Before you go into the forest for a “quiet hunt,” you need to find out the varieties, the name, the description, and look at the photos of edible mushrooms (eukaryotic organisms). If you study them, you can see that the lower part of their cap is covered with a spongy structure, where the spores are located. They are also called lamellar, very much appreciated in cooking, due to the unique taste and a variety of useful properties.
Types of edible mushrooms
In nature, there are a large number of different mushrooms, some can be eaten, while others are dangerous to eat. Edibles do not threaten human health, differing from the poisonous structure of hymenophore, color and shape. There are several types of the representatives of this realm of wildlife that can be eaten:
Signs of edible mushrooms
Among eukaryotic organisms, there are poisonous, which outwardly almost do not differ from useful, so study the signs of their differences, to avoid poisoning. For example, white fungus is very easy to confuse with a bitter, which has an inedible bilious taste. So, to distinguish an edible mushroom from its poisonous twins by the following parameters:
- Place of growth, which can be found in the description of edible and dangerous poisonous.
- Pungent unpleasant smell, which contain poisonous specimens.
- Calm low-key color, which is characteristic of the representatives of the food category of eukaryotic organisms.
- Food categories do not have a characteristic pattern on the leg.
All edible for humans mushrooms are rich in glycogen, salts, carbohydrates, vitamins and a large number of minerals. This class of wildlife as a food has a positive effect on appetite, contributes to the development of gastric juice, improves digestion. The most famous names of edible mushrooms:
- White mushroom,
This type of edible plate eukaryotic organisms grows on a tree and is one of the most popular objects of “quiet hunting” in mushroom pickers. The size of the cap reaches in diameter from 5 to 15 cm, its shape is round with the edges curved inwards. In mature mushrooms, the tip is slightly convex with a tubercle in the middle. Color - from gray-yellow to brown shades, there are small scales. The flesh is dense, white in color, has a sour taste and a pleasant smell.
Autumn mushrooms have cylindrical legs, up to 2 cm in diameter and from 6 to 12 cm long. The top is light, there is a white ring, the bottom of the leg is brown in color. Mushrooms grow from late summer (August) to mid-autumn (October) on deciduous trees, mainly on birch. Grow in wavelike colonies, no more than 2 times / year, the duration of growth lasts 15 days.
Another name - chanterelle yellow. Appeared due to the color of the cap - from egg to deep yellow, sometimes faded, light, almost white. The shape of the apex is irregular, funnel-shaped, with a diameter of 6-10 cm, in young people it is almost flat, fleshy. The flesh of the chanterelle is dense with the same yellowish tinge, light mushroom smell and an acute taste. Leg - fused with a cap, narrowed down, up to 7 cm in length.
These edible forest mushrooms grow from June to late autumn with entire families in coniferous, mixed, deciduous forests. Often it can be found in mosses. They are especially full of baskets of mushroom pickers in July, which is the peak of growth. Chanterelles - one of the famous agaric mushrooms that appear after the rain, is eaten as a delicacy. Often they are confused with red mushrooms, but if you compare the photos, you can see that the camelina hat has a flatter hat, and the leg and flesh are orange and rich in color.
They are also called caves and meadow mushrooms. These are edible cap mushrooms with a spherical convex-shaped cap in diameter from 6 to 15 cm and with brown scales. The champignons are first white and then brownish in a cap with a dry surface. The plates are whitish, slightly pink, and later brown-red with a brown tint. The leg is even 3-10 cm long, the flesh is fleshy, with a delicate mushroom taste and smell. Mushrooms grow in meadows, pastures, gardens and parks, especially good to collect them after the rain.
These edible mushrooms are very popular in cooking, they are prepared in all possible ways. Brown cap boletus has a color from light gray to brown, the shape of a pillow is up to 15 cm in diameter. The flesh is white with a pleasant mushroom flavor. The leg can grow up to 15 cm in length, has a cylindrical shape, extended to the bottom. Ordinary boletus grows in mixed birch forests from early summer to late autumn.
Maslata - one of the most famous edible eukaryotic organisms. Often they grow in large groups mainly on sandy soils. Cap butter can be up to 15 cm in diameter, has a chocolate-brown color with a brown tint. The surface is mucous, easily separated from the pulp. The tubular layer is yellow, adherent to the leg, which reaches a length of up to 10 cm. The flesh is juicy white, with time it becomes a lemon-yellow, thick legs. Common butterdish is easily digested, therefore it is eaten fried, boiled, dried and pickled.
These edible mushrooms grow in whole piles, and therefore received such a name. The hat is thick, cream-colored, up to 12 cm (sometimes up to 20 cm) in diameter. The plates have yellowish edges, the leg is white, cylindrical in shape up to 6 cm in length. The flesh is dense, white with a pronounced pleasant smell and taste. This variety grows in mixed, birch, pine forests from July to late September. Before you go for the Mildew, you need to know how they look and be prepared for what they have to look for, because they are hiding under foliage.
Conditionally edible mushrooms
Eukaryotic organisms of this classification differ from the previous ones in that they are forbidden to eat without prior heat treatment. Before starting the preparation of most of these specimens must be boiled several times, changing the water, and some need to soak and fry. Check out the list of mushrooms that belong to this group:
- Mushroom champignon,
- morel hat
- globular sarcosome,
- spider web blue
- chanterelle is false,
- the wave is pink,
- thyroid discine and others.
Tenth place. Truffles
Truffle (lat. Tuber) - It is the most expensive mushroom in the world, a rare and tasty delicacy, with unique taste and strong specific aroma. The mushroom got its name due to the similarity of its fruit body with potato tubers or cones (the Latin phrase terrae tuber corresponds to the concept of earthen cones). The mushroom truffle belongs to the Ascomycetes department, the Pezizomycotina subdivision, the class of the pizza, the order of the pizza, the truffle family, the truffle genus. In most cases, the size of a mushroom truffle is slightly larger than a nut, but some specimens may exceed the size of a large potato tuber and weigh more than 1 kilogram. The truffle itself is like a potato.
The outer layer (peridium), covering the fungus, may have a smooth surface or cut with numerous cracks, and also may be covered with characteristic multi-faceted warts. The cross section of the fungus is characterized by a pronounced marble texture. It is formed by the alternation of light "internal veins" and "external veins" of a darker shade, on which spore bags with various shapes are located. The color of the pulp of the truffle depends on the species: it can be white, black, chocolate, gray. There are truffles in Russia - on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Tuberous meaty fruit bodies of truffles are located underground, and they are searched for with the help of specially trained dogs or pigs.
Ninth place. Aspen wood
Aspen wood (lat. Lactarius controversus) - a fungus of the genus Mlechnik (lat. Lactarius) of the Syrmejk family (lat. Russulaceae).
The cap is 6-30 cm in size, very fleshy and dense, flat-convex and slightly depressed in the center, in young mushrooms with slightly fluffy edges bent down. Then the edges stretch and often become wavy. The peel is white or speckled with pink spots, covered with fine fluff and rather sticky in wet weather.
The flesh is whitish, dense and brittle, with a light fruity smell and a rather pungent taste. It produces a rich white milky juice that does not change in air, bitter.
Leg 3-8 cm tall, strong, low, very dense and sometimes eccentric, often narrowed at the base, white or pinkish.
The plates are frequent, narrow, sometimes forked and descending on the leg, cream or light pink
Spore powder pinkish, Spores 7 × 5 microns, almost rounded, folded, veined, amyloid.
Photo riba - aspen glen
The color of the cap is white or with pink and lilac zones, often concentric. The plates are whitish at first, then they turn pink and at the end become light orange.
Ecology and distribution
Aspen wood forms mycorrhiza with willow, aspen and poplar. It grows in raw aspen forests, poplar forests, is quite rare, usually bears fruit in small groups. Aspen moth is common in the warmer parts of the temperate climate zone, in Russia it is found mainly in the Lower Volga region. The season is July — October. Conditionally edible mushroom, used mainly in salted form, at least - fried or boiled in second courses.
It can be found in summer and autumn in coniferous, deciduous forests. The diameter of the cap is from 3 to 6 cm, it is painted in a bright orange color with a brown tinge, and has a funnel shape. Pulp of false chanterelle is soft, viscous, without a pronounced smell, taste. Plates of orange color, frequent, descending along a thin yellow-orange stem. False chanterelle is not poisonous, but can disrupt digestion, sometimes has an unpleasant woody taste. In the food consumed mainly caps.
First place Boletus Mushroom
White mushroom - the king of mushrooms. Appreciated for excellent taste and flavor. The shape of the mushroom resembles a keg. It has a brown cap and a white or light brown leg (up to 25 cm). It grows in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests. The white mushroom (lat. Boletus edulis) is a species of mushrooms that belongs to the basidiomycetes department, the agaricomycetes class, the order of the boletes, the family of boletes, the boletus genus. This is the most colorful representative of the kingdom of mushrooms. The abbreviated name of the fungus is simply “white,” some call it a boletus. Even inexperienced mushroom pickers easily recognize the “forest celebrity” and fill their baskets with it. This is the most valuable of all currently known mushrooms. There are a lot of names of this plant: boletus, ladybird, capercaillie, pan, bear, and others. The main name of the fungus is due to the fact that it does not change its white color during processing.
Photo - white mushroom in the forest
Is growing White mushroom throughout the forest territory of Europe. It can be found in the Caucasus, in the polar regions, in the taiga. Distributed on all continents except Australia. It lives under different trees, but prefers birch, pine, oak and spruce. Many mushroom pickers consider the most delicious white mushrooms, collected in a mixed spruce-birch forest. Can develop on any soil, except peaty. It grows best in forests with a large number of lichens and mosses, but it is suitable for sand with loam. Grow small families.
Short-term precipitation combined with warm, foggy nights are considered the best weather conditions for a large crop of white mushrooms. Collect white fungus from June to October. It is necessary to look for it in coniferous, sometimes deciduous, and most often mixed forests. It is extremely important to remember that this mushroom has a treacherous double - a gall mushroom. It is very similar to its edible counterpart, but it has a very bitter taste, which is enhanced during heat treatment and irrevocably spoils the taste of the whole dish. In order not to be mistaken when collecting mushrooms, you need to remember such details: the cap of white fungus from the bottom is yellow or greenish in color, in the gall it has a dirty color.
This kind of inedible fungi annually takes away a fairly large number of human lives. This is due to the fact that the external characteristics of this fungus are practically no different from its edible relatives.
Pale toadstool can cause tremendous damage to human health, through the defeat of organs such as the liver and kidneys. However, it is worth noting that the first indicators of the strongest poisoning can occur when it is already impossible to do anything. As a rule, after the use of this fungus, the outcome is almost always lethal.
Distinctive features of this mushroom are almost not noticeable. The most basic differences are in the leg of the fungus.
Pale toadstool can be confused with such frequently exterminated mushrooms, like champignons, russules and umbrellas mushrooms.Death cap
Even from children's books, according to the photo, we know that amanitas have a rather bright appearance and are inedible mushrooms. However, the modern mushroom industry knows a large number of varieties of this type of mushroom, some of which can be conventionally eaten. The genus of toadstools can consist of about 600 species. Among the most common, there are the following types of fly agaric:
- Red fly agaric,
- Panther mushroom,
- Green fly agaric,
- Smelly fly agaric,
- White Amanita.
This type of mushroom is highly poisonous. It is only inferior to the pale toadstool. In the forests of Ukraine, red and panther fly agaric are most often found, therefore, the latter is sometimes quite difficult to distinguish from edible types of mushrooms.
As a rule, fly-agarics grow not far from such tree species as oak, beech, and they also prefer soils with a high alkali content.
The effects of the fly agarics may be as follows:
- Unreasonable anger,
- Visual and auditory hallucinations,
- Loss of consciousness,
The toxicity of this variety of mushrooms is quite high. Just one gram of this poisoned product can cause a fairly large amount of poisoning. If the fungus is subjected to a sufficiently long process of boiling, these toxins do not come out.
This mushrooms reach a fairly large size. The color of the fungus can vary from white to gray or olive.
The most common period for harvesting inedible mushrooms is June-October.Satanic mushroom
This poisonous mushroom is a double of the well-known white mushroom. However, the description of this poisonous fungus provides a distinctive bitter taste of the soft body of the fungus, pink pores, as well as the formation of an atypical black mesh directly on the leg itself.
It is worth noting that the diversity of this variety of mushrooms may also envisage the usual taste of the mushroom, akin to white, if these mushrooms grow on forest glades, they may differ with a hat of a lighter color and an almost smooth stem. Due to the fact that it can be disguised as other mushrooms, it can sometimes be confused with a mushroom such as boletus.
The period of growth is June-November. These representatives of poisoned mushrooms grow in the Forest-Steppe or Polesye.Gall mushroom
This fungus is not the cause of deaths, but its use in food is not strictly recommended. This is due to the fact that toxins that are contained in this species of fungi can adversely affect the kidneys, as well as significantly reduce the number of red blood cells in human blood. The first manifestations of poisoning appear rather late and all therapeutic measures aimed at eliminating the symptoms are made with great complexity. A thin pig is often confused with a thick pig, which in turn is an edible mushroom, but it is quite rare to meet it in our forests.Thin pig
Ukraine's poisonous mushrooms include several varieties of this type of mushroom. Most often given the opportunity to meet the fibrous fiber brown. They can be found on the territory of the whole Ukraine, both in coniferous and deciduous forest lands. The period of active growth is July-November. The smell of these mushrooms is different unpleasant feature, and the appearance is reduced to white flesh, which can change color when cut. The cap can reach five centimeters in circumference and be shaped like a cone.
This kind of poisonous mushroom of a given breed, like a cone-like lash, can sometimes be confused with the most common open grains.
For the most part, this mushroom grows in the Carpathian region, forest-steppe and Polesye, however, as previously noted, it can be found throughout Ukraine.
Patouyar's fiber is one of the most poisonous species of fiber. This species grows in most deciduous forests.
Данную разновидность грибов можно спутать с такими съедобными грибами, как шампиньоны или колпаки. Однако, волоконница, в отличии от них отличается содержанием такого сильнодействующего ядовитого вещества, как мускарин.Волоконница
Entomoma is poisonous
This type of mushroom has a high content of toxins, which can cause poisoning of the human body.
Poisoning is usually fatal, as the poison is very toxic.
You can meet this variety of mushrooms in parks and in most deciduous forests.
For medical reasons, treatment after poisoning with this type of fungus should be directed to gastric lavage and the introduction of blood substitutes in order to completely cleanse the body of toxins.
Summing up, it is worth noting that almost all inedible fungi that grow in the forests of Ukraine can cause enormous damage to human health. To prevent this from happening, it is worthwhile to collect only those mushrooms that are edible and, after collecting, consult with experienced mushroom pickers about the suitability of eating one or another kind of mushroom. Only after this, it is worthwhile to properly process the harvest and eat it without fear.