Fertilizing beets with mineral fertilizers is usually associated with chemistry, and some gardeners avoid them, preferring organic options. It is believed that along with phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen and other mineral substances extracted from inorganic products, impurities harmful to health enter the soil, and the plants themselves accumulate nitrates rather.
But this is not entirely true, quite the contrary. The latter threatens only when soil is fertilized with organic fertilizers: when they decompose to inorganic salts, the nitrate nitrogen contained in them accumulates in the body of the plant. In addition, the so-called chemistry is extracted from products of natural origin, for example:
- potassium - from deposits of potassium salts,
- phosphorus - from mountain stones - apatites and phosphorites,
- nitrogen — practically from air, by combining a gas with hydrogen — producing ammonia and then converting it to safe compounds enclosed in granules.
Moreover, mineral concentrates have three advantages over organic matter: ease of use, economical consumption and fast action, because substances do not need to go a long way of decay and transformation, as, for example, in the case of manure and compost.
On the other hand, organic supplements due to slow decomposition contribute to the accumulation of humus in the soil, act more long-lasting and improve the microflora of the soil, enriching it with useful microorganisms.
At the beginning of the growing season, when the beet root crop was just beginning to form, young plants need intensive fertilizing with phosphorus-containing fertilizers. Beet has the greatest need in potassium. Nitrogen is considered the most effective - every 20 g of the substance increases the yield by 1 kg per 1 sq. Km. m. But they should not be abused - the amino acids contained in nitrogen reduce the content of cell sap in beets and the percentage of sugar, respectively. Also, when choosing nitrogen fertilizers during leaf formation, it is better to give preference to solid forms in order to prevent leaf burns.
The level of sugar content of beets is also influenced by boron, the need for which increases after the liming of the soil and during the drought period. The first time it is introduced during sprouting, then - by the foliar method in the phase of closing the leaves, again - a month later. Usually it is used not independently, but as part of multicompound fertilizers, since boron has a tendency to bind with other substances and its coefficient of digestibility increases. Sodium also increases the concentration of sugar, contributing to the outflow of carbohydrates in the fruit. For feeding them beets prepare a solution of rock salt, but potash fertilizers with sodium and chlorine in the composition have a great advantage.
Fertilizer selection for dressings
Fertilizing beets is necessary during the entire growing season, from the beginning of planting until August, no later than 20 days before harvest. For this purpose, mainly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are used. The number, type and method of fertilizer depends on the growth period of the plant. If you neglect one of these points, the growth of beets can go to the tops, and the roots themselves will be small. Even on peaty soil, the vegetable should be fed at least two times.
At the same time, it must be remembered that an excess of fertilizers can lead to the opposite effect: stunted plant growth, susceptibility to various diseases and a decrease in the sugar content of fruits (observed with an excess of nitrogen).
In order to avoid mistakes with the dosage of fertilizers, it is recommended to purchase complex fertilizers with a full composition of trace elements and the attached instructions, or use ready-made recipes.
Fresh, unprocessed organic fertilizer (manure) under the beet is applied in the autumn, after harvesting, in order to avoid the multiplication of pathogens and excess nitrogen in the soil.
Liquid feeding (on water): mullein (1: 8), bird droppings (1:12) are carried out only after the formation of 2 true leaflets on the plant. They are made in the amount of 1 bucket per 10 meters in the grooves made at a distance of 5 cm from the beds. At other times, nitrogen supplements are used in exceptional cases, if the leaves become discolored, are stunted and begin to wilt.
Later, the beets are fertilized with wood ash, which is introduced into the soil (2 cups / 3 m 2). Liquid feed solution of ash in water (1:10) is carried out again in August, when the roots are ripened.
When growing and planting beets are used such mineral dressings:
- phosphorus - precipitate, superphosphates, phosphate rock (at the rate of 40 g / m 2),
- potassium chloride at the rate of 25 g / 1 m 2 for sod-podzolic soil and 40 g / 1 m 2 for lowland peatlands,
- nitrogen - ammonium sulfate, urea, ammonium nitrate - 40 g per 1 sq. km. m for sod-podzolic soils and 30 g per 1 square. m - for lowland peatlands.
These fertilizers are first laid a week before sowing beet seeds.
For fertilizing irrigation or spraying apply:
- Biolan - a natural regulator of beet growth on a mineral and vitamin basis,
- Regoplant - a modern broad-spectrum biostimulator with insecticidal effect, active substances - aversectins, ginseng root micromycetes,
- Stimpo is a preventive, protective, growth-enhancing agent. It consists of essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, aversectin, amino acids, synthetic phytohormones.
Zircon and Charm are recognized as safe preparations with natural ingredients. They are used to increase the endurance of beets and resistance to diseases and pests.
So that there is no bitterness and hard streaks in beets, the soil should be regularly loosened, sprinkling it on top with sand and non-acidic peat, 1 cm thick.
Land in places of beet planting should have a neutral reaction. It is possible to check the acidity of the soil by pouring vinegar on an earthen lump: if the earth foams even slightly - there is enough alkali in it;
Baker's yeast is used as a natural growth promoter for beets. To prepare the solution, soak half of a small pack of raw yeast for 2 hours in a bucket of warm water, and then pour the beds.
Nutrient deficiency can be replenished by introducing humus-sypets into the soil in early spring or autumn (2 kg / 1 m 2). To increase the fertility of the soil, siderats are also sown in vegetable gardens, preferring crucifers: according to observations, they are 2 times more effective than manure. Green manure crops are carried out in the autumn, after harvesting, or in the spring, but so that they can mow and mulch (or compost) freshly cut grass for 2–3 weeks before the beets are planted. Mowing is carried out when the grass grows to 20–40 cm, the roots themselves are left in the ground.
The first time fertilizer for beets is carried out during planting. Immediately after planting, it is necessary to irrigate with a solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate) at the rate of 3 g per 1 liter of water - from diseases and pests, repeating the procedure during the third feeding period. The following two additional feeding: when the first shoots appear, as well as after the formation of the root crops, they are carried out with an interval of at least 12 days, preferably before watering the beds:
- The first feed. When the first beet seedlings appear, seedlings are thinned and fertilized with potassium nitrogen and phosphorus. For every 10 m length of the bed, a solution is prepared (based on 10 l of water) from a mixture of ammonium nitrate (urea can be used as a substitute) with double superphosphate and potassium sulfate - a total of 30 g each.
- The second. When the tops begin to close in between the rows, that is, during the period of active growth of root crops, any mineral fertilizers are used for the soil, if necessary, but mainly potash-phosphorus fertilizers, increasing their quantity 1.5 times in comparison with the first top dressing. But it is better to purchase a complex mineral fertilizer (nitrophoska, bordeaux, nitroammofoska or another).
- The third dressing. At the peak of the growing season, beets are most in need of calcium, magnesium, boron. At this time, foliar feeding with calcium nitrate (50 g / 1 m 2), potassium magnesia (20 g / 1 m 2), and double treatment with Solubor (50 g / 10 l of water) should be carried out.
Beetroot is an unpretentious crop, but top dressing introduced into the soil can increase its yield, sugar content and improve its taste. Their choice depends on the type and composition of the soil, local climate conditions and, most importantly, on the period of beet growth.
Fertilizers for beets in the open field except the main nutrients must contain trace elements. In order for the beets to be sweet, it is necessary to add such elements as boron, calcium, copper and molybdenum.
Copper deficiency - leaf whitening - can be eliminated foliar spraying of copper sulfate. This substance at the same time helps to fight pests.
Molybdenum deficiency is similar to the symptoms of nitrogen starvation - chlorosis and leaf whitening. It is observed on soils rich in ions of iron. Molybdenum can be part of superphosphates or introduced separately by the root method in the form of ammonium molybdate.
Calcium is introduced in the form of milk of lime. This technique reduces the acidity of the soil, since the vegetable culture requires a neutral soil reaction. If you take a handful of earth and drop vinegar on it, then with a neutral composition, air bubbles emanating from the coma will be visible. This means that alkaline elements are sufficient. If the earth does not "hiss", then you can add lime to the solution.
To replenish the reserves of boron used folk remedies - boric acid - 10 g per bucket of water and water the roots. If you try the taste of the beet and it turns out that it is not sweet enough, you can conduct an emergency concentrated dressing with boron just a week before harvesting. To do this, you need to dissolve 5 tablespoons of boric powder in 10 liters of water and water the beds. On the assimilation of the composition of the plant will take 2 - 3 days and it will become sweeter.
Watering and mulching
To keep moisture in the soil growing root crops are mulched with straw, cardboard, sideratami or simply mowed grass. If there is no regular watering, and the vegetables lack moisture, it is better to close the root zone to reduce evaporation.
Buriak does not like stagnant water. It is important that the root always has access to air and the soil is loose, so the amount of fluid should be monitored.
To obtain large sweet root crops, you can use easily accessible folk remedies and a minimum amount of fertilizer.
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Does the beet need additional nutrition for growth?
Beetroot (another name for a vegetable is buryak) is an unpretentious plant, but unlike other root crops, it needs to be supplied with the right amount of mineral components. But if on the eve the soil was well fertilized and prepared for planting cultivated plants, you can safely do without top dressing. By the same analogy, there is the use of siderats, in other words, plants that, after mowing, fully enrich the soil with minerals.
This situation is the exception rather than the rule, and the land at most in need of mineral elements.
They may be missing several or just one. In any case, it is necessary to use different fertilizer complexes, differing in their composition.
These funds are divided into specialized complexes and folk techniques. In the first case it is easy and convenient to fertilize. Whereas in the second case, you will need to make an effort to make your own composition. But the result will be worth it, since the complex will be environmentally friendly and safe for humans and the environment. But, even better, almost free when compared with the original purchase option.
Dates of fertilizing beets
The choice of fertilizers for feeding beets depends on the acidity, fertility and type of soil. When growing this root on sandy and sandy soils, they will need both autumn and spring dressing with mineral fertilizers and organic matter, in the form of nutrient solutions. Chernozem will be enough only mineral supplements, introduced in early spring. Heavy soils will need top dressing with an increased amount of potassium, as well as the addition of limestone and sawdust.
During the growth of the beet needs 3 single feedings:
- The first one is in phase 4 sheets, it is standardly added after the first thinning. As fertilizer, you can use nitrogen-rich organics. Due to the high nitrogen content, organic fertilizers when growing beets are used only in a period of intensive growth of seedlings. Its introduction in a later period contributes to the increased growth of the leaves and the loss of the quality of the root crops,
- the second - 3 weeks after the first,
- the third - in the period of pouring of root vegetables, but not later than 20 days before picking.
Soil fertilizer before planting beets
Initially, our website for farmers will tell you how to prepare the soil in the open field for planting beets. It is very important to apply fertilizer in advance, as no high-speed spring and summer dressings will give such an effect. In addition, the beets are characterized by the ability to accumulate nitrates, so with chemical fertilizers in this case, you need to be extremely careful.
So, in the fall, before digging up the plot, the ground is covered with a 5-centimeter layer of manure. Additionally, you can add organic varieties such as humus and compost. In the spring, wood ash should be added to the place of the future beet beds. Sand and peat contribute to the need to deoxidize the soil and make it easier.