Among the ornamental trees, maple has long been one of the most honorable places. This beautiful tall tree is loved by many in the first place because of the amazing carved leaves, which are repeatedly sung by poets, depicted by painters, and the characteristic shape of the maple leaf proudly adorns the national flag of Canada. Maple is especially beautiful in the fall when its foliage begins to play with a whole range of yellow and burgundy shades. The variety of maple species is large and allows you to choose the right specimen, even for a small garden area. It is especially pleasant when such a tree is grown from seeds with its own hands, which, by the way, is not at all difficult for even a beginner to do.
The first step is to decide which type of maple to grow. The fact is that not all maples can be grown from seeds - some decorative forms reproduce by cuttings or by means of grafting. For growing from seeds, Tatar maple, Ginnala, Norway and green-brown are best suited.
In their natural environment, the seeds of the maples fall in the fall, and in the spring they begin to germinate. In accordance with this natural rhythm and need to act to get the desired result. To do this, the seeds collected in the autumn or purchased in the same period must be stratified. The essence of this process is to simulate a period of winter dormancy under artificial conditions, after which plants in nature begin to grow rapidly. To do this, the seeds must be kept in the cold for an air temperature of +3 - 5 ° C for 100–120 days. The most suitable place will be a refrigerator or a cold room, where the temperature is kept within these limits. Seeds are recommended to be stored in a small container filled with wet sand.
In the spring - in April or the beginning of May - it is time to plant the seeds for germination. Landing is done immediately in open ground. To accelerate the emergence of sprouts, you must first soak the seeds of maple in hydrogen peroxide for 1 - 3 days. Now they are ready to plant and have to choose a place where this wonderful tree will grow.
The area where maple will grow should be sunny or slightly shaded. The soil is preferably fertile and loose, so before planting it is desirable to dig up the soil and make it fine-grained and uniform. It is recommended to add a little peat, humus and sand to the garden soil.
Seeds are planted to a depth of 3–4 cm. If you do not plan to replant further seedlings, you should immediately observe the interval between plants 1.5 - 2 m. But it is better to plant seeds at a closer distance - then they can be thinned and later planted the best seedlings to permanent seats. Planted seeds need to be watered and in the future to maintain the soil in a slightly damp state.
The beginning of the emergence of shoots should be expected after 2 - 3 weeks after planting. It should be borne in mind that maple germinates rather slowly, but after the seeds have germinated, the care for them is quite simple: regular watering, careful weeding of the soil and removal of weeds. In hot summer days, it is desirable to shade young plants from direct sunlight. By autumn, the height of seedlings reaches 20-40 cm, and in the first year of life they can grow up to 80 cm.
Another method of growing maple from seeds is practiced, in which they are planted in open ground in the fall. In this case, planting material all winter is in its natural habitat and begins to germinate in spring. When planting this method, seed germination will be slightly lower due to severe frosts or a snowless winter. However, this method is the most natural and often used for growing this plant.
After 1 - 3 years, depending on the size of the seedlings, they can be planted in a permanent place. Planting is done in pre-excavated pits with a depth of 70 cm and a side width of 50 cm. The composition of the soil should be approximately the same as for germination of seeds. It is recommended to add to the soil before planting organic fertilizer, such as compost or humus. In the future, every summer, it is desirable to make a complex fertilizer for perennial plants.
If the groundwater at the site is quite close to the surface, then a layer of sand or expanded clay about 15 cm thick should be laid on the bottom of the landing pit - this will significantly improve the outflow of excess moisture. At the bottom of the pit poured the ground in the form of a hill, on which the seedling is “seated” and straightened its roots. Then they are covered with earth so that the root neck is no deeper than 5 cm under the ground.
Maple is a beautiful and easy-care tree that has positive energy. In the summer, in the shade of its dense crown, you can relax perfectly, and with the arrival of the autumn pore you can enjoy the beauty of yellowing foliage. Without a doubt, planting maple is a long-term contribution to the future of its garden, which will be enjoyed by more than one generation of descendants.
Maturation, collection and preparation of seeds for planting
Different types of maple breed in different ways. This may be grafting or vaccinations, seeds. Maple seeds ripen in August, and they begin to crumble on the ground with the onset of autumn. Those who wish to grow a maple tree with their own hands, you need to collect them, finding among the fallen leaves.
Maple seed has the appearance of a double flat lion with a pair of wings. The fruit itself consists of two parts, where each seed is bare and contains a large green embryo.
Today, there are about 150 species of maples, most of which grow in North America. Maple feels good in tropical areas as well as in northern areas. Maple seeds are planted in both spring and autumn. To plant them in the spring, they are cooked in the fall, creating an artificial winter for them, putting them in a refrigerator in a container with wet sand. In these conditions, the seeds are stored up to two years. With the onset of spring, from April to May, the seed can be planted in the ground. Before planting, it is recommended to soak in peroxide for two days, so they will germinate faster, after about three weeks.
During the autumn landing, a place is chosen on the site, quiet and sunny, to dig a hole 70 cm deep and 50 cm wide. A sand-peat mixture mixed with digging earth is introduced into this hole. Seeds are laid to a depth of four cm and up the wings.
The sapling grows slowly, at one year old the tree can reach a height of 80 cm. The sapling requires good watering. Grown from seed, handsome, will create an excellent shadow with its elegant crown and a place to rest, and the seeds and leaves will help in the treatment of renal diseases and colic, bronchitis and herpes, etc. Maple has positive energy, and growing it from seed, a long-term contribution to descendants.Sugar maple
According to biologists, for normal growth, maple seeds for planting should be taken either locally or from a similar climate, planted in loamy light soils, watered and protected from the north wind.
Cold stratification method
In this way, many species of maple are grown from seeds. These include the maples:
- large leaf
Seeds are selected not spoiled and not rotten, and dried up soaked beforehand.
Thanks to this method, the seeds germinate quickly enough. For seeds, you need a small plastic bag filled with growing material consisting of sand, peat moss or vermiculite or paper. To prevent fungus, it is advisable to have a sterile material. For humidification, some water is added to the seed mixture. And for the prevention of mold, it is necessary to add a very small amount of fungicide.
Next, the seeds are packaged in 25 pieces in a bag, which is boring to iron with a palm to remove air and close on the fastener. Bags are placed in the refrigerator, where they are maintained at a temperature of from 1 to 4 degrees of heat, which promotes germination. Some species are quite demanding and the temperature difference of a couple of degrees will negatively affect the growth of seeds, for example, the seed of the American maple comfortably feels at +5 degrees, and red maple seeds is enough + 3 degrees.
Most types of seeds are in the refrigerator for 3-4 months, but large leaf maple 40 days is enough. Every fourteen days, the bags should be checked for excess or lack of moisture, mold, etc. At the beginning of growth, the seeds are removed from the refrigerator. Sprouted seeds are planted in a moist soil to a depth of 1.5 cm. In order for the sprout to take root guaranteed, the seeds can be planted for a time in the tray.
Cold and warm stratification method
This method is well suited for mountain and Asian species with a very hard shell that needs treatment in the form of a notch, soaking in a peroxide, in warm water. For two months, the seeds are stored at a temperature of 20 to 30 degrees. Next, the seeds are subjected to the above method of cold stratification.
The growth of maple seeds directly in the soil
In some species of maples, for example, silver, seed dumping occurs at the beginning of the growing season. These seeds do not fall into hibernation, they do not need extra care. It is necessary to plant the seeds almost after harvest and they will quickly germinate. Planting consists in placing the seeds in a moist soil, mixed with fallen leaves without additional care.
Some seeds may not grow in the first year of planting, and germinate only the next. With the germination of a small percentage of seeds, it is likely that they have been spoiled. In this case, it is desirable to land new ones.
Maple grown from seed can grow up to 30 meters tall.
Having decided on the desired type of maple, we acquire or find and collect the seeds themselves, now it will not be difficult for you to grow maple from seeds at home. Fortunately, in our country there is a large selection of varieties of this fabulous tree.Grown tree will delight you and then your grandchildren!
Maple type for bonsai
You can grow a small tree from pine, sakura, bamboo, willow, elm, lilac, lemon, spruce, ficus. Plant growers experiment with different types of plants, the principle of creating any specimen is to work with the root system of cutting and special care for the crown.
Maple bonsai can be grown at home from different types of wood:
Dwarfs of the above species have small leaves that look most organically in bonsai trees.
For the cultivation of these trees in the home derived color copies. These include:
The art of bonsai is in high demand among gardeners and gardeners, because the industry is constantly evolving, breeders bring new types of maples with different leaf shapes and shades. The photo shows the most popular types of maple compositions.
To grow a miniature tree from a representative of the maple family can be in several forms:
- Upright view
To grow a composition of seeds or cuttings at home can be in any form, it is enough to follow a clear sequence of actions and not to miss important moments.
Under natural conditions, maple grows in almost the entire Northern Hemisphere. Twenty species of this plant are distributed throughout Russia, the most common of which are:
Japanese maple listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation.
The genus Acer combines woody and shrubby plants of the Sapindo family. Widely represented in Europe, North America and Asia. The genus includes more than one hundred and fifty species, which mainly grow in the temperate zone, some of its representatives are found in Central Asia and the Mediterranean.
The tree grows to a height of up to thirty meters. The trunk is covered with gray-green bark with a network of lighter veins. The leaves are large, three-lobed, up to seventeen centimeters long. The edge of the sheet plate is finely toothed. Flowers are small, greenish color. They have five oblong sepals and the same oval petals. There are eight not stained stamens. The ovary is short, and in male flowers underdeveloped. Pedicle thin, about five millimeters long.
Maple: fruits and seeds
The fruit of this tree is the lionfish. It is a achene with a leathery dry pericarp, flat, pterygoid fibrous outgrowth. With it multiplies maple. The spread of seeds by the wind happens quite interestingly: the lionfish moves amusingly through the air, writing down spiral pirouettes, scattering over long distances and penetrating into the stands.
What are maple seeds? They are completely naked, having a green large folded germ. Maple seeds are slightly flattened. They ripen at the very end of summer, and often remain on the tree throughout the winter. Seeds are covered with a thin peel. Tree fructifies annually and abundantly, in Russia it occurs in September.
We grow maple from seeds
There are many species of maple in our country, so everyone can choose a suitable specimen even for a very modest garden plot. It's nice to grow such a luxurious tree with your own hands. Moreover, it is not difficult for a novice gardener to do this either.
First of all, you should decide what kind of maple you want to grow. The fact is that not all varieties can be propagated by seeds - there are decorative forms that reproduce exclusively with the help of grafting or cuttings.
For growing from seeds are most often used:
- Ginnala Maple,
Seeds of maple, collected in the fall or bought in a store, must be stratified. In other words, it is necessary to simulate in artificial conditions the transition of a plant from the state of winter dormancy to rapid growth. To do this, the seeds are kept at a temperature of from +3 to +5 ° C for 120 days. To do this, you can use the refrigerator or cellar. Maple seeds are stored in a small container, which is filled with wet sand.
In April or early May, the seeds are planted for germination. They are transferred immediately to the open ground. For the sprouts to appear sooner, it is necessary to soak the seeds of maple in hydrogen peroxide for three days. After this procedure, they are fully prepared for planting. Now you need to find a place for the tree.
Where to plant maple?
The area where you plan to grow a tree should be sunny or slightly shaded. It is desirable that the soil is loose and fertile, so at the beginning (before planting) the soil is well digged and loosened so that it becomes uniform and fine-grained. In the garden soil, add a little humus, peat and sand.
Emergence of seedlings
The first shoots will appear about three weeks after planting. The maple grows rather slowly, but when the seeds sprout, they need simple care: regular moderate watering, weeding the soil. In the strong summer heat shade young plants from the sun's rays. By the fall, your seedlings will grow to 40 cm, and in the first year to 80 cm.
Sometimes maple seeds are planted in the fall in open ground. In this case, they are in their natural environment all winter, and sprout in spring. With this method, seed germination is somewhat lower due to the strong and snowless winters, however, this method is considered the most natural.
Depending on the size of the seedlings, after one or three years they can be transplanted to a permanent place. To do this, it is necessary to prepare pits of 50x50x70 cm. The composition of the soil is the same as when growing seeds. Before planting, add organic fertilizer (compost or humus) to the soil. Every year in the summer make complex fertilizers for perennial plants.
Maple is a magnificent and easy-to-care tree with positive energy. In the shade of its dense crown in the summer you can relax, and in the fall you can admire the constantly changing colors and shades of foliage. Planting maple is a long-term contribution to the future of your garden or summer cottage. The maple will delight you with its noble and refined look not only you, but also your children and grandchildren.