Feeding kids from the first days of life can be done in a variety of ways. However, it is worth remembering that the interval between the moment of birth and the beginning of feeding with colostrum should be small. The maximum rate of such a period should be 1 hour. The whole point is this. Newborn kids are born with a very weak immunity. As a result, they are affected by many diseases. The composition of their blood does not contain the necessary antibodies. But thanks to colostrum, the weak kids are getting stronger. Their body receives a portion of antibodies, which will be aimed at strengthening the body's defenses. In addition, colostrum for kids is an unusually tasty substance.
It should be noted that colostrum is not only a source of vital antibodies. It is also considered a kind of inhibitor of the digestive process. The rapid production of colostrum by the body contributes to the fact that lactic acid bacteria appear in the kid's stomach, which protect against the development of various kinds of infectious diseases. In this case, the harmful bacteria do not gain access to the stomach and intestines. Also useful bacteria improve digestion, accelerate the exit of fecal masses.
Feeding kids from the first days of life: description
Feeding kids under the uterus is used in cases where goats have a low milk yield. Then the presence of kids with uterus is extended to 4 months of age. Then they are transferred to another feed (for example, a milk replacer). When feeding the kids from the first days of life occurs on the suction, you must carefully check that the udder is clean and healthy, and the milk itself is normally produced. Usually, after childbirth, the kid begins to suck on its own, but it is better to support him by the tummy, since it is still very difficult for him to stand on legs. In some cases, plugs appear in the nipples of the goats, which prevent the kids from getting to the milk. It should be noted that very weak kids are completely unable to get to the milk because of the cork. Therefore, before feeding the kids, it is recommended to milk the first trickle.
The first time a newborn goat is allowed to goat an hour after its birth. She feeds them about 6-8 times a day. From the 11th day of life, kids start feeding on freshly cooked and chilled oatmeal. Every day they put in the feeder fresh hay. Dairy-free feeding is transferred within 10 days.
Feeding pasteurized milk
An artificial milk substitute can find its own alternative. This pasteurized goat milk is of natural origin. Pasteurization is necessary in order to destroy all harmful microorganisms, thus making milk suitable for consumption some time after milking.
Pasteurization can be carried out in two ways - quickly and slowly. Fast pasteurization is that the milk is heated half a minute to a temperature of 74 degrees Celsius. When using the slow method, the temperature will be slightly lower (64 degrees Celsius), but the exposure time is longer (you need to withstand half an hour). For the purpose of preparing pasteurized milk, an ordinary plate with a thermometer or a household pasteurizer can be used.
After the procedure, you must promptly cool the milk in some sterile dishes. It must be remembered that any item that touches milk should be sterilized to avoid contamination. A slightly different technology is used to heat the colostrum. The colostrum should be heated to a temperature of 56 degrees Celsius, and then kept for an hour. Such a process is capable of destroying all harmful microorganisms, and important for the kid, antibodies, on the contrary, to keep in an active state.
When feeding kids from the first days of life is carried out without a uterus, in most cases, bottles or cups are used to water the animals. The milk container must be clean. It should always be remembered that as the kids grow up, they become active, they can butt, striking at the same time a bottle-feeding person. It should be noted that feeding a newborn goat with a bottle with a nipple will take a long time.
Feeding from the pan
Kids can be taught to use their own milk from the very birth. To feed the animal from the pan is an unusual method, but the kids like this way of feeding the most. This is because they can then drink as much milk as they want. Feed the kids from a bowl or pan can be from the moment of use of colostrum. A kid will be happy to drink milk if it is preheated to a temperature of 40 degrees Celsius (that is, a couple of degrees above the usual temperature). When a goat kid sees a pot or a bowl of milk for the first time, he will not fit right away. Therefore, it is necessary to dip his face in a container of milk. Most often this will be enough for the kid to understand what to do next. At first, you can use small cups for watering the kid, which can soon be exchanged for a pot or a bowl. A cup or pan is much easier to wash than a plastic bottle. In addition, there will be unexpected costs associated with the purchase of nipples and bottles. But there is also a small minus in feeding from the pan - often kids put their feet in a tank, so they pour it over.
Feeding and caring for kids from birth to 30 days next.
Before reaching the age of 30 days, it is recommended to feed the kids at least 4 times a day, that is, every 5 hours. The kid’s breakfast should start at six in the morning and dinner at 9 in the evening.
At the age of 10 days, a small amount of hay or brooms can be added to the trough of a kid. Also begin to include salt in the diet (4-6 g per day will be enough).
At 3 weeks of age, kids can already cope with various concentrates: bran, flattened oats, crushed oil cake. It is best to add about 10 g of ground chalk or bone meal to these concentrates. Every day the kids cook oatmeal porridge, which must be slightly salted and served warm to the animals. All sorts of root vegetables to feed the kids finely chopped.
When the kids are raised, the feeding scheme for kids for up to a month is approximately the following:
- 1-2 days - feed 200 grams of whole milk at one feeding (4 times a day).
- 3-5 days - 225-250 gr are fed (4 times a day).
- 6-10 days - in one feeding give 300 gr.
- From 11th to 20th day, 200 grams of oatmeal are fed.
- 21-30 days, except for milk (1200 grams per day), 300 g of oatmeal and 300 grams of concentrates are given to the goat.
It is worth remembering that since the birth of the kids will need water. Therefore, it is necessary to provide them with a sufficient amount of clean, cold water.
When the kids go on stabling at the age of 8 months, they need to give one and a half kilograms of hay daily, about 300 grams of concentrates and about one kilogram of different root crops. Such a diet will provide the kid a sufficient amount of nutrients and will promote growth. This scheme of feeding and caring for kids in the first months of life will be able to guarantee a weight gain of up to 4 kg monthly.
The benefits of goat milk
Goat owners are aware that goat milk is more nutritious. In addition, it contains a huge proportion of proteins, fats and dry matter. If we compare it with cow's milk, then it contains essential human amino acids. Goat milk is more fatty. However, it has tremendous anti-infective properties. Many people do not use goat's milk just because of its smell. However, this is not the fault of the animal itself. Milk has a peculiar smell due to the careless attitude of its owners. An animal that is kept clean, the udder is always washed, and the dishes for food are clean will produce unscented milk. The smell of a goat can permeate everything around, including food, wool of females. It should be noted that goat hair must be scratched once a week so that the pores of the skin do not clog. Otherwise, those substances that must go with the sweat, enter the blood and milk. Experienced breeders know that in order to determine the quality of goat milk, it is only necessary to smell the goat’s head. If the unpleasant smell is absent, then you can be sure that the milk will also be odorless.
Feeding the dairy goat
Goats are often fed food waste (vegetable tops, potato peel). In the hot season, the animals eat pasture, so they do not need extra feeding. The daily ration of goat hay is about 3 kg. For the winter, animals are advised to prepare about half a ton of hay. It should be remembered that fresh grass in summer improves the digestive process of the animal. Although the goats are very unpretentious in the choice of food, but still refuse products spoiled by mold.
How to start keeping a goat in a household
Dairy breeds of goats are bred more often. If the goal of care is to obtain a valuable Angora down, you need to choose meat and down breed for breeding. For breeding, you can buy a swamp uterus on demolitions or grown-up kids. It is better to acquire the offspring or goat from the uterus, which has already confirmed its positive properties - the quality of milk or the beauty of the fleece. These properties are transmitted to offspring through the maternal line.
Chose a future nurse - arrange her residence. Keeping cattle goats at home is easy for beginner breeders. Usually goats are half stall and walking. A shed will be required dry and without drafts. On the floor should be a thick layer of bedding, bench or scaffold, for lying in a clean, dry place. In a flock of goats contain no leash.
Hay in the feeder and water in the basin - the minimum set. If the goat is demolished, the owner should know the lambing time. If young stock is bought, females are kept separately and the first mating occurs at the age of one and a half years.
The yield of offspring directly depends on the origin of the manufacturer. If he was born of a milk goat, the offspring will also have a lot of milk in the udder.
If the newborn was taken to a warm house immediately after lambing, the mother will not accept it. She must lick each lamb.
In the summer, goats are grazed on walking or fed on freshly cut grass. But the unlimited growth of the hooves will force at least 4 hours a day to walk an animal or regularly grind off its hooves. When there is no pasture, hay, animal feed and root crops are used. In winter, the absence of hay when feeding goats with mixed feed is not replaced. The temperature in the flock should not fall below 10 ° C, for babies of newborns at least 12 degrees.
The corral where the goat was placed must be strong. She will inspect all corners and try to leave. If the goat’s further route is going through the hedge to the neighbors, there will be a scandal. Graze animals herd under the supervision of a goat farmer, or tied to a peg. They talk to animals affectionately, treating a crust of bread with salt.
Unpretentious animal eats:
- weed after weeding,
- kitchen waste
- sliced root vegetables
- straw, hay, meadow grass.
Minimal information on home goat breeding gives an idea of a goat for a beginner. In the future, you will need to acquire skills for care, to get acquainted with the diet of feeding and raising kids.
Cultivation, maintenance, care of goats at home
Good, strong offspring get from the goat in the early spring period. For this mating should be carried out in early autumn. A goat in a hunt does not happen to a male in a related line. If the mating has not happened, in 15-22 days the animal will get worried again. The offspring will appear in 147-150 days. Take the kids need correctly. Baby wipe, remove mucus from the nose and mouth, give a goat lick, attach to the udder or milk colostrum in the first hour after birth. If the temperature in the maternity ward is less than 15 degrees, the kids are carried away to a warm room and the umbilical cord is treated and disinfected with iodine. If the kids are on the suction, they stay with the mother in a warm room and then the milk goes to suckling. When breeding goats, suckling specimens produce healthier and more numerous offspring. Creating a herd, milk in the first year can be donated.
When artificially fed, kids after birth to the mother are not allowed to go to the udder and are fed from the nipple. In order not to be mistaken in feeding the kids from the first days of life, use the table.
At three months, the baby already becomes an adult and receives food on a different diet. At five months, young goats are already hunting. To give strength to the young body, mating is allowed after one and a half years.
The table shows how to feed the kids in 2 months, how to gradually teach babies to cereals, concentrates and root crops. Three-month goats should receive feed and additives:
- green grass food, shrub branches,
- rough - hay, straw, dry birch brooms,
- fermented green mass - silo
- crushed grain
- vitamins and minerals.
Keep goats need to separately and in time to castrate them. When the content of a dairy goat near the goat milk will get an unpleasant odor. Therefore, the goat aviary should be away from the dairy herd.
Adult animals should receive seasonally balanced feed. Indispensable summer grass in pastures. But it is impossible to graze animals in the marshland, they will ache hoofs. However, except for goats no one can cope with overgrown shrub meadows, steep mountain slopes, inconvenience. Goat will find food where large animals do not crawl through. They are happy to eat the young aftermath after harvesting the fields. An adult animal eats per day 6-7, kids 2-4 kg of grass. If there is little feed in the fields, animals should be fed in the evenings. With a pen, there should always be a lick and twice a day to drink.
In winter, goats eat dry food, root crops and mixed fodder. But brooms, harvested in the summer, will become a delicacy and vitamin supplement. Spruce and birch branches, oak and hazel - all suitable for forage goat herd. Drinking and food in the stall period should be warm. A mixture of bone meal and salt is added to each feed as mineral supplements. Walking in the fresh air is a must.
So that animals do not suffer from skin parasites during the winter period, it is necessary to comb the goat every other day, wet the wool once a week with a solution of soda to prevent lice. Hooves in the stall period must be trimmed.
Breeding goats at home for beginner breeders will be the first step in providing the family with natural healing products and fluff.
Conditions of detention
The premises, which will contain goats, are subject to certain requirements. In particular, it must be dry and clean. Draft in it must be absent. In addition, effective ventilation must be present. A space of 2–2.5 m² is needed for a single queen with goats. 1.5 m² for idle uterus. For the goat you need to allocate m², a goat at the age of 6–12 months - 0.8 m². No higher than 2.5–3 m should be the height of the walls in the goat house.
In the form of a chimney with a valve at the bottom arrange ventilation in the vetch. The valve, when necessary, is opened or closed. Covering with straw mats insulate the length of the ventilation pipe from the ceiling to the roof. This will provide the best output of polluted air from the room. On top of the mats put a plaster of clay. Pipe with double walls make over the roof. In the interval between them have insulated backfill. The flap is placed on top of the pipe. Thanks to him, snow and raindrops do not enter the pipe.
An optional condition is the presence in the room of the exhaust pipe, if there is only one goat in the vetch. For one animal, a small window will be quite enough.
Inside the goatling should be fairly light. To ensure optimum illumination at a level of 1.5–1.75 m from the floor on the south side, a window is made. Normal illumination will be provided only in the case when the window area is 15-20 times larger than the floor area in the goat house. From boards it is best to lay the floor. It is more dry and clean.
At 6–7ºC, it is necessary to maintain the air temperature in winter. The goat itself creates such a temperature regime, while in the goatling. If there are kids with her, the temperature stays at 8–10ºC. During the summer months the goat should be cool enough.
If several animals are kept at once in a room, then in this case it is barred on machines with separate doors. Animals are not tied up. Nurseries for bulk feed equip each machine. And besides this, they arrange feeders for concentrates and root crops. Not economical is the option when the animal is fed hay from the floor, as the goat tramples it.
It is desirable to make a scaffold on one side of the goatling. Возвышение, располагающееся над полом, должно иметь следующее размеры: ширина — 50–60 см, высота — 40–50 см. На таких помостах козы с удовольствием спят. На них всегда суше и теплее по сравнению с полом. Простудным заболеваниям мелкий рогатый скот, находящийся в таких условиях, практически не подвержен.
Загон для прогулок животных зимой необходимо оборудовать рядом с козлятником. В загоне животных можно кормить до -12ºC.
Козла нужно держать отдельно от коз, так как он обладает специфическим запахом, который передается козе. And from her milk. Chickens can not be kept with goats. Otherwise, skin parasites will pass to them.
Goat feed and diet
In winter, goats are given roughage, and in summer they are green. Not less than 1 kg and not more than 3.5 kg per day should be given coarse feed to each goat. Meadow and forest hay is a favorite animal feed. Hay in sufficient quantity for keeping in the stall period must be prepared for a goat in the summer. An adult animal requires 500–550 kg for this period. A young animal at the age of 6–12 months is 320 kg.
Brooms can be replaced by half the daily rate. 1 kg of meadow hay of average quality replace 2 kg of brooms from birch, poplar, willow. In winter, a goat can be given 3-5 brooms per day: 2–3 during the day and 1–2 per night.
Dry, cleared from the ground leaves of tree and shrub species is the most nutritious food for these animals.
In addition to hay, each goat needs 500–550 kg of brooms or about 400 kg of dry leaves for the winter period.
0.5–1 kg of bran, mixed feed, pea flour should be given every day to high-yielding goats. To feed whole grain goats should not be.
Green grass is the best food in the summer. And in the stall you can give fodder beets, cabbage and vegetable waste. Raw animals give roots. The daily rate is 2-4 kg per day. Root vegetables should be given only in crushed form. Potatoes must be boiled. The rate is 1–2 kg. Occasionally, potatoes can be given raw. However, before you put it in the trough, you need to wash it and then grind it. You can not give the goat potatoes, green in the sun.
Beet and carrot tops, cabbage leaves - this is a good food for goats. 3-4 kg per day can be given to the goat. Beet tops contain acids, so to neutralize them you need to add 1 g of chalk to 1 kg of beet tops. Potato tops can be fed to goats in autumn. It is necessary to feed in small portions. Norm - up to 1.5 kg. Kitchen waste must be well cooked or sprinkled with bran or mixed fodder.
In the summer, while on a pasture, a goat eats up to 7–8 kg of grass per day. This amount of feed provides 2-2.5 kg of milk.
In suburban settlements, people with goats do not have the opportunity to drive them to pasture. In such cases, animals need to feed the cut grass. The standard for one goat is 7–8 kg. In addition, the animal must be fed with other feeds. In summer, the goat must be given grass. And in the winter in its diet the main feed should be hay.
Throughout the year, goats are given mineral feeds in the form of common table salt. The norm for an idle goat is 6–8 g, and for a succinic goat, 10 g per day. Ground or crushed chalk, bone meal is given starting from one month of age: for uterus - 10 g each, for kids - 7 g per day per 1 head.
More feed give large goat, than small. Young gets more than an adult of the same age. Succum goat is abundantly fed in comparison with the juvenile goat. The milch goat receives a rich and varied feed than the dry goat. More feed gets goat with high yields.
A certain schedule should be followed in feeding the goats. In the summer, many housewives do not feed animals. They only give water in the morning and in the evening. Meanwhile, to get high yields from a goat, an animal must be fed three times a day: at 6–7 h, 12–13 h, 18–19 h. The intervals between feedings should be the same.
In a certain sequence goats are given food. If all types of feed that are available, are given to the goat every time, then it is better to start feeding with a feed with feed. Next must be succulent feed. Rough feed should be given to the animal at the very least. Easily digestible food is best given to the goat in the evening. For example, when evening feeding the animal can be given a drink with feed or root vegetables. In the morning and at daytime feeding they give silage and kitchen waste.
The following mode is most convenient in the stall period: in the morning - roots, swipes with mixed feed, milking and giving roughage, at noon - roots and silage are given to the animal, drink with kitchen waste, milking, giving hay or brooms, in the evening - giving concentrates, milking, watering In addition, giving 1-2 brooms or fine hay of fine quality.
To convert the goat to the grass with roughage should be gradually. About a week. Slow translation avoids digestive upset in an animal.
How to water goats
Usually goats are sung twice a day. But it is better to do this three times during the day: in the morning, before the onset of heat, at 16–17 h and in the evening. 1 time - in the afternoon or in the evening goats can be drunk in spring and autumn, when it is not hot, and the grass is juicy.
Water should be given 2-3 times per day in the stall period, in the case when the goat does not get drunk, and feed is fed in a dry form to the animal. For each watering the goat should be given 2.5-4 liters.
6–10 ° C - this water temperature for watering the goat is considered optimal. Cold water to the goat can lead to the onset of a cold. But it is not worth watering animals with warm water either, as it pampers them. And this, in winter, can also lead to catarrhal diseases. A goat that is in a heated state cannot be allowed on the water.
Receiving water in sufficient quantities, the animal improves digestion, which has a positive effect on the milk productivity of the goat.
Clean - success!
Keep goats clean. Milk animals are concerned in the first place. Contaminated wool should be trimmed, and the hooves should be trimmed as they grow. It is necessary to carry out this operation with special care in order not to damage the soft, vascular tissue. If bleeding occurs, the wound should be filled with alum or smeared with iodine.
In the goatling from time to time to whiten the walls. This should be done not only for the sake of cleanliness, but also for the purpose of disinfecting the room. Whitewashing should have the following composition: in 1 bucket of water dilute 1 kg of quicklime.
At the same time, the goats should be milked. This is best done 1 hour after feeding. Or when the animal eats roughage. The goat needs to be milked 4–5 times a day in the first days after lambing, when the goats were taken from her. On the three-time milking it is transferred after some time. With a decrease in the amount of milk goat her milk already twice a day. When a kid is grown without a uterus, then the number of milkings of goats and watering of kids must be the same.
Wash the udder with warm water before milking. And then wipe dry with a dry cloth. This allows you to get pure milk. And besides this, the yield is noticeably higher. Proper milking is important because it keeps the shape and condition of the udder. A goat should be milked with a fist, not a pinch.
Udder massaging should be performed before the start of milking and upon its completion. This increases milk yield and fat content. Separately massage each udder lobe. This should be done in the following way: one half is wrapped with both hands. And then rubbing them with unsharp movements, lifting him and squeezing him. 4-5 times with each lobe need to repeat this technique. And then from both halves at the same time produce milk. Contaminated often the first trickles. Therefore, in a common tributary they are not issued.
The goat needs to be milked, not allowing breaks and very quickly, giving out carefully. The most fatty are the last portions of milk. The final udder massage is performed after milking is completed. Then they wipe the udder with a dry towel and smear vaseline with the nipples.
Goat's milk is healthier than cow's.
Before cow milk goat milk has several advantages. It is more fat. On average, 4.5% of fat goat milk. In cows, this figure is 3.5-3.6%. Fat goat milk is more easily absorbed and digested in the intestines. This makes it a diet product. A product richer in calcium salts is goat milk compared to cow milk. Because of this, for children it is the most useful product. In whole goat milk is consumed most often. Also from it you can make yogurt, kefir, cottage cheese, butter.
Diet of goats feeding at home
All allowable feed for goats can be divided into 3 groups: juicy, dry (coarse), concentrated. Each species has a unique unique effect on the digestive system of animals.
Concentrated feed gives goats the necessary substances.
Juicy types of feed
From the name it is clear that this type of food is based on the use of living plants of different species:
- Grass is the most accessible and cheap component of nutrition - it is enough to bring animals to pasture in the field, forest, lawn, glade. Goats with pleasure eat grass in any places of its growth.
- Vegetable tops - suitable for any type of tops from cabbage and potato leaves to waste beet and carrots. It is necessary to mix the product with crushed chalk in the ratio of 1 gram per 1 kilogram. So you reduce the acid content in the feed.
- Silo is a rather demanded type of feed due to its nutritional properties: high caloric content and a variety of vitamins in the composition. Full grass replacement - it is recommended to give up to 4 kilograms per day.
- Vegetables - a waste-free product, which the goats happily eat along with the root and tops! Beets, Jerusalem artichokes, carrots, cabbage, potatoes (boiled only) - all served in ground form. It is advisable to give no more than 4 kilograms per day.
- Fruit is the favorite delicacy of goats. Peaches, apples, apricots and pears are what they like. The main thing - to clear the fruit from the seed before eating.
As you can see, this type of food can be given both in summer and in the cold season.
Goats love fresh vegetables
Rough feed is not necessary to give only in winter - their structure helps to improve the metabolism of the animal. Therefore, you can use it in warm seasons.
- hay and catfish - grass of meadows and forests are excellent for drying. The recommended rate is 2-3 kilograms per animal,
- brooms - pay attention to maple, birch, poplar aspen. In a day a goat can eat from 3 to 5 brooms.
Dry fodder is prepared in mid-July - freshly mown grass for hay is usually stored in bundles or sheaves. If desired, before serving it can be detailed - farmers believe that this way the feed is consumed more economically. Brooms are also collected from small bunches with rods up to 60 centimeters long.
One type of dry food is hay.
Concentrated (ready) feed
Such food must be present in the diet in view of the presence in it of nutrients. But it must be served properly so as not to cause an upset stomach and digestive problems.
For example, cereals, such as wheat and oats, can only be given in crushed form. Corn and do need to be fed portionwise, otherwise the goat may develop obesity.
This group also includes cake, feed, bran and meal - 12 hours before feeding, pour boiling water over them. For feed and bran concentration is arbitrary, for the meal and meal - in the ratio of 1 part feed to 3 parts water.
Be sure to combine these types of feed, creating a full-fledged diet, saturated with all the necessary nutrients.
The rules for feeding animals are calculated depending on factors such as their age, weight, sex, general health.
Vitamin and mineral supplement in goat feed
Here are some basic rules:
- larger goats require more food than smaller ones
- Milk goats require more protein in the diet than dry. Do not forget also about calcium and phosphorus in the composition of products,
- lactating uterus should be given 1.5-2 times more food than others - because the diet of dairy goats, which consume up to six liters of milk a day, also depends on their diet,
- In winter, animals need food with a high fat content to enable them to fully heat the body. In the summer, give females more protein foods to increase milk yields and carbohydrate foods - horned need energy for long paddocks on pastures.
On average, about 360-550 kilograms of roughage, 400-600 kilograms of succulent fodder (including leaves and twigs), 30-40 kilograms of concentrated nutrition go from one herd per year to a herd. The minimum value is accepted for juvenile individuals and goatlings, the maximum - for large dairy goats.
Pay attention to the appetite of the animal. If the goat does not eat enough of the amount of food given to it, increase it. In this case, it is impossible to prevent overeating - obesity adversely affects the amount of milk production. In addition, overweight is not very desirable during pregnancy.
Concentrated Goat Meals
Sample Daily Diet
Below is an approximate diet for all types of goats in the warm season, taking into account all the norms:
- Meadow grasses - 6-8 kilograms, hay from alfalfa - 1 kilogram, haylage - 2.5 kilograms.
- Oats - 4 kilograms, meadow grass hay - 1 kilogram.
- Walking to pasture with an arbitrary amount of grass eaten, green oats - 4 kilograms.
- Steppe grasses on the range with arbitrary eaten volume, hay from alfalfa - 1.2 kilograms.
Goats love meadow grass
The diet in the cold season is slightly different from the above:
- Clover hay - 2 kilograms, crushed beets - 2 kilograms, ground oats - 0.4 kilograms.
- Hay from meadow grasses - 2 kilograms, cabbage forage varieties - 3 kilograms.
- Harvesting hay from alfalfa - 1.5 kilograms, from meadow grasses - a kilogram, milled root crops and beets - 0.5 kilograms.
- Alfalfa hay - 1 kilogram, from meadow grasses - 0.5 kilograms, a mixture of ground carrots and oats - 2.5 kilograms.
Depending on your possibilities, meals can be interchanged, replace the specified products with other ones equivalent to them.
Goats endure the cold season
Feeding schedule and routine
When feeding goats, it is important to observe a certain regime, without which malfunctions and a decrease in milk production, a deterioration in the general health of the animal, are possible. The most acceptable diet 3-4 times a day.
In this case, the time intervals between feeding should be about the same. For example, with the selected threefold feeding you can give food in this way: 6-7 o'clock in the morning, noon, 6-7 o'clock in the evening.
The ration should be chosen in such a way that coarse heavy feeds should be fed in the morning and in the afternoon, and in the evening - easily digestible food.
Do not forget also about the supply of clean drinking water - the norm is 2.5-4 liters 2 times after meals. Free access to water is also welcome. Fluid temperature should not be lower than 6 degrees Celsius so that animals do not catch cold, but also not higher than 10 degrees. Warm water leads to addiction, which often causes illness in the cold season.
Goats drink 4-6 liters of water per day
How to choose the breed
This animal lives near the person any more one millennium.
There is no corner on the planet in which do not contain goats.
The most common and widely used breeds are the Nubian and Zaanen goats.
But, the usual Russian white still occupies a leading position.
Choose a breed for breeding based on the needs.
Goat breeding has several directions, depending on the product:
Therefore, the choice of goat breed depends on the fact that the farmer wants to get more.
The most profitable is considered the dairy direction. After all, the cost of the resulting product is much lower than the market value. Ideal for this direction:
- Russian white
Dairy goats are capable of producing up to five liters of product per day. The maximum amount of milk can be obtained after the second birth.
Wool of individual breeds of this animal is soft and light. In addition, it has insulating properties. Among the downy breeds of an animal are the following:
- black down
Up to 700 grams of fluff is obtained from one animal. In this case, the skin of this breed is well suited for sewing winter clothing. In parallel, with good care, the female will carry three hundred liters of milk per year.
Goat to taste is not inferior to lamb meat. In order to breed cattle in this direction, it is necessary to choose breeds that can quickly increase body weight. These include:
These goats, except meat, give milk. Therefore, to breed them in the household is profitable. The slaughter of livestock is sent, usually when the animal becomes unsuitable for the household. For example, females lose their productivity.
It should be understood that any of the breeds gives several varieties of the product. Therefore, it is quite profitable to breed this cattle. The cost of keeping a goat usually pays off in one year.
Specificity of cattle content
When the household needs a few goats, it is allowed to keep them in a normal barn. At the same time, there are a number of requirements:
- Providing clean air. Dump pits should be located far from the premises.
- The temperature in summer is not more than 18 degrees, in winter not lower than 6.
- The room should be free of moisture and moisture. The optimum humidity is 75%.
- No drafts, especially in the winter.
- If the walls of the shed are thin, they need to be warmed.
- Ensure cleanliness. It is recommended to clean the goatling often.
- Помещение должно находиться на открытой площадке, что позволит ему хорошо прогреваться и освещаться на солнце.
- Окна в сарае должны располагаться с южной стороны, это поможет избежать наличия сквозняков.
- Двери должны отворяться на улицу, в целях пожарной безопасности.
- Обязательно должен присутствовать порог, примерно пятнадцать сантиметров высотой. Это поможет не выпадать навозу из сарая.
- The floor is lifted in advance and make a small bias. It is recommended to cover it with concrete or clay. Wood floors will quickly rot.
- Twice a year, the inner walls of the milk goat should be whitened. This will help disinfect the room.
The following equipment should be in the goat house:
- For each individual it is necessary to provide separate stalls. Each of them must have a meter by two. Young animals can be put on two in one stall. But then it should be two meters by two. Goat can not be tied. She should move freely and lie down when she needs it.
- It is recommended to equip the attic in the goat house. There is stored hay and the necessary tools.
- Kozlov should be kept away from female individuals. Kids are also very active, so they need a separate pen.
Care and feeding
There is a basic condition for keeping goats, a clean, dry room.
Otherwise, the taste of the milk will be spoiled.
Be sure to provide animal litter.
If it is bad, the animal will independently train hay.
What litter to purchase depends on the floor.
A straw mat is suitable for a wooden covering, for a concrete floor it is necessary to put peat, which is covered with straw on top. Also, as a litter, leaves will work well, but they will have to be changed often.
Manure is recommended to be cleaned daily. The room itself is cleaned at least once a week.
Well, when there is an opportunity daily to scratch animals with a special metal comb. If the cattle has long hair, it must be combed out. Such a procedure not only improves the appearance of the cattle, but also makes the milk more qualitative.
Once a week it is recommended to clean the animal with soda solution. This will prevent the appearance of lice.
Compulsory care requires not only the animal's coat, but also the hoof. Hoof gap must be cleaned. Also, they must be cut to a certain level. This will help the animal to walk normally.
Goats are very important to walk daily. To do this, the farmer must take care of providing pasture for the animal. Goat movement is good for milk.
Goat loves attention and affection. Therefore, care must be taken without forcing and with care. Brute force in this case is unacceptable. You can not get this animal to people who do not like them.
Feeding this cattle does not cause much trouble. She can consume any food. Mostly likes to profit from grass and shrub leaves. Keeping and feeding goats in winter comes from blanks that are purchased in the fall.Goats in the pasture
There are some feeding habits of this animal:
- Goats have an excellent sense of smell. They will not consume the plant that has just been fertilized. Even if it was ordinary manure.
- If the cattle does not pay attention to fresh grass and prefers dry leaves, it means that it has a lack of minerals and vitamins. Then it is recommended to add to the diet of the animal food with the missing components.
- Knowledgeable farmers harvest not only hay. Additionally, you should collect branches and roots. It is allowed to harvest bunches of walnut branches, as well as birch and oak branches. It is recommended to give the cattle dried clover.
- Wet grass can cause bloating in a goat.
- This cattle love fresh vegetables and fruits. In the household, farmers usually grow them on their own.
- As dry fodder, goats are ideal for bran, oats and corn.
- A milch animal is recommended to consume oats with the addition of carrots. It is good if there are beets and potatoes in the diet.
- Kozlov can not overfeed. Otherwise, he will not have the strength to mating.
- Little goats are fed: with the participation of a goat and without it. Weaned from udder babies aged three months. Already in the fourth month, the crumbs are independent and able to feed on their own. Kids who have been with a female already in one month go out to pasture. Therefore, they develop better than those that are in the stall all the time.
- Drink goats plain water. To teach the animal to drink from birth. Water should be at room temperature. Water goats three times a day. It is advisable to do this in an hour about feeding. Milk animal in the summer drinks up to six liters per day.
The feeding and maintenance of goats in Russia is no different from any other country. To the animal gave a large amount of milk for him to organize the right and care. And the goat must eat right.
Keep these animals is not particularly difficult. Goat is unpretentious in nutrition and living. But the breeding of cattle will have to pay special attention. Highlights:
- animal purchase
- care for pregnant
- feeding kids
In order to properly breed goats, you must adhere to one of the following methods of procurement:
Of course, the latter option is indicative of high costs. But, it leads to a fairly quick result.
To get offspring, a goat is taken with a goat at a certain period. This time can be determined by swelling of the genitals and restless behavior. When pairing is successful, the hunt does not repeat. The beginning of the season of mating is September. He also refers to the most successful period. Then kids are born as early as February. Before they begin to graze, they already have time to get stronger.
Rearing of young individuals is carried out in two ways:
- With Mother. Kids feed mainly on milk and are constantly with the female.
- Separated from the mother. Juveniles feed with milk from a bottle.
The last option is beneficial for the farmer. It allows you to quickly return the milk yield of the female. At the same time kids do not suffer and feel great.
It is necessary to breed goats in the absence of crossing of relatives. Otherwise, the flock simply degenerates. Therefore, females and males are usually purchased from different manufacturers. This will give confidence in the absence of degeneration of offspring.
How to feed the goats - presented in the video:
There are two ways to raise kids: under the uterus and without it. In the case of dairy goats, the young need to be weaned immediately.
Young animals can be released outside even in the winter, but for a short time and only when the kids are strong enough.
If spring youngsters, it is better to wait a couple of weeks and only then chase the kids for walking.
Keep the newborn animals warm and dry so that they do not catch cold due to lack of immunity. First, they must be fed with fresh milk and, of course, colostrum, which contains trace elements that contribute to the formation of the immune system of the animal.
1 week after birth, kids need to cook porridge (oatmeal, semolina), adding to it a little salt and cool. From the age of 10 you can begin give hay or brooms, and also on 4 - 6 g of salt on the head.
After 20 days after birth, you need to add mineral nutrition in the form of bone meal (5-7 g) or chalk. Concentrates can be given a month after birth.
Be sure to water the kids with warm water. If the diet is compiled correctly, then the weight gain per month should be 3-5 kg. You can translate into a stall those kids who have reached the age of 7 - 8 months. Every day they need to be fed 1.5 kg of good hay, 200-300 g of concentrates and 1 kg of juicy feed or silage.
Keeping a milk goat is easy. From her a lot of benefits, not only in the form of milk and colostrum, but also in the form of young goats. If the goat is healthy, then the young from it will turn out healthy.