Beech is a representative of deciduous trees growing in temperate latitudes of Europe, Asia and North America. Trees can reach a height of 30-40 meters. Individual specimens of beech trees have almost two-meter diameter. The trunk of the beech is long and straight, has no branches.
The age of the tree is almost 300 years. Harvested on their wood after the diameter of the trunk is not less than 0.3-0.5 meters. By this time, their age is usually more than a century.
Young beech grows slowly, only after 100-120 years the growth rate increases by more than 2 times.
Beech refers to deciduous species of medium density. There are two main types - American and European beech. From the title it is clear that the division is based on territorial characteristics, however, in their characteristics, they differ somewhat from each other.
Fresh saw cut beech
The core of the tree is formed at a later age. It has a dark red-brown color. If the wood is steamed, then the entire trunk will acquire a uniform color.
The wood texture is thin, the core color is reddish-brown, pale beige or pink-red, depending on the place of growth. The wood is heavy, durable, withstands flexing well.
The wood of all beech species has one major drawback - it is very susceptible to rotting. Cut beech absorbs moisture and starts to mold. Therefore, it is very important almost immediately after harvesting to put it in for recycling. It is necessary to dry it gradually, otherwise it will warp and crack.
Most often, beech wood is used indoors. For use outdoors it is subjected to special treatment, which increases its resistance to moisture and other adverse factors. After steaming, beech is not only better beaten, but also easier to process.
Use in industry
Beech wood has almost no smell, so it can be used for the manufacture of dishes, baskets, cutting boards. Widely used for the production of furniture and flooring. Also, wood is suitable for making musical instruments.
Beech wood kitchen
The ash from its burning is used in glass making; tar and creosote are extracted from it. Wood is an excellent raw material for the manufacture of paper, detergents. There is no better firewood for burning fireplaces, and branches, sawdust and fine wood chips in some regions are considered the best material for smoking.
Chemists obtain from raw wood beech raw materials for drugs, acetone, methyl alcohol. Sugar substitute xylitol is also a beech wood product. Here is a wide range of applications!
The healing properties of beechwood
Leaves and beech wood are used not only in industry, but also as a remedy for such ailments as:
- Various skin diseases, and also promotes healing of wounds and cuts, purulent foci, is a strong natural antiseptic,
- Diseases associated with the respiratory tract, up to the treatment of the initial stages of bronchial asthma,
- Manifestations of signs of diseases of the cardiovascular system: arrhythmia, dizziness, high blood pressure, prevents the formation of blood clots,
- The instability of the nervous system: reduces stress, calms, reduces the manifestations of panic attacks.
Especially we recommend to buy a wooden comb made of beech, the wood of which is capable of making your hair more healthy: it will significantly reduce the split ends, will make your hair shine, will strengthen the hair follicles, which will have a positive effect on the density of curls.
By the way, beech is the only breed recommended by the USSR Ministry of Health for making ice cream sticks, since its wood can be absorbed by the human body.
The magical properties of the beech tree
You have probably heard that trees can be "donors" and "vampires." The first willingly share their energy and charge with force, the second, on the contrary, suck the energy out of you. Beech is one of the most powerful donors and energy-friendly trees for humans.
If for some reason you have lost your fortitude, have lost faith in victory or you have lost the feeling of fullness of life, you just need to carry a souvenir, decoration or just a piece of beech wood.
Beech is a talisman tree for creative people. He gives the desire to create, look for new forms and textures, create original things, see beauty in the whole world around. If you are lacking a bit of inspiration, by all means purchase something from beech, or find a healthy beech tree, clasp its trunk and wait 15-20 minutes with your eyes closed.
What spheres of life does the beech still have its magical effect? Look at beech products if you have problems such as:
- Relationship with others. The beech helps to build relationships with people gently, sets up in a positive way, teaches not to dwell on flaws, but to see in the interlocutor the good sides of his character,
- Inability to concentrate. Everyone has periods in life when heaping up household and work affairs are driving one crazy. The head is spinning and it seems that this blockage will never be able to make out. Beech helps to put things on the shelves: which ones should be done first, which ones should be postponed, and which ones should be deleted from the list,
- Lack of motivation. If you have a goal, but you move towards it like a little turtle, the beech will cope with such a difficult task. He will with enviable constancy contribute to your progress towards victory. Feel the powerful support of beech and your goals will be closer to you than you thought.
Due to the strength of its wood, the beech tree is energetically considered the “stronghold” of well-being, tranquility and purposefulness. A decoration, a souvenir or any other craftwork made of beech wood will bring stamina, health and the desire to fulfill the most cherished dreams into your life.
Beech is actively used in the industrial sector. From this wood make musical instruments, accessories for drawings. Due to its beautiful texture, beech is used to make flooring. The advantages of beech wood is a lower price compared to oak with the same strength parameters. Solid beech involve in the production of door panels and furniture. Doors made of solid beech wood are of high quality and durable. Furniture made of beech wood is usually varnished, since its wood has a loose structure, there is little moisture in it. Antiseptic impregnation, preventing the evaporation of moisture from wood, which is used to process furniture made of beech, prolongs its service life. Beech wood is also used in decorating.
Beech tree Properties, types.
Beech is a mighty, straight-barreled tree reaching a height of fifty meters, with a dense, almost impermeable crown of sunlight, with a smooth light gray bark of the trunk. Three species of beech grow in Russia: large-leaved, forest and eastern. Beech is a long-lived tree, meeting in its thickets with a five-hundred-year-old specimen is common. Huge operational and forestry value of this tree. Beech wood has a beautiful pattern, white with a yellowish-red tint, light, not much inferior in strength to oak.
When standing alone, the trees, thanks to wide open branches and dense foliage, form a sprawling thick tent through which even the rays of the southern sun do not make their way. Well amenable to shearing and shaping and can be used to create high hedges, walls and figured forms.
According to its appearance and biological features, it takes among deciduous species the same place as spruce among conifers. In crown density and shade tolerance, it is not inferior to spruce and fir. The genus includes 9 species distributed in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere.
Photo: Helen Simonsson
Photo: Gilles Douaire
The fruit of a beech tree is a triangular shiny brown nutlet, slightly larger than a sunflower seed (a hundred beech nuts weigh no more than 20 grams). With favorable growing conditions from one hectare of beechwood, you can get several million nuts containing a whole pantry of nutrients - vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, tannins, organic acids. Beech nuts are not inferior to the taste of cedar and are a real treat for wild animals and birds. People use beech nuts in food in pre-fried form, because of their content of a potent substance - fresh phage, it is not recommended to use them fresh.
Huge value is the oil from the fruits of beech, which is not inferior in quality to expensive almond and olive. Beech oil has a pleasant light yellow color, it is successfully used in the confectionery, canning industry, in breadmaking, in medicine and perfumery, in various branches of technology. Oilcake - waste oil production, rich in protein, fed to farm animals and poultry.
Beech leaves contain a large amount of tannins and vitamin K, they are successfully used by traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal diseases, to stop internal bleeding in the form of decoctions and infusions.
The role of beech in the history and mythology of various ethnic groups is noteworthy. Many traditions consider it a symbol of ancient knowledge, grandeur, prosperity, victory and perseverance. He was hanged by the supreme gods - Perun, Zeus, Jupiter. Planted near the house in two, he will keep the energy balance and good relations among the inhabitants. In a number of languages of the German group, the name of the tree coincides with the word book. Indeed, the ancient runes were written on wooden sticks, which were made of beech, and our ancestors learned to read and write on similar beech boards covered with wax.
Properties of beech wood
Beech wood from mountainous areas is considered to be of better quality. The density of beech wood is about 700 kg / m3. The wood is rather hard and dense, but rotting, therefore it is not recommended to use it outdoors. The sapwood and kernel are almost indistinguishable in color. The sun darkens and gets a reddish tide. The texture of wood is particularly well seen on the radial and tangential cut. Materials from beech come in various shades: from light to reddish-yellow. Beech wood is amenable to processing, polished perfectly. A magnificent veneer is made of beech wood. But, since beech wood is sufficiently hygroscopic, large fluctuations in humidity and temperature in the room where beech lumber is stored cannot be allowed. Beech wood surpasses even oak wood in some parameters. After drying, the beech becomes stronger than oak. Currently, beech is one of the most popular and sought-after sawn timber, which has exceptional beauty and durability.
The drying process is much faster, and the cracks are much less. After drying, most indicators improve, the dry board made of beech wood becomes stronger than oak when bending, surpasses it in rigidity and shear resistance by 20% and significantly in strength under shock loads. Beech wood board is an excellent material for interior decorating. Usually dry board is processed without complications, gives a smooth surface. It is easily pricked, sawn and processed by hand tools.
Beech wood: properties and applications
Easily glued, bent, etched with dyes. Used for the manufacture of musical instruments, plywood. Ladders and parquet are also made of beech planks. Beech gives excellent veneer.
The wood chemical industry uses beech wood to produce methyl alcohol, acetone, furfural - a substance that is a raw material for many medicines, xylitol - a sugar substitute, tar and creosote - a disinfectant that is used in medicine and in construction to protect wood from rotting. In pharmaceutical practice, creosote is used in the treatment of skin diseases, as a potent disinfectant, as well as against tapeworms, for putrid processes in the lungs and bronchi, for abnormal fermentation in the stomach and intestines - orally in the form of tablets, gelatin capsules and other forms that mask the unpleasant smell of creosote.
The main types of beech
European beech, or European beech. A large tree with a slender trunk and a powerful ovoid crown from 25 to 30 or 40 m high and up to 15 m wide. The branches of the forest beech are arcuate or horizontal. The leaves of the forest beech are large, elliptical, slightly wavy on the edge, shiny, leathery, dark green in the summer and very spectacularly colored in the autumn in yellow and copper tones. In nature, forest beech grows in Europe, including in Russia, in Western Ukraine and Belarus.
Oriental beech. Tree up to 40 (50) m tall with a wide rounded or ovate crown. Oriental beech is similar in appearance to the forest beech, but differs from it in a more rounded crown and larger, longer leaves. In nature, eastern beech grows in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, in the north of Asia Minor.
Large-leaved beech Tree up to 30-40 m tall with bluish-gray bark and pyramidal crown. Leaves of large-leaved beech bright, bluish-green, oval or oblong, pointed. Homeland plants - North America.
Beech forest. Causes of extinction
Beech forest is perceived differently. He is bright and gloomy, depending on where it is growing and what the weather is like. But always makes a strong impression. There are few rocks in it. Barrels are rare. Crowns are closed in a single tent. Then the beech forest is like a fortress, like a bastion. And only rare herbs and trees can penetrate under its canopy. Sometimes their own shoots die: too hard for them is hard, acidic litter - all that trash that covers the soil.
But if you destroy the beech fortress, if you cut it clean, then he will not return to his lost position soon. Where the wall of the living forest remains, triangular beech nuts fall to the ground, enlarged ten times a copy of buckwheat seed. The wings of the nut is not. Fly away like a pine seed, a hundred steps can not. Falls near. Hunters to triangular nuts legion: foxes, wild boars, mice. If the harvest is small, plunder completely. Raschevat nuts over cuttings and burns to no one. A beech has no jay like an oak. There is no its own nutcracker, like that of cedar, which spreads pine nuts. At most, what a beech nut can count on, bounce off a branch and fall ten steps from the mother tree. Further they were not found.
Every five to seven years there is a bountiful harvest. Nuts fall in the rain. If the mice do not detect and do not confiscate during the winter, in the spring the nuts will germinate. While young beeches grow from them and produce seeds, it will take about 50 years, and maybe even 100. Now the beech can move forward another ten meters, and again it is necessary to wait half a century until a new generation grows up. So the book moves: several steps in one generation.
In our time, he is waiting for more serious trouble. In the 40s of the 20th century, beech wood was cut in the North Caucasus near Kamyshanova Polyana. The forest was excellent, tall, almost 40 meters tall.
Beech - a real giant among the trees
We thought that the forest would recover by itself, because a lot of young stock was left on the cuttings.
Beech forest. Photo: Leonora Enking
The young were sick at first, then recovered and began to quickly gain altitude. But suddenly shrunk. Felling acquired the look of a decade ago. The foresters did not lose heart, but began to plant logging by young stock from the nursery. Planted every year. And every time the beeches died. In some areas planted three times. And with the same result. The dead beech wood became red, smelled sour. The bark lagged behind, and in some places the wound was exposed. A black liquid ran from the wound.
Found that the disease causes the bacterium ervinia. Beech necrosis, a disease caused by this bacterium, has long been known in Europe. We first found out about him in Germany back in 1890. Beech suffered from necrosis every year. But the further, the more often. First, the disease made itself felt in 10-15 years. Then after five. Then almost every year.
From Germany, it has spread to neighboring countries, but now it is difficult to find a place in Europe, where they would not find beeches with terrible harbingers of death: wet spots on the bark and a sour fermentation smell. Not saved beeches and overseas. North America suffered the fate of Europe. The strongest trunks are destroyed so quickly here that even wood is not suitable for firewood.
For a long time could not find the cause. We sinned in extreme cold, drought, fatigue of the soil. But the beeches dried out not only in dry and frosty, but also in the most ordinary years. Soviet researchers noticed that drying begins at the very beginning of spring, and if the beech does not shrink in the spring, it means that it will not perish in the summer. Compared with this sour smell of fermentation. It is caused only by bacteria. И гибель деревьев потому приурочивается к весне, что бактериям для брожения нужны сахара. Деревья сахара образуют к зиме. Зимы в буковых лесах мягкие, и в теплые дни бактерии на сахарах быстро размножаются. Нашли и бактерию эрвинию.
Но почему эрвиния стала проявлять свою вредную деятельность в мире именно сейчас, пока еще никто ответа не дал. Конечно, сказалась нарушенность лесов. В Германии их давно вырубали, там и появилось заболевание. У нас начали рубить бук в 30-х годах. Примерно с этого времени и стало слышно о некрозе бука. Попытались изменить способ рубки. Рубить не сплошь, а выборочно. But as they fall, the trees touch the healthy ones. The wounds on the trunks turn into gates for bacteria.
To top it all off, another misfortune fell on the head of the beech - deer. In nature reserves, where deer are guarded, these cute animals eat up young beeches, competing with mice, which gnaw the bark of the young growth with a ring and destroy it. In Crimea, deer are so divorced that the beech can be completely left without a natural shift.
If you move to the southern hemisphere, then there with the beech forests things are not brilliant. There grow other beeches, southern, from the genus nothafagus. Evergreens in New Zealand, in the mountains of New Guinea, in the mountains of Patagonia. Only on the very edge of South America, near the Strait of Magellan, beech trees shed their leaves. And that's not all.
The most prominent of the notophagus is black beech. The tree is powerful, 30 meters high. The leaves, unlike our beeches, are small, premelki like blueberries. In early summer, when the black beech blooms, its crown becomes red from a variety of small male flowers with red stamens. It seems that it is illuminated by the purple rays of the setting sun.
The other notophagus, a silver beech, has slightly larger, triangular leaves. On the branches accumulate layers. The stamens of flowers are yellow. At the time of flowering the tree is as if covered with dandelions. Nuts are like the fruits of our beeches, only they have small wings. True, the wings do not bring any benefit to the notophagus. And the nuts are bouncing off the tree by the same ten steps as our beech tree.
These forests still exist today, but they already belong to yesterday, belong to the past, are gradually crumbling. And although there are still sprouts around living trees and in other years there are many of them, but they do not survive the next spring. This is how eyewitnesses write about southern beeches from different places: from New Zealand, from the mountains of New Guinea, and even from Tierra del Fuego.
In March 1959, a special expedition left for the southern regions of Chile. There were several environmentalists from different countries. Beech forests studied for five months. The results did not bring comfort. The destruction of the forest was confirmed. The reasons turned out to be many. The first culprit recognized the cold Humboldt Current, which runs along the western coast of South America. For unknown reasons, it moved away from the continent. It has become drier. Less rainfall. Less snow. More fires. Forests are now burning for weeks. No one to put out. It puts out the rain. From the fire, the notophaguses die easily. Restored as tight as ours.
The second culprit - hares. Previously, they were not. Then brought from Europe. As soon as the shoots of the notophaguses appear under the trees, the slanting ones immediately cut them. Sheep and other livestock do not stop them. Could carry the seeds of birds, but in the stomachs of beech nuts quickly digested. It may be that some animal works for the benefit of the southern beeches, but no one has yet reported on it. Recently, New Zealand announced that it is preparing a massive cutting down of notophagus forests. They think to replace them with more profitable pine forests. But at one time, beech was also removed from the forests in Saxony because it was growing slowly. Left only fast-growing spruce. And then spruce trees themselves began to disintegrate. Soil without beech too impoverished. In addition, the beech in the New Zealand aborigine. Pine - a foreigner. For example, as it turned out recently in Armenia. In northern Armenia, no beech undergrowth was found in the wettest high-mountain forests. They found out: the topsoil so greedily kept moisture, that beech undergrow died from drought! To check, they removed in the forest the upper layer of soil in bricks thick. There were shoots of beech. Where there was no turf, half remained in autumn. Where the sod is not removed, all died. They died from drought on such a wet turf, from which water could be squeezed out.
Latin name: Fagus.
Categories:Ornamental trees and shrubs.
Family: beech (Fagáceae).
In nature, beech grows in the Northern Hemisphere.
The form: deciduous tree.
The genus includes 9 species, two of which are found on the territory of Russia - European beech or European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis).
Beech is a slender, powerful deciduous tree up to 30-40 m tall with a very dense dense crown. The diameter of the beech trunk can reach 2 m. The bark of the beech is smooth, light gray. Plant leaves are simple, entire, may be slightly wavy or jagged along the edge, oval or oblong. The beech in the spring blossoms simultaneously with the blooming of the leaves, its flowers are invisible, collected from the earrings. The beech fruit is an acorn-like triangular nutlet, in a soft-prickly shell. The root system of beech core or surface, the densest of all European trees, aggressive, but sensitive to all sorts of changes. Through the roots, beech secretes various organic and inorganic substances into the soil, contributing to the increase of its fertility. Plant growth rate is low or medium. Beech is durable, lives up to 400 years or more.
Beech forest, or European beech (F. sylvatica). A large tree with a slender trunk and a powerful ovoid crown from 25 to 30 or 40 m high and up to 15 m wide. The branches of the forest beech are arcuate or horizontal. The leaves of the forest beech are large, elliptical, slightly wavy on the edge, shiny, leathery, dark green in the summer and very spectacularly colored in the autumn in yellow and copper tones. In nature, forest beech grows in Europe, including in Russia, in Western Ukraine and Belarus.
Oriental beech (F.
Beech tree: features, application, properties
orientalis). Tree up to 40 (50) m tall with a wide rounded or ovate crown. Oriental beech is similar in appearance to the forest beech, but differs from it in a more rounded crown and larger, longer leaves. In nature, eastern beech grows in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, in the north of Asia Minor.
Large-leaved beech (F. grandifolia). Tree up to 30-40 m tall with bluish-gray bark and pyramidal crown. Leaves of large-leaved beech bright, bluish-green, oval or oblong, pointed. Homeland plants - North America.
Beech is a tree that grows both in the sun and in partial shade, however, the plants have a high shade tolerance. The beech is heat-loving (especially ornamental forms), it can freeze in areas with a harsh climate, therefore, a protected place on the site is chosen for it. Plants are demanding to humidity, poorly tolerate drought, wind resistant. Beech grows on any fertile soils, from fresh to wet, from slightly acid to alkaline, it prefers loamy substrates. Plants are susceptible to salinization and pollution.
Beech - a plant that has long been used in the construction of forest parks and gardening suburban areas, is one of the most valuable species in green building. In modern gardens, beech is more often used as a tapeworm. The crown of plants is very dense, almost does not transmit light, so under the trees they often create rest areas. On large areas, it is possible to plant beech in groups, which is hardly possible in small gardens, as the plants will give a thick shadow. Beech is a tree that is perfectly suitable for creating high hedges and living walls that will look very impressive at the dacha.
Numerous forms and varieties of beech with different leaf color are used to create contrasting compositions with coniferous or other hardwood.
Beech wood has a number of valuable properties and is widely used in the manufacture of furniture, musical instruments, etc.
Since the beech does not tolerate drought, it needs to be watered. Fertilizers are applied for better plant growth. All species of beech react positively to the presence of lime in the soil, so if the soil on which the trees grow is very acidic, they conduct liming. Beech tolerates a haircut and amenable to molding.
A beech tree is propagated by seeds and vegetatively (summer cuttings, layering, grafting). The beech often gives plentiful pneumas, the branched root system sometimes gives lateral escapes from which the young tree can grow.
Diseases and pests
The most dangerous for beeches are fungal diseases - white peripheral root rot, white marble rot, stem cancer, seedling rot.
Forms of beech wood divided into groups into several categories.
The shape of the crown: pyramidal (f. Pyramidalis), weeping (f. Pendula),
in form of crown and appearance of leaves: comb (f. pectinata) - a short-growing form with small, curved, strongly toothed leaves, meandering (f. cristata) dwarf form with spreading, sinuous, drooping branches and small leaves, snail-shaped (f. cochleata) - dwarf form with spoon-like concave leaves,
in appearance of leaves: oak-leaved (f. quercifoiia), large-toothed (f. grandidentata), round-leaved (f. rotundifolia), split-leaf (f. laciniata), fern-leaved (f. asplenifolia), broad-leaved (f. latifolia),
in appearance and color of the leaves: large-leaved purple (f. purpurea macrophylla) - with large, shiny, dark purple leaves,
on leaf color: white-and-variegated (f. albo-variegata), marble (f. marmorata) - with spotted white-green leaves, golden-edged (f. aureo-marginata), pink-edged (f. roseo-marginata) , striped (f. stricta) - leaves with yellow and green strokes along the veins, tricolor (f. tricolor) - leaves almost white with green spots and pink edging, dark purple (f. atropurpurea) - leaves dark purple.
Forest beech varieties
‘Purpurea’. The leaves are elliptical, shiny, burgundy, bright red when blooming, purple-brown in autumn. Beech ‘Purpurea’ is used as a color spot in small compositions with conifers, for example, with a thuja of the western ‘Aurea’ and juniper common ‘Green Carpet’.
‘Purple Fountain’. Large enough variety with a narrow vertical crown, purple leaves and weeping branches.
‘Purpurea Pendula’. A small weeping tree with dark purple leaves. Often grafted on shtamb. Very spectacular variety, externally resembling a waterfall of purple branches.
‘Zlatia’. Variety with a wide rounded crown. The leaves are large, shiny, spring pale yellow, later lemon yellow.
‘Aurea’. Grade with a rounded crown and golden leaves.
‘Rohanii’. Variety with purple pinnate-lobed leaves.
‘Ansorgei’. Variety with purple, notched, very narrow leaves.
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Author: Aleksandr Lugovoy, wood harvesting specialist
Forest beech (Fagussylvatica) is a leafy tree with a light grayish bark that grows up to 50 m. The trunk of an adult tree resembles a cylinder and is 1.5 m in girth. The beech crown resembles an oval or cylinder and is located in the upper part of the trunk. Because of the dense leaf cover, the lower leaves gradually die off, forming a crown on bare branches.
The tree loves shade and loamy soil, grows in the forest or in the form of solitary specimens.
The habitat of beech covers individual countries in northern, central and southern Europe, capturing part of Ukraine. In Belarus, in the wild is not found.
Physical properties of beech
In beech wood is hard and dense with stains of texture, which during storage gradually changes color from yellowish to pink-brown.
The beech is convenient in processing, it is easy to grind, prickly and bends. Beech wood is suitable for furniture, musical instruments, veneer, plywood. They make parquet and molded lumber for construction from beech wood. Waste processing beech is used for heating stoves and fireplaces.
Beech is susceptible to destruction by fungi, mold and rot in conditions of high humidity and in contact with the ground, therefore during construction in the open air requires treatment with special protective compounds. Fallen beech trees are recommended to recycle immediately after harvesting.
To improve performance and color correction, beech wood is treated with special protective and tinting compounds.
Beech belongs to the nuclear-free deciduous trees, which are characterized by abnormal darkening of the wood in the center of the trunk, resembling a real core in shape.
The emergence and development of the false nucleus is associated with the infection of the tree with mushrooms through a damaged trunk and a dead skin. Gradually, cells inside the stem die off, and a false nucleus is formed. Intensive growth of hyphalus filaments leads to the destruction of cell walls and the development of rot.
The structure of the false core determines the type of fungi parasitizing in the trunk of a tree. When infected with saprophytes (fungi that feed on the contents of the cells), the wood does not collapse: the false core stands out against the background of healthy tissues in a darker color. With such an infection, the operational characteristics of wood do not deteriorate, and the plant is considered a tree with a “healthy” false core, or a kernel without rotting (small differences are noticeable in the longitudinal stretching, bending upon impact and the hardness of the butt).
If the false core appeared after infection with wood-destroying fungi, then over time, the core of the trunk affects rot. Lots of wood with rot are determined by the presence of white efflorescences and black winding lines.
On round beech lumber, which is stored in the summer, warm spring or autumn in high humidity conditions, a change in coloration caused by infection with wood-destroying fungi is observed.
Asphyxiation proceeds in two stages:
- Uniform brownish-red color (wood cutting),
- Stripes (gray-brown, violet-brown and dark stripes).
The next stage of structural changes in wood is considered a separate defect, which is called "marble".
Favorable conditions for the development of wood-destroying fungi:
- Face gasp develops on the surface of the cut and gradually spreads along the assortment parallel to the direction of the fibers.
Marble rot ("marble")
This is the final stage of aspiration, which is isolated as a separate blemish of wood. Marble is defined by blooming spots and stripes on the wood, bounded by dark brown winding lines. The final stage of marble is the loosening and softening of woody fabrics, accompanied by weight loss and grinding into dust.
Marble rot is identified by large sawing cracks and developed fungal fruit bodies (the external surfaces of the sawn timber do not change). To determine the volume and depth of damage, it is recommended to conduct a trial cutting or splitting of assortments.
Marble rot affects the physical and mechanical properties of beechwood. When the first signs of marble appear, the strength of static bending decreases by 30%, and the resistance to impact bending decreases by 60%.
At the final stage of development, wood loses its ability to resist mechanical loads and is suitable only for heating (with consideration for lower thermal efficiency).
Does not allow:
- accreted healthy knots with a diameter of more than 1 cm, knots on plates with a width of more than 10 cm, knots on edges (more than 1/3 of the thickness for a single and a pair of knots), as well as more than 20 partially accrete and ungrown knots,
- falling out and rotten knots, cracks, porosity, mushroom spots and decay,
- acute wane
- individual strips and stains of mold and fungi stains sapwood,
- mechanical damage and processing defects within 5 mm,
- the slope of the saw cut in the redistribution of 5% of the thickness and width of lumber,
- blunt wane (up to 1/5 of the lumber width),
- longitudinal ptery of the plate and edge (up to 0.5% of the length),
- transverse wing (up to 1% of the width of the timber).
Distribution and ecology
In nature, the species range covers the eastern regions of North America - from Nova Scotia (Canada) to the St. Meris River and the southern coast of Lake Superior, then through the states of Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee and Mississippi to the mouth of the Mississippi River, then along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico to the Atlantic Ocean on the border of the states of Georgia and South Carolina. A separate vast area exists to the west of the Mississippi in the states of Texas, Louisiana and Arkansas. In the northern regions of Mexico is found subspecies of large-leaved beech - Beech mexican ().
In Western Europe, introduced into culture since the end of the XVIII century, where it is sometimes bred in parks and gardens as an ornamental plant with beautiful autumn foliage. In Russia, cultivated since the beginning of the XIX century.
Forms pure and mixed forests with,, and in the south with,, and other tree species.
It grows on a variety of soils, reaches a better development south of the Great Lakes on fertile, fairly wet soils.
Beech: growing on the plot
The leaves are elliptic, acuminate at the apex, 6–12 cm long, 2.5–6 cm wide, with 9–14 pairs of veins, coarse, young, silky, mature, usually, bare, dark blue-green above, light green below . In the fall they acquire red-brown shades.
Perianth of staminate flowers with blunt lobes, stamens 8-16. Plyuska about 2 cm long, with straight and curved awl-like accessory leaves, on legs 0.5-1.0 cm long.
Nuts 1.2–1.8 cm long, equal in length to the blades of the plyus or shorter than it.
At home leafing occurs in April, leaf fall in October - December. Flowering in April - May, fruiting in August - October.
The most important characteristics of beech wood
Beech, along with such a well-known tree like oak, is considered by experts to be the most valuable wood species. A tree in height most often in natural conditions reaches 40-50 meters, it can grow as it is considered up to 400-500 years. Древесина имеет особый рисунок с узкими сердцевидными, блестящими линиями, что позволяет получить после полирования красивый узор на изготавливаемом изделии.
Бук это прочное и очень крепкое дерево, правильно изготовленные изделия из него способны выдерживать высокие механические нагрузки, также древесина в пропаренном виде достаточно легко изгибается, а это помогает изготавливать гнутую по конструкции мебель в дом и на офисные предприятия. The complexity of the process of beech processing is not too high and expensive, therefore, experts estimate the ease of working with this type of wood on four points on a five-point scale of measurements.
Photo of beech tree
- Density. Beech as a tree belongs to species with an average density of wood, it is about 670 kgm3.
- The strength of wood in the compression ratio. Beech under compression along the fibers has a strength of 46 MPa, 94 at bend. When stretched along wood fibers, the strength of the wood of this tree reaches 129 MPA. It should be borne in mind that this compression was determined when the moisture content of the tree does not exceed 15%.
- Natural moisture. Freshly prepared beech wood, as a rule, has a humidity of 80%. With increased water absorption, the moisture content of the tree can reach up to 120% in certain conditions.
- Specific and volume weight. The proportion for beech wood can vary in different conditions and depends directly on the percentage of moisture. At 12% of the total humidity, the specific gravity in the calculations reaches 630-650 kg / m3.
- Chemical components. Beech wood, like most hardwoods of various trees, consists mainly of organic, natural substances. Wood itself has 42.6% cellulose, 24% lingin, 16.7% are pentosans, 5.6% are hexosans. After the wood is burned, only ash remains, which is about 0.5% of the total weight of the burnt wood.
- Colour. Beech is a nuclear-free, that is, having no visible core, a tree species, therefore, it is characterized by almost uniform throughout all the internal parts of the color of wood fibers. In the wood, broad rays are clearly visible in the form of bright rays, diverging radially from the very middle and towards the outer crust. The wood color is slightly pink and reddish and may be yellowish. Cabinet makers are especially appreciated in the production of furniture old trees, since their wood has a pronounced and attractive brown - reddish color.
- The rules for the guest. To assess the quality of sawn timber used in production, GOST 2695-83 is applied to beech wood, according to this standard, the dimensions of the raw material are taken into account in length and width. The type of wood is also important, and when it is determined by experts, a variety of parameters are taken into account. This is the presence of knots, tilt fibers, wormholes, rot.
- Burning temperature Beechwood produces excellent fuelwood, their heat of combustion is 19.7 MJ / kg. When burning, a hot, constant flame is released. The highest burning temperature and the resulting attractive, fragrant smell allow the use of beech firewood as a grill.
- Thermal conductivity Beech wood reaches 0.16 W / (m * K).
- Hygroscopicity it is the ability of wood to absorb the smallest droplets and water vapors from the air. Beech wood actively absorbs water vapor, which increases the possibility of its decay. Due to this property, beech is not used for finishing houses outside. But at the same time, the use of paint coatings reduces the natural hygroscopicity of wood.
Where the tree grows
The beech is a deciduous tree and it mainly grows in the wild conditions in Western and in some parts of Eastern Europe. Eastern beech is widespread in the Crimea and in the Caucasus Mountains. European beech in our country grows in the Kaliningrad region.
It is used not only wood of this tree, but also the nutlets differing in nutritional value and special taste. Five species of beech grow in Japan and China. Environmentally friendly areas with beech forests is estimated at five points. Deciduous trees actively clean the air and increase the humidity of the area.
What can be beech
The wood of this tree, which is widespread in nature, is widely and sufficiently used in various enterprises engaged in the manufacture of furniture, building materials, and kitchen utensils.
White beech is sometimes called hornbeam. The wood of this tree is whitish-gray, strong and hard. In its raw state, the wood becomes much warped, but after drying it does not completely change its shape. Due to its high hardness, white beech is used in model and joinery business. In the manufacture of furniture, the hornbeam is almost never used, since it does not have an attractive appearance.
Photo of white beech and parquet from it
The most widely and often used in the industry tree blanks is planed beech. Use pre-treated beech for the manufacture of plywood of different thickness, chipboard. The main area of use is still considered the furniture industry. In the manufacture of furniture wood is used in solid form, in the form of plywood or veneer.
The beech is made and items for everyday needs, kitchen chopping boards, combs, tool handles. Wooden toys are also made of wood, and they turn out to be smooth. Beech wood from antiquity has been used to make tubs and barrels. The practicality of products made of beech in compliance with the standards of its manufacture can be estimated at five points.
What does planed beech look like?
Bleached beech is obtained by staining. In order to achieve a smooth shade of wood, the workpiece is steamed for a certain time, then painted and dried. Bleached wood is used to make different furniture, parquet.
Wood from beech has found its application not only in the manufacture of various and popular building materials and wooden furniture. The special processing of wood makes it possible to obtain raw materials for the manufacture of certain drugs, acetone, and sugar substitute xylitol. If necessary, the beech can process and independently, without the use of special special devices.
The beech has a characteristic rich structure due to well-marked annual layers and a developed system of core rays, which are colored darker than the main wood.
The color of beech wood is characterized by the following parameter values:
- color tone - 582.7 NM,
- purity - 41.6%,
- lightness - 35.0%.
The irregularities that remain after processing the surface of beech wood, like many other disseminated vascular rocks, are 30-100 microns, which is about two times lower than that of oak.
- with static bending - 104 MPa,
- when stretching along the fibers -124 MPa,
- tensile across fibers - | 12.5 MPa,
- with compression along the fibers - 53 MPa,
- when chipping along the radial plane - 12 D MPa.
Technological and operational properties
- impact strength - 7.6 kJ / m 2,
- hardness: face - 65.1 N / mm 2, radial - 53.2 N / mm 2, tangential - 49.5 N / mm 2,
- microhardness: early zone - 57.0 MPa, core rays - 84.2 MPa,
- impact hardness - 0.96 J / cm 2,
- wear resistance (abrasion): cross section - 0.10 mm,
- radial - 0.17 mm,
- tangential - 0.14 mm.
The beech according to the European standard EN 350-2: 1994, belongs to the group of unstable species (pine - moderately resistant, oak - resistant). According to the scale of resistance adopted in Russia (the unit is the resistance of sapwood linden) beech has the following characteristics: ripe wood - 3.3 (sound oak - 5.2), sapwood of beech wood - 2.5 (ash sapwood - 4.6 ).
Beech wood is more susceptible to fungal infections than oak wood. Beech absorbs moisture from the air more precisely for this reason, the external decoration of houses is not made using beech. Nevertheless, beech wood is perfectly treatable, it can be covered with a variety of paints and various protective substances.
Scope of beech
Beech wood has a rich texture, it is easily and well processed, so furniture manufacturers have always used it widely. Furniture manufacturer from Austria, Michael Tonet, ensured the great popularity of beech products. His famous Viennese chair of bent beech wood became a champion, and this record, probably, no one can beat. Fifty million of these chairs were released worldwide.
Thanks to the elegant beech parquet, the atmosphere in the room becomes restrained and noble. Light pink shade causes amazing feelings of warmth. Beech coating has a simple and noble structure, which is an excellent completion of any interiors. Beech wood parquet is quite popular in Europe precisely because of its extraordinary structure.
In addition, due to the pleasant warm shade of wood, it is used for the production of small products, for example, tool handles, etc. Buk is also indispensable for producing fine sliced veneer. For this purpose, mainly large assortments are used. Beech is used in the production of barrels, as it is strong enough and easily bends. High-quality charcoal and other products of forest chemistry are produced from it.
The main features of beech
Beech wood has a fairly diverse color range - from pale pink to completely white. To give the wood a more uniform shade, beech is pre-steamed. Otherwise, the texture of wood will turn out too motley. The whole procedure takes almost three days.
Beech wood strongly absorbs moisture from the surrounding air, the masters even called it “capricious” for it, and some even “nervous” for it. In order to protect the product, use special varnishes and other protective agents. Beech has a high wear resistance, so wooden stairs are often made from it.
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