at the end of their hatching. Therefore, after 15 days in the chamber, they must be sprayed with water once a day.
Note: For incubation of musk duck eggs, they should be placed horizontally and also sprayed with water.
The modernized model is the “Hen-1” incubator, which allows you to simultaneously place up to 50 duck eggs. Heating is carried out using a special spiral, the air flow is provided by the fan, and the rotation is carried out automatically. In addition, there is a more roomy incubator "Hatch-2".
This is a simple device for home farms, which is very easy to use and allows you to independently replenish the number of ducks. It is a camera with a front door for easy maintenance (Figure 2).Figure 2. The appearance and internal structure of the IPH-5 incubator (Figure 1-3) and the IPH-10 model (Figure 4)
Inside the chamber there is a tray, a rotator, heaters, a fan, water baths to maintain humidity and a temperature sensor.
Modifications of this model are IPH-10 (capacity is twice as much) and IPH-15 (it allows to place up to 120 duck eggs at the same time). Practical recommendations for incubating duck eggs are given in the video.
Incubation of duck eggs at home is carried out according to certain rules that guarantee the successful breeding of young. In addition to the correct selection of the device and strict adherence to the inference mode, some other rules must be followed (Figure 3):
- Coup carried out at least 6 times a day. With natural incubation, the duck independently turns eggs several times a day to warm the embryos evenly. When using an incubator for breeding, it must be done manually or with the help of automation systems.
- Before laying Eggs need to be moved to the premises and hold the day at a temperature of +25 degrees. After that, hold a bookmark, laying them sideways. If necessary, they can be temporarily fixed with a metal grid.
- Strict adherence to temperature and humidity conditions will ensure successful and timely breeding ducklings. In addition, it is necessary to provide high-quality ventilation of the inside of the incubator.
In order to successfully breed young animals, it is better to buy modern models of incubators equipped with automatic systems for maintaining temperature and humidity.
Incubation of duck eggs: modes and table
Incubation mode is displayed in a special table. In general, the process of breeding young animals is divided into several stages:
- At the initial stage It is important to maintain a stable temperature and moisture inside the eggs, therefore the temperature inside the chamber at this time is significantly higher,
- Mid cycle temperature and humidity levels are reduced, and ventilation is increased, so that the embryos do not overheat and die,
- At the final stage, just before hatching, ducklings, temperatures are further reduced, while increasing humidity and ventilation.
It is important to constantly monitor the temperature, since this indicator directly affects the efficient breeding of healthy young animals. At the initial stage, a high temperature provokes active development of the embryo, while at the final stage it can cause the death of chicks.
A full table with the necessary data is shown in Figure 4. Guided by this information, you will be able to maintain an optimal mode for successfully breeding chicks.
Selection of eggs intended for incubation
The right choice of duck eggs is the key to successful breeding. First of all, they are evaluated by external signs. They should not be chipped, cracked, stained or rough. In addition, they must have a standard oval shape and weight. Too large or small specimens of irregular shape are not suitable for incubation (Figure 5).
Note: Хранить яйца в холодильнике нельзя, так как слишком низкая температура вызовет гибель эмбриона. Для этой цели лучше использовать лотки или ящики из фанеры, которые оставляют в помещении с хорошей вентиляцией и хранят при температуре +12 градусов. Рисунок 5. Осмотр и отбор сырья
В процессе хранения яйца желательно несколько раз в день переворачивать. It is also not recommended to stack them on top of each other in order not to damage the embryos.
How long can you store duck eggs for incubation
In addition to the correct selection of eggs for incubation, an important role is played by their shelf life. They must be fresh. Otherwise, it will be almost impossible to get healthy young animals.
The optimal shelf life is considered 7 weeks. During this time, the embryos do not have time to die, and after the laying, they develop evenly.
How long does the incubation of duck eggs
The incubation period is 26-28 days. A longer period means that the laying and breeding of young animals was carried out with violations.Figure 6. Embryo Stages
Especially strongly affected by the duration of the process failure in the temperature and ventilation. That is why it is recommended for households to buy incubators with automatic rotation, ventilation and a temperature and humidity control sensor.
Incubation period for duck eggs in an incubator
Incubation of ducklings is divided into periods depending on the temperature and humidity conditions and ventilation.
In the first period, during the formation of internal organs, it is important to maintain high humidity and temperature. In the future, these figures gradually reduce and provide fresh air inside the chamber.
An increase in humidity and temperature is possible only during the final period, when daily ducklings need to break through the shell and find themselves in a warm environment.
The most common mistakes during incubation
Even a small error associated with the incubation regime can adversely affect the quantity and health of the young.
The main errors are overheating, insufficient turns, and too low humidity levels. Rotate duck need at least 6 times a day. It is also not recommended to independently raise the temperature. It is much more effective to follow a special table in which the required temperature is accurately displayed at a certain stage of elimination.
Low humidity, as well as too high a temperature, can provoke overheating of the embryo. As a result, the duckling will die, regardless of the stage of its development.
How to collect duck eggs for incubation
Duck eggs are not recommended to be collected in advance. The optimal shelf life to bookmarks is only 7 days, so they should be collected exclusively during this period.
In addition, it is necessary to select only the best specimens. If they are of irregular shape or size, with cracks, spots or roughness on the shell, then they can not be used for breeding. To be sure of the quality, all eggs must be seen through the ovoscope to the bookmark.
What are the features of incubation?
Incubation at home is a complex process. Moreover, to achieve a good result, you must comply with a number of requirements. Duck egg is larger than that of chickens. It has a strong and smooth shell. To hatch was good, you need to properly store the eggs.
Since ducks love water, their feathers are constantly wet. Therefore, the eggs are very dirty. They need to be well cleaned immediately after removal from the nest. Otherwise, they may be susceptible to mold and various infections.
In order for the Indo-egg to be fertilized, one female should be kept for 4 females. It is desirable that the drake was the same age as the ducks or a couple of months older than them.
Muscovy ducks have a special egg-laying schedule: they begin to rush early in the morning and lay eggs until noon. Muscovy ducks are excellent chicks, so there is a productive hatching of ducks. But hatching ducklings can occur with the help of an incubator. Incubator ducks can not be released to the reservoir in the first month of life, because they may die.
The mode of incubation of eggs affects the vital signs of chicks. Although usually, using the incubator, ducks have various defects, high mortality among chicks. This occurs less frequently when brood chicks are raised. Therefore, before displaying an indowish in an incubator, you should read the instructions for its use, consider what temperature should be in the container.
What to do before laying in the incubator?
Fetching Indo-ducks in a home farm is an easy process, but to achieve an optimal result, you need to adhere to a number of requirements. In particular, you need to properly care for the eggs before laying. Indeed, the incubation process will depend on a number of factors:
- Temperature and humidity. The hatchery should not be too warm - up to 15 degrees. The moisture level in the storage room should also be quite high - 50-70%. Therefore, it is recommended to even purchase a special wet thermometer to monitor the humidity indicators.
- Coups. You should regularly turn the eggs before laying - 2-3 times a day. They do not have to sit constantly in the same position. Following this technology, you can protect ducklings from sticking to the shell. Therefore, the embryo will be formed in the center of the egg.
- Selection. You need to select only suitable instances. All eggs that have irregular shape, cracks, damage are laid aside.
- Storage. All eggs should be as fresh as possible. In general, it is not recommended to keep them longer than 5 days. The exception applies only to eggs of indoutok. Allowed to store them for 10-15 days.
After selection, they should be disinfected. It is not recommended to put dirty products, as infection can develop inside. To do this, add some crystals of potassium permanganate to warm water so that the solution gets a pink tint. One egg is put into it for a minute to dissolve the dirt. The remains of pollution wash with a brush. They should dry naturally. Therefore, they are placed on the fabric and left until the moisture evaporates. Then they are placed in a box horizontally.
In the process of breeding ducklings, evaporation of moisture from the egg through the pores in the shell occurs. The closer the withdrawal period, the more moisture leaves. To prevent the embryo from dying, it is necessary to reduce the moisture loss inside the egg. This is usually done by spraying. During this procedure, cooling and humidification occurs. Spraying is done with warm water from a spray bottle. This procedure is necessary to preserve moisture while incubating duck eggs. The incubation mode table does not reflect the need for spraying. This is due to the fact that in some devices it is possible to raise the level of humidity to 95% and carry out proper cooling (industrial incubators designed for laying thousands of eggs). In them cooling is performed in automatic mode.
For spraying eggs at home apply warm clean water. You can use a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Spraying is performed twice a day - in the morning and in the evening during airing.
Basic incubation rules
To achieve maximum output, you must follow the rules of incubation of duck eggs:
- Properly collect and store eggs.
- Observe the incubation mode.
- Properly conduct cooling eggs.
- Keep the equipment clean.
To get a good brood, you must follow the incubation schedule for duck eggs and follow the process throughout the entire hatching period.
Incubation of different breeds of ducks
Incubation of duck eggs, spines and other species of ducks proceeds differently. This is due to the size of the eggs, the difference in the thickness of the shell, the characteristics of the breed. For example, duck-runners can be displayed without spraying. They have a rather large percentage of hatchability. Mulardians have a lower hatchability percentage. A more accurate determination of what percentage will be displayed will be provided by a table that shows the dependence of the brood on the shelf life of the eggs.
Period of storage of eggs (days)
Indelique hatch on day 28. Peking duck appears on day 26 or so. The fastest runners are displayed - on the 24th day. Muscovy ducks hatch only for 35 days.
Incubation of duck eggs in the Cinderella incubator and in other models of such equipment proceeds almost equally. The difference is only in the regulation of temperature. It must be selected for each model individually. It is best to determine the temperature by heating the eggs themselves. To do this, place a thermometer on the surface of the egg and follow its indications. This method will help to know exactly how many degrees the temperature should be on the sensors. All data is recommended to record.
Beginning of the withdrawal process: incubator tab rules
By selecting the appropriate testicles and washing the equipment, the farmer can begin the process of laying the raw material. They are pre-marked: certain characters are put on the sides, for example, a dash on one side, and a circle on the other. This is necessary in case of a manual flip - marks allow you not to get confused and in time to turn all the eggs.
Temperature in the incubator
Do not forget to preheat the incubator to a temperature of +38 0 С and pour water into special trays (gutters).
But it is not recommended to place cold eggs immediately in a warm moist environment. It is advisable to warm them at room temperature. Experienced poultry farmers advise initially laying the largest eggs into the incubator, and after 4 hours all the rest. Start bookmark better in the morning.
If the testicles fit snugly together, it will be difficult to turn them over. In incubators equipped with an automatic flip function, secure them on top of the net.
Notches on eggs
Getting healthy offspring is possible only if the established temperature parameters are observed. Farmers should take care to maintain the required level of humidity and provide air access.
Incubation of egg eggs
Experts recommend novice poultry farmers to get acquainted in advance with how the incubation process is organized. Duck eggs require high humidity and regular access to fresh air. You will have to monitor the temperature during different periods of incubation: only constant monitoring will allow you to get the maximum percentage of hatching and high-grade healthy offspring.
Modes of incubation period
Step 1. Lay the incubator so that small gaps remain between the testicles. The temperature should be about 38.0 0 С, but not more than 38.3 0 С. The humidity is maintained at 75%. These conditions are observed during the first week from 1 to 7 days.
Step 2. From the second one, the temperature decreases to 37.8 0 С, it is supported up to 14 days. Humidity is also reduced to 60%. Water during this period can not add. But once a day, experienced poultry farmers advise to spray the testicles. Air vents open to allow air access.
Step 3. The third incubation stage lasts 10 days from 15 to 25 days of incubation. During this period, farmers ensure that the temperature was kept at 37.8 ° C, the humidity was about 60%. It is recommended to frequent egg turns up to 6 times. By 18 days, the temperature under the shell can rise to 42 ° C.
At the same time, during this period, the future ducks are ventilated and cooled - the incubator is opened twice a day for 20 minutes. This is necessary due to the fact that the duck testicles have a lot of fat and little water, they are more prone to overheating compared to chicken.
Step 4. The last stage lasts from 26 to 28 days: the temperature drops to the level of 37.5 0 С (some advise to keep it in the area of such indicators, if the winchator has a few eggs and lower it to 37.2 0 С in cases when a large number of ducks ). During this period, humidity should be maintained at around 90%.
When the chicks peck through the pores of the shell, a lot of moisture goes away. Without additional moisture, babies may die, so regular spraying of the testicles during the lupka process is recommended.
The nuances of incubation
The standard term of the offspring lasts about 27-29 days. During this period, it is important not only to regularly turn, air and spray eggs, but to look at them for rejection. Translucence is carried out three times - on the eighth, 13th and 25th day of incubation.
In 4 weeks, eggs lose up to 14% of their mass.
If the temperature in the hatchery is about 37.8 0 С, then inside the testicles it rises to 40 0 С. Therefore, regular cooling is necessary. After each airing it is advisable to spray the eggs or wash them. Instead of water, experienced poultry farmers advise taking a weak solution of potassium permanganate - this will minimize the likelihood of infection of the embryo. The entire cooling process with sprinkling should take up to 25 minutes.
In the last days before duckling, ducklings should maximize the humidity and ensure a constant flow of fresh air into the hatchery. Poultry farmers need to do everything possible to soften the shell and facilitate the process of the appearance of offspring.
But these rules apply only to ordinary white ducks. Owners of other breeds should consider the nuances of their breeding.
When ducklings hatch, on what day of incubation?
How many days does the musk duck hatch in an incubator? On which day do the hatches run out? The period of incubation of duck eggs depends on the conditions created. So, under the hen this time takes 28-33 days. But the output of musk ducks in the incubator begins only on the 35th day.
To speed up the period of incubation of duck eggs at home, you can use a 20 percent formalin solution. However, such a tool can only be used if the period of release of young animals is violated. This happens if the ducklings were hatching in the home incubator under the influence of the wrong temperature, high or low humidity. We must not forget to turn the spike eggs, otherwise the ducklings will develop unevenly.
One of the most important is 1 week. At this time, the internal organs of the future bird are laid. During this period, the heartbeat appears, and the embryo itself reaches a length of 2 cm.
The intensity of breathing gradually increases. At first, oxygen is consumed from the yolk, but over time it is replaced by oxygen, which passes through the foam from the air. Ensure the full development of the embryo is obtained only when the temperature is maintained: overheating or overcooling leads to the cessation of development.
- At the first screening, experienced poultry farmers with the help of an ovoscope (an apparatus for scanning eggs) can distinguish between fertilized and unfertilized specimens, in the first of them embryos are visualized. In the second week the formation of the skeleton of the future bird takes place.
Transmission of eggs for quality assessment
Stages of development of ducklings are displayed in the table.
Translating allows you to timely remove some instances.
- With the death of the embryo at 1-6 day bookmarks visualized blood ring that encircles the yolk.
- The embryos who died at week 2 are called frozen. Blood vessels are not visualized, the fetus is visible as a dark shapeless inclusion.
- Experts call the dead at the last stages of development "zadohlika". These are fully formed chicks that have not hatched. The ovoscope shows that in some of them the body of the embryo occupies almost the entire volume. But often in the acute part there is no allantois.
A full egg when radiating
With a large number of dead babies, it is advisable for the poultry farmer to familiarize himself with the main causes of the development stop. These include:
- hereditary pathologies,
- infectious lesions
- embryo dystrophy,
- excessively low / high humidity
- insufficient heating / overheating,
- violation of the gas exchange process.
When using high-quality raw materials and the absence of adverse conditions, good output indicators can be achieved.
Common Incubation Mistakes
Having decided to start breeding ducklings for the first time, you should find out what points you need to pay close attention to. The most common problems include:
- uneven heating: the testicles should be mixed before airing and cooling (specimens located at the edges are shifted to the center, and vice versa);
- high temperature: overheating is fraught with the death of offspring: from heatstroke, chicks inside the shell can stop their development at any stage,
- insufficient moisture: the weight of the testicles decreases, large air chambers are seen in the lumen, the chicks hatch prematurely, they are mostly small,
- increased moisture: hatch starts later, stretches for several days, some chicks die at the time of spitting, choking in the amniotic fluid,
- lack of ventilation: chicks appear with deformities, defects, many embryos are located incorrectly - head towards the sharp edge.
You can identify problems after the completion of the output. Pay attention to the following.
- Late hatching is characteristic of eggs that have been stored for a long time before being laid in the incubator or not warmed up sufficiently.
- Weak chicks that die on the first day appear when they incubate incomplete testicles.
- The onset of early hatching is characteristic of those cases when a high temperature is maintained in the incubator in the second half of the incubation period.
- Затрудненное вылупливание бывает, если использовались неполноценные яйца или птицевод не следил за влажностью.
- При отбраковке большого количества неоплодотворенных яиц следует обратить внимание на витаминное питание родительской пары.
Чаще всего разобраться с основнымипроблемами удается лишь после нескольких закладок. Experimentally it is possible to establish which factors lead to death in the incubation period or to the appearance of weak babies.
Common mistakes beginners
It is not as easy to bring a hind-rook in a home farm as it seems at first glance. Therefore, many newcomers make a number of mistakes:
- In the parent flock, there should be a male and several ducks of mulard, whose health is not affected by negative factors. If a sick individual appears, it is rejected.
- Breeding of indoutok in the incubator occurs only from specimens collected in February-April. April is the deadline, so eggs harvested later are not used.
- If the parent flock is fed improperly, the incubation in the incubator is removed with dystrophy, a malfunction of the internal organs.
- If the eggs lie longer than a week, they are better not placed in the incubator. This can lead to high mortality of embryos in the first days of incubation.
- Incubation of the indoutok should be subject to hygienic rules. When an embryo is infected, the chick is born with an unhealed navel.
- Incubation of musk ducks must necessarily take place in compliance with the thermal regime. When overheating or hypothermia, ducklings quickly die.
- To incubate musk ducks for the first time was productive, you need to monitor the level of humidity. With a high percentage of her ducklings drown in the amniotic fluid, not having time to peck shell.
So, incubation of ducks at home can end positively, with a large percentage of hatchability.
Adhering to the instructions, to bring new stock of ducks is not difficult. Novice farmers often begin to master the incubator on duck eggs, then switching to breeding other birds. Given the characteristics of incubating duck eggs in compliance with all the conditions and recommendations, even a novice will be able to easily replenish or update the population of this popular breeding bird.
When breeding ducks at home, take into account the stage of incubation. The first starts from the moment the egg fertilizes. To do this, keep the farm drake. Usually poultry farmers form families consisting of one drake and four ducks.
At the first stage, the process of selecting eggs for incubation and their laying in the cabinet takes place. From the first day of incubation, the second stage begins. At this time, the embryo forms the internal organs, the heart begins to beat. By the way, when ovescopic, the cardiovascular system is clearly visible. If you look closely, it is noticeable how the heart beats. During this period it is necessary to ensure good warming of the eggs.
The third stage begins on the eighth day of incubation. During this period a skeleton begins to form in the chicks. At this time, a lot of oxygen must enter the cabinet. Usually, starting from the eighth day, additional air vents are opened in the incubator.
From the eighteenth day begins the fourth stage. It is enhanced heat exchange inside the egg. At this time, it is necessary to monitor the temperature of the eggs, as it can reach 41 degrees. To avoid overheating, the temperature in the cabinet is reduced, continuing to maintain control over the temperature on the surface of the eggs.
The last stage is the conclusion. In some duck breeds, the shell is very thick. To soften it, it is necessary to reduce the temperature in the cabinet and increase the humidity level. In such conditions, it will be easier for ducklings to sneak in and pick from the shell.
Errors incubation duck eggs
Incubating duck eggs is not easy, as it may seem at first glance. Beginners may encounter a variety of problems during incubation. To get healthy, strong offspring, you must thoroughly approach not only the process of breeding ducklings, but also to feeding, as well as the maintenance of the herd:
- A breeding herd must have a drake. For breeding select individuals that are not affected by negative factors. If a duck appeared in the tribe with any deficiency, with poor health, it is rejected.
- Incubation eggs are collected from February to April. All that is collected later for breeding ducklings are not used.
- With improper feeding of captured individuals, the offspring hatch with various deformities, pathologies of internal organs.
- Overheating, hypothermia, and underheating of musk eggs lead to the rapid death of embryos.
- During incubation, it is necessary to monitor the level of humidity. At high humidity ducklings die in the amniotic fluid, not having time to slip.
Other problems may also arise during the incubation process. Some of them are described in the table below.