Marigolds - bright, unpretentious, fast-growing flowers. We constantly meet them in the beds of city parks and flower gardens of gardens. These lovely creatures were so loved by people that many experienced and not very experienced growers began to grow their houses on the window sills of balconies.
In addition to decorative bright colors (plain and double) and pinnately dissected leaves, blackbreds also have a specific smell, indicating a high content of phytoncids - substances that have a beneficial effect on the human body and are capable of scaring off pests from both the flower and the surrounding plants .
Appearance history and description
Marigolds - a highly branched annual plant (about all types of annual and perennial plants read here). Its inflorescences, large terry and semi-double, resemble chrysanthemums or carnations in their shape. The largest varieties of marigolds can reach a height of 80 cm. They have bright green feathery leaves, and the flowers can have a wide variety of shades, from bright yellow to rich orange.
Rni brought to us from South America, there marigolds grow in large numbers in the wild. At the present, marigolds are grown and cultivated in Mexico, Canada, Brazil, France, Georgia, Russia and Ukraine.
Will the plants bloom at home?
If you do not have a summer cottage, but you really want to grow marigolds, do not be discouraged. They can be planted directly at home in pots or drawers on your balcony. In the apartment itself, these flowers are rarely grown because of their strong characteristic odor, which gives them a high content of essential oils. But it's a matter of taste. Many people like this smell and even have a calming effect. For more information about growing and caring for marigolds at home, read here.
These plants bloom in the open ground from the beginning of June until mid-autumn, until the first frosts come (you will learn about proper planting and caring for the plant in the open field here, and read how and when to do it here). But at home on the windowsill, marigolds will delight you with their bloom all year round. It is only necessary to properly plant them and create suitable conditions for growth. We wrote about this in another article.
For the cultivation of marigold seedlings in the apartment itself and on the balcony, we need containers that are comfortable with drainage holes: wide, low pots or drawers. The soil can be universal for flowering plants and purchased in advance. in a flower shop. Or you can prepare a nutrient substrate, which will include peat, humus, sod land and sand (2: 2: 2: 1).
The prepared mixture before planting seeds must be disinfected with a not very strong solution of potassium permanganate.
Drainage from sand, pebbles, expanded clay, and crushed stone (2–3 cm thick) should be placed at the bottom of the containers.
Planting material before planting in the ground must be kept for about a day in a disinfecting solution of weak potassium permanganate. Then the seeds are placed on a saucer, covered with a damp cloth or gauze, packed in a plastic bag and put for 3 days in a warm place. This time the seeds should be enough for germination.
Landing in boxes
On the surface of the substrate, you need to cut shallow grooves with a stick and pour them with warm water. Then the germinated seeds are laid out along the grooves at intervals of 1.5–2.5 cm and sprinkled with a small layer of earth. Some growers do not spread the seeds, but stick them into the ground like sticks.
Care of seedlings
Domestic marigolds do not require special care, as their garden counterparts. But regular watering and loosening the soil for full growth and flowering is still required.
It is worth knowing that the soil mix in boxes and pots of flowers dries much faster than the land of a street flower garden. Without sufficient moisture, pot marigold bushes will be puny, and their flowers will be small and not so bright. Therefore, be careful that the substrate never dries out.
Marigolds do not require intensive and systematic feeding. But for a more lush flowering during the entire growing season, it is still worth 2-3 times to feed the plants with complex mineral fertilizers intended for decorative flowering crops.
In order for the bushes to have a beautiful spherical shape in the future, the long shoots of young marigolds need to be trimmed in time.
This culture likes adequate lighting. In winter, when growing flowers in an apartment or on a balcony, daylight from the sun may not be enough. From this young marigolds will look lethargic. To prevent this from happening, buy a special fitolamp for additional illumination of seedlings.
All the details of growing marigolds from seed, transplanting and subsequent plant care can be found in a separate article.
Due to its bright characteristic aroma, room marigolds are practically not afraid of pests. But it should be remembered that because of the lack of moisture and the excessive dryness of the surrounding air, the bushes can choose a red spider mite for living. To avoid this, do not forget to regularly spray the bushes and the air around them with cool water. In case of infection with a parasite, an infusion of hot pepper, bitter wormwood, tobacco or yarrow will help. All the details about what to do if you get a spider mite on the marigolds, you will find out in this article.
Gray rot and black leg
These unpleasant diseases occur with the systematic over-wetting of the substat. Until the plant is completely destroyed, it should be treated with the following fungicides: “Fitosporin”, “Ridomil Gold” or “Fundazole”.
Read about the diseases and pests of this wonderful plant in a separate article.
Use and application
It is not only beautiful, but also very useful to grow marigolds at home on the windowsill or in boxes on the balcony!
- Their leaves and flowers contain a large number of phytoncides, so that the air around them is disinfected and becomes healing.
- The spicy aroma of these bright amazing flowers do not like mosquitoes and flies, which means you can forget about annoying insects for the entire time they bloom. Do not let close your favorite pets and malicious pests, dangerous for all indoor plants. Aphids, thrips and whitefly are not interested in these fragrant flowers.
- Well-known flower growers prepare curative tinctures from the heads of marigolds, which perfectly treat asthma, bronchitis, stomatitis and various colds. From neurosis and stress help bath with a decoction of marigolds.
- But this is not all the advantages of beautiful solar plants. Gourmets around the world appreciate this flower as a spice. Its inflorescences and leaves can be added to marinades, sauces and even pastries.
- Well, in the people of marigold empower magical powers. It is believed that they protect housing from envious and detractors.
Read here about the healing properties of marigolds and contraindications for use, and learn how to use this plant in traditional medicine here.
Anti Inflammatory Tincture
If you have problem skin that is prone to irritation and inflammation, prepare the following healing composition. 2 tbsp. l heads of marigold pour 300 g of boiling water. After 3 hours, aloe juice is added to the finished infusion. Then the tincture is filtered and sent to storage in the refrigerator. Wipe problem areas need morning and evening.
Is it possible to grow marigolds in pots at home
Although these flowers are easy to care for, not everyone knows whether it is possible to grow marigolds at home. Small and large spherical inflorescences of various colors, growing in a pot, will create a unique atmosphere in the winter at home.
Now in some preschool institutions the project on marigold cultivation is being implemented. This program allows children to instill a love of nature teaches them to grow their own flower from seeds at home. That is, if the children succeed, then the beginning florist has nothing to fear.
In nature, there are about 30 species of marigolds, but the most popular are:
Each species includes a huge number of varieties collected in the variety group. Varieties vary in size of the bush (undersized, medium, tall and giant), color and diameter of the inflorescence.
The most popular varieties that have won the love of many gardeners
Gelberstein - a bush grows up to 70 cm, releasing chresantemic, light yellow inflorescences with a diameter of up to 8 cm.
Gold Dollar - a giant bush, reaches up to 120 cm in height. The variety has fleshy dark green leaves and densely double-colored, red-orange color of inflorescence. Flowers have no smell.
Goldliht is a tall plant with hemispherical terry inflorescences of bright orange color.
Sonnenshayn - shtambovy shrub up to half a meter. Inflorescences reach a diameter of 6 cm and have a golden yellow color.
Gold Kophen is a leafy shrub with chrysanthemum-like terry inflorescences, consisting of golden yellow tubular flowers and dark red reed flowers.
Lemon Jem - spherical densely leafy compact shrub with thick, dense shoots and dark green foliage. Clove-colored terry small inflorescences are colored bright yellow.
photo: © by Autofabwelding
Before you grow a beautiful flowering plant in the balcony or in a pot, you need to choose the seed. You can buy it in specialized stores, but you can collect it yourself.
Seeds are harvested in late summer or early fall from a healthy plant after the inflorescences begin to dry out. The obtained seed is placed in a dark dry place until completely dry.
Prepared seeds are packaged in bags and cleaned for storage until the next season.
Attention! Seed collection is carried out in dry sunny weather.
Capacity for planting marigolds for good growth and lush flowering should be deep and wide. Plants are planted:
- undersized varieties at a distance of 15 cm from each other,
- medium height - 20 cm
- high - 40 cm
This distance is necessary so that the plants do not overwhelm each other as they grow, but form into large, sprawling bushes.
Choosing a place
Marigolds are light-loving, cold-resistant and drought-resistant plants that bloom 1.5 months after sowing. The seed will quickly germinate if it is landed immediately in balcony drawers or in prepared pots.
To please yourself with flowering in early March, seedlings for seedlings can be sown at the end of January, but only with additional lighting.
Grown seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place and set on the southern sides of the premises.
Plants can be planted in a seedling way or immediately to a permanent place (pots, balcony boxes). Sowing marigolds to seedlings depends on the required flowering time.
Planting marigolds is quite simple and carried out by planting seeds, the purchase of which occurs only once, because after the end of the flowering period, you will already have your own seeds. Seed collection is performed with well-dried inflorescences on the bush. The collected seeds must be stored until spring. And with the onset of warm days, you can already perform landing. The main thing to remember is that all marigolds are hybrids, and almost every fourth seedling does not retain the characteristics and characteristics of its species.
Often, experienced florists practice planting marigolds with germinated seeds. To do this, lay the seeds on a plate and cover with a damp cloth, then wrap in a plastic bag and place in a warm place.
With the onset of heat, they can be put on the balcony, where there is a direct hit of sunlight. After three days, the seeds should be turned.
Sowing the seeds of the marigolds
Planting marigold seeds for seedlings is done in early spring. The sooner you do this, the faster the plant will bloom. If you decide to grow several species at once, then you need to remember that the upright marigolds need to be sown before the others, in early March. But undersized is already possible in the middle of spring. Planting seeds for seedlings is quite simple. The main thing is to prepare the necessary soil, which includes: one part of humus, peat and turf and half of the sand. Before planting, the soil mixture would be well disinfected by pouring a solution of a fungicide or a well-concentrated solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). At the bottom, it is imperative to lay a drainage layer of expanded clay or sand. Also, you can make any fertilizer, with the exception of humus.
Planting seeds is carried out at a distance of 2 cm from each other. Water should be carefully, in order not to wash the seeds planted on the surface. The temperature of the content of planted seeds should be 25 degrees.
After the first sprouts appear, in a week, the seedlings can be put in a cooler place with good lighting.
How to care for marigolds in the garden?
Caring for marigolds is very simple, you just need to comply with some conditions for their maintenance.
- Flowers are very fond of good lighting. They grow safely in shaded areas, or even in the shade, but they will give the most magnificent and vibrant inflorescences if they grow under the sun.
- Proper care during irrigation is very important. Watering is necessary regularly and abundantly, but as soon as flowering begins, watering should be reduced to avoid stagnant moisture. From this, the plant rots the root system and stems.
- Marigolds do not need fertilizing and fertilizer, although they respond positively. Top dressing should be carried out in three stages with complex fertilizers. The first feeding of the plant is performed when its growth reaches about 10 cm, then at the stage of the appearance of the first buds, and the last - at the beginning of flowering.
- Caring for marigolds, as well as for many other flowers, includes weeding, loosening the soil.
- In addition to all this, marigolds can be pruned, if the bush is quite bulky, or you want to give it a special decorative look.
- Give flowers tremulous care - remove the flowering inflorescences on time, which will give the opportunity, will appear new colors.
Marigolds have a unique antifungal property due to the content of phytoncides, they are a protection not only for themselves, but also for other nearby plants. Therefore, many gardeners planted huge areas with marigolds.
Caring for marigolds during a rainy summer is especially important. Due to excessive moisture there is a risk of slugs and snails. In order to avoid this, you need to put a few jars of bleach, which scares off these pests.
Another fairly frequent pest of marigolds is gray rot. Infected plants are recommended to be destroyed, and immediately, in order to avoid damage to healthy flowers.
In the summer drought marigolds need special care, as they become sensitive to such a pest as a spider mite. In the fight against it will help spraying infusion of onion, red hot pepper and yarrow.
In order to avoid spider mites, flowers should be sprayed frequently, thus increasing the humidity of the air. That's the whole care for marigolds, which is not at all complicated and accessible to everyone.
Marigold - unpretentious, but still without supervision, they will not be so lush. Growing will be easier if you follow the optimal conditions for them:
- Marigolds love the light, so the place for them should be chosen well lit. On the balcony facing north, additional lighting will be required, otherwise the flowering will not be lush enough, and the cultivation will be long.
- Pay attention to containers, the choice of which depends: on the selected grade, on how the balcony is arranged, on the method of fixing the box. Regardless of the type of container that you want to put on the balcony, its depth must be at least 20 cm, since the root system of marigolds has a core character. African varieties must be grown in boxes 30 cm deep. The container should also be wide enough for the marigolds to feel comfortable.
- Nutritious soil. You can buy it in the store or do it yourself. To do this, take the leaf soil, sand, peat and turf in the ratio of 2: 1: 2: 2. In bad land cultivation will be troublesome.
- Disinfection. To remove parasites and pathogens from the soil, it is recommended to steam it for 20 minutes in an oven at a temperature of 200 degrees or treat it with potassium permanganate. After such actions, cultivation will be easier. Purchased land does not need to be processed.
- Drainage system. At the bottom of the tank, which you put on the balcony, be sure to fill in pebbles, shards or other coarse-grained material.
- Keep a distance. Низкорослые бархатцы высаживаются на балконе на расстоянии 12-15 см друг от друга, среднерослые – 20-25 см, высокие – 35-40 см.
- Лучшее время для выращивания семян – когда температура ночью будет держаться +5. В наших регионах это март и апрель. В более теплых регионах можно посадить растения на пару недель раньше. Рекомендуемая температура в дневное время +25 градусов на балконе.
To get the seedlings of marigolds, it is important not only to find a place, containers and soil, but also to prepare the seeds for cultivation.
- Moisten them with water, scattered on a plate. The layer must be thin
- Cover them up with a damp cloth.
- Wrap a plate of polyethylene, limiting the access of air,
- Move the plate to a warm place for two days. If the sun gives enough light, you can put on the balcony marigolds. Planting or care during this period is not required.
Landing rules for marigolds
For plants of this type, choose plastic containers or ceramic. In the wet ground, make grooves up to 1 cm deep and sprinkle the seeds of marigolds there, keeping a distance of 2-3 cm. The distance between the grooves should be 4 cm or more. Growing up to an adult state will take no more than 2 months.
If the seeds are germinated, the distance between the seedlings can be increased. Sprinkle with earth and compact a little, but not much, so as not to damage, otherwise the cultivation will be delayed.
Cover the container with polyethylene is not necessary, just put in a room with a stable temperature of +25 degrees, and cultivation will begin. On the second or third day, the first green leaves will appear, if the seeds are fresh, if they are old - in a week. When sprouts appear, take your pets to another place where the temperature is not higher than +19 degrees so that they are strong. If you do not, growing sick and languid flowers - your result.
Cultivation and care
Consider how to care for marigolds on the balcony so that they delight you with lush and long flowering. Growing healthy marigolds requires care and attention:
- water once a day, and twice during drought,
- cultivation will accelerate, if once a week to loosen the ground, to give oxygen access to the root system,
- fading buds cut off immediately, otherwise the seeds inside them will take all the nutrients and the cultivation will be delayed,
- feed regularly with any fertilizer to speed up cultivation,
- while reducing the number of flowers in mid-July, cut marigolds to stimulate its growth.
Marigold is not only a beautiful plant, but also a whole pharmacy on your balcony. Medicinal properties has any subspecies. Growing marigolds is also useful.
- lutein contained in marigold juice reduces the risk of cataracts, and in some cases is used to treat it,
- decoction of dried inflorescences helps with inflammation of the pancreas. It is also used to treat diabetes,
- tincture of inflorescences reduces pain during stomatitis. It also helps a lot of decoction of flowers in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis,
- Reduce the feeling of tiredness and relieve stress by using a marigold decoction in a hot bath. Such water treatments help to relieve anxiety.
A few tips will help not only to enjoy the beauty of marigolds, but also to use them for the benefit of themselves:
- Phytonids are released from the leaves of this plant and from its buds, which kill bacteria in the air, making it easier and safer to breathe. Growing flowers in large quantities will disinfect the whole house.
- Marigolds exude quite a sharp smell. Flies, mosquitoes, aphids, thrips do not tolerate such a fragrance, so put the pots on the balcony.
- In cooking, dried inflorescence, ground into powder, is used. This seasoning is called Imereti saffron. The leaves are used for cooking second courses.
- Dried inflorescences are able to expel accumulated toxins from the body.
Marigolds - ornamental plants that are easy to care, medicinal and culinary properties. By following the rules of care, you will make your home brighter, more colorful and more attractive. Growing marigolds is an interesting thing!