General information

How to choose a good cow?


A productive cow in the farm is the merit of, above all, the correct choice of the owner of the breed. The quantity and quality of milk depends not only on the conditions of the animal, but also on the performance characteristics. Cows of the same breed can produce a lot of milk, but of poor quality, while others - a little, but it will be fat and tasty. In order to make a choice, it is necessary to get closer to the best cows of its kind.

The best breeds of dairy cows in Russia are:

When choosing a cow, you should take into account the climatic conditions of your region, the rules of maintenance, appearance, performance characteristics, endurance, etc.

Ayshir Cows

Cattle of this breed is considered the most optimal for growing in the northern part of the country. In hot regions, cows lose their productivity and often get sick. The advantages of the Aishir species are as follows:

  1. high milk yield (on average up to 7 thousand liters per year),
  2. unpretentiousness in keeping and feeding,
  3. easy acclimatization
  4. good health,
  5. rapid puberty,
  6. long preservation of high yields (up to 12 years old).

The cows in the herd are distinguished by their variegated color - red-brown spots appear on a white wool background. The constitution is proportional: a wide straight back, not a long body, a narrow deep chest with a dewlap, straight short limbs with strong hoofs, a narrow head with massive bright horns, spread out to the sides.

Aishir breed females are ready to cover at the age of one and a half. A calf at birth weighs at least 25 kg and has excellent immunity. With proper nutrition, one-year-old bullheads reach a weight of 300 kg. From an economic point of view, it is beneficial to maintain cows because of the high quality of milk and the corresponding price for it.

Black motley breed

The color of animals corresponds to the name, because on a black skin white spots of different sizes are randomly located. The constitution is powerful and proportionate, the body is oblong, the head is long with an elongated muzzle, the neck is in the folds, the big belly. Height at withers reaches 135 centimeters. An adult cow weighs 550-650 kg, a bull - 900-1000 kg.

Breed "Kazakh white-headed"

This breed of cows has existed since the beginning of the 20th century. It was bred by livestock breeders from Kazakhstan by mating the Hereford bulls with local cows.

It is thanks to the qualities of "parents" Kazakh white-headed cows extremely hardy and fully justify their name for beef cow.

Since this is beef cattle, then the constitution of animals is appropriate. The main color of this breed is red, then parts of the body such as legs, brush of tail, head, belly, and dewlap are white.

The body of cows and bulls of this breed has a barrel-shaped form, the fenders are very dense and strongly protrude.

Muscles are developed perfectly, strong bones. Legs are short, but powerful. The skin is elastic in structure, subcutaneous tissue is well developed. in the summer, the wool of these cows becomes short, glistens in the sun, and smooth to the touch.

In winter, the scalp thickens, the hairs become longer, sometimes curly.

Cows can gain a fairly large weight of 540 - 580 kg, but sometimes live weight can reach 800 kg.

Bulls can gain no more than 950 kg. Dairy performance is relatively good. In a year, one cow can produce from 1000 to 1500 kg of milk with fat content of almost 4%.

Kazakh white-headed cattle are very prolific (90-96%). If it is very good to fatten a bull, then the percentage of meat from its total mass will be 60-65%.

This breed of cows unpretentious to food, quickly adapt to temperature changes, and also at an accelerated pace gaining weight.

If young animals are intensively fattened, then at the age of 15-18 months they will reach 450-470 kg in weight.

The skin of the cows of these animals is actively used in the relevant industry to obtain high quality leather. Due to insufficient development of musculature, the meat of cows of this breed is of medium fat content, but very juicy.

Breed "Hereford"

This breed is considered to be the most popular type of livestock that is raised to produce meat. The dark red color of these cows is basic, but some parts of the body have a white color.

These cows are folded in accordance with their meat purpose. The shape of the body in these cows is barrel-shaped, in itself it is rather large, it looks slightly lowered.

Fench pronounced quite brightly. The back is wide, short length. The chest is deep and voluminous. The horns are short but thickened. There is a pile on the skin. The skin itself is thin and elastic.

The weight of an adult bull can be from 850 kg to 1 ton, and cows from 550 to 650 kg.

Hereford cattle are often recommended to go for a walk. Also they gaining weight very quickly. The meat is really "marble", of high quality. About 60% of the cow's weight is meat.

The cattle of this breed is very hardy, It does not require special care, is immune to most cattle diseases, and quickly adapts to new habitats or climatic conditions.

These cows are long-lived, as they can live from 15 to 18 years, and the fecundity throughout life is kept at about the same level.

Character they are very calm, they cannot hit a person. When breeding Hereford cattle, a sufficiently large amount of money can be saved on feed, since these animals can eat any plant material on the field, that is, even weeds and the most hard grass.

Since it is a beef cattle, cows of this breed cannot be harvested, but during lactation a cow can produce 1000 - 1200 kg of milk with a fat content of 4%.

Breed "Bestuzhevskaya"

This breed of cattle was bred a very long time - in the middle of the 18th century. Purpose these animals have a universal, that is meat and dairy.

The main suit is red, but variations can be different. Sometimes there are cows with cherry skin tone. Some parts of the body may have a white color.

In these animals, everything is combined very harmoniously - and well-developed muscles, and physique in general. The body of these cows is compact but voluminous.

The head is small, the neck is slightly short, the back forms a straight line. The legs are short, they create sufficient support due to the placement method. Sometimes you can see individuals whose hind legs are shaped like a saber, which makes these animals vulnerable.

The skin is soft, elastic. The udder is round or cup-shaped, the lobes are well expressed, and the total volume of the udder is large enough. Nipples are placed correctly.

As for weight, bulls can gain up to 1 ton of body weight, while cows do not weigh much, an average of 500 - 530 kg.

Milk, these cows give a lot, an average of 3000 - 5000 kg per year with fat content up to 4%. When slaughter 60% of the weight falls on meat.

Bestuzhev cows have excellent endurance do not require special careIn winter, they can be fed with roughage, they are not affected by the list of diseases. Resistance to leukemia and tuberculosis is hereditary.

Breed "Simmental"

Simmental cattle are bred in order to receive both meat and milk. The homeland of these animals is Switzerland.

The main part of the Simmental breeds are fawn or pale-mottled color, but there are also individuals of red or red-and-white shades and a white head. If the animal is purebred, the nose, hooves and horns will be either white or pink.

The body of these cows is folded tightly and proportionately. The head is large, coarse in appearance, forehead wide. The chest is deep, the bones are strong, and the back is wide.

Muscles in animals of this breed are developing perfectly. These cows are thick-skinned, with a round udder of large volume and large conical or cylindrical nipples. Weights they are gaining a lotFor example, the weight of a cow can be equal to 620 kg, and bulls can eat up to 1 ton.

With good fattening meat will be very high quality. Due to the good development of muscles in the meat contains no more than 12% fat. As for milk production, the indicators depend on the climatic zone where cows are raised.

In a temperate climate, a cow will give the maximum possible volume of milk - 4000-5000 kg.

These animals are very submissive, calm, energetic, and also not affected by many diseases.

The main advantage of Simmental cows is the active growth of muscles, thanks to which the meat is not very fat. But some animals may have pronounced disadvantages of this breed. For example, there are cows in which wrong legs set, slack back or underdeveloped front quarters of the udder.

Breed "Auliekolskaya"

This breed appeared relatively recently and has Kazakh roots. The basis of this breed includes very worthy representatives of this species of animals - Sharolese, Aberdeen-Angus cattle and local cattle. This breed was subjected to a careful selection, because of which it was possible to bring it as close as possible to international standards.

Often, these cows completely no horns, namely 70% of cattle komoly. The main color of these animals is light gray.

The build is strong, barrel barrel. For the winter, the animals are overgrown with thick hair, which prevents excessive overcooling of animals. Because of this, this breed is valued in the northern regions, where in winter the temperature can drop very much, but cows will not lose much weight.

The development of auliekol cattle occurs at an accelerated pace. Bulls can weigh more than 1 ton, and cows can gain an average of 550 kg of weight. Due to good muscle development the meat of these cows is low in caloriesexcellent quality. Approximately 60% of the total weight of the cattle is marble meat.

The ability to adapt to animals of this breed is very good. They can easily survive in bad climates.

A feature of this variety of cattle is skin stratification not on 2 - 3 layers, but on 4 - 5. To feed the animals unpretentious, eat almost any grass. Very fond of walking, and also do not require special conditions for the care and maintenance.

Breed "Red Steppe"

The main direction of the cattle of this breed is dairy, but there are also such cows and bulls, which are fashionable to slaughter for meat and get a fairly good yield.

Since the main color of this breed of cows is red, the name of these animals was given correspondingly. Sometimes the color may be different, but it ranges from light brown to dark red. The belly and legs may be white. In bulls, the back and sternum can be dark.

“Milkiness” of this cattle is clearly expressed in appearance. The backbone of them is light, and the torso is long and slightly angular. The head is small, the neck is thin and long, on it you can see a lot of folds. The rib cage is quite narrow, but at the same time, deep.

Chest almost not developed. The loin is of medium width, long, the sacrum is sometimes raised. The abdomen is voluminous, but the muscles of the abdominal wall are strong, so the peritoneum itself does not hang. Legs are straight and strong. The udder is round, well developed, medium in volume, ferruginous.

There are individuals with an abnormally developed udder, whose shares are unevenly developed, or the udder form itself is incorrect.

The red steppe cattle gets used to everything very quickly, even to bad weather. Neither heat nor drought are terrible for these animals. Walking tours for them very helpfulsince they can eat almost any herb.

The exterior can be ruined by a narrow chest or limbs that are incorrectly spaced.

The muscles of the red steppe cows develop poorly, and they also cannot gain very much weight. If a cow calved more than three times, then its weight varies between 450 and 510 kg.

Those bulls, which are used for insemination, are often specially fattened, so their weight can be 800-900 kg. The milk content of the heifers of this breed is 3500-4000 kg of milk of 4% fat.

Breed "Brown Schwyzka"

These animals were bred in Switzerland in the 14th century. The breed has become the basis for many other varieties that are now very popular with herders.

The cows of this breed are mostly brown in color, but the shades are different - both light and dark. In bulls, the entire front part of the body is dark.

By themselves, the animals are large, strong. The body is long. Despite the fact that the head is small, the forehead is rather large, the horns are long and dark at the ends. The neck is small.

The chest is voluminous, planted deeply, the dewlap is well developed, the back forms a flat line. Udder small volume, round or cup-shaped. Strong bones. Legs are small, but strong, set correctly.

Muscles are moderately developed. The skin structure is dense, but thin and elastic, thick, short pile is present all over the body.

An adult cow can weigh up to 800 kg, and a bull - up to 1 ton. The meat yield is almost 60%. The quality of the meat is excellent. The average milk yield is 3,500–5,000 kg of milk, but sometimes even 10,000 kg of milk can be drunk from a cow, and the percentage of fat is high (3.8–4%).

Health in Schwyz cattle is excellent, strong. They develop quickly. They give birth easily, and with age the cows remain just as fertile. The temperament of cattle is calm, they are prone to rapid acclimatization.

But also swiss cows are enough picky at meals. They need to be provided with good conditions. They also give milk very slowly, and sometimes they cannot be milked at all by machine, as in some animals the nipples are set incorrectly.

All breeds of cows have their advantages and disadvantages, but if you are ready to put up with this, then the choice is yours. Good luck.

Golshtinsky subspecies

This is one of the most common and popular with farmers. The place of its elimination is North America. She later appeared in Europe. The fat mass of such cows reaches 600 kg. In the year one individual bring 7000 kg of milk. Its fat content is on average 3.7%.

If you want to achieve even greater results in boredom, you can cross it with a black-and-white bull. In this case, the amount of milk is increased by 200 liters. In addition to milk, these cows are much needed by farmers for raising new, improved breeds of livestock.


This breed is one of the oldest. She was taken out in the UK. Local authorities forbade the export of such cows abroad in order to preserve the purity of the breed. Now this species can adapt to any climate. With good care and respect, such cows become affectionate and obedient.

Jersey breed of cows is not among the ten most dairy, but milk yield is also worthy - 3500 kg per year. But the fat content is high - up to 7%. Milk has a yellowish tint. It can make great cream.

This breed first appeared in Scotland. Pervorodki mass is not the largest - 400 kg. But during lactation, it releases 5,000 kg of milk, its fat content is 4%. Ayrshire cows do not tolerate hot, dry summers, but take root well in regions with a cold climate.

The skins of a cow are colored white and red. Sometimes individual red spots of wool are very clearly visible on a white background. It matures quickly. Bulls reach a mass of 450 kg at the age of 1 year.

Black and white cows

The subspecies was bred in the USSR. Now they hold the third place in popularity in Russia.

This cow has several qualities:

  • Large amount of milk
  • A lot of meat.

Calves are born with a weight of 35 kg. An adult cow gives 6000 kg of milk per year, its fat content is 3.5%. They have a large, elongated body. In this regard, individuals need more hay.


You can see this breed in large numbers in almost any country. It is universal. The color is white-brown. A farmer gets 5000 kg of milk with an average fat content of 4% per year. Separate individuals with excellent care can bring 9000 kg of milk in one year.

Especially often such cows are found in the south of Ukraine, in the Voronezh and Saratov regions. Ideal for breeding in small private farms, as they do not require special food or conditions.


Individuals of this breed come from southern Ukraine. They were created for the steppe expanses and therefore easily withstand harsh conditions and constant winds. Milk yield per cow per year is 5000 kg.

Their color is typical - light or dark brown. Sometimes there may be individuals with white spots. Milk fat is low. To improve performance, you can cross these cows with Angler bulls.

Kholmogory cows

For the first time the breed appeared in Russia on the territory of the Arkhangelsk region. Individuals are famous for large volumes of milk (6000 kg per year) and a large percentage of its fat content. The mass of a milk cow is 500 kg. The herd can quickly move to any distance.

They can be seen even in Yakutia. Very unpretentious in food and everyday life. They give excellent quality meat.

Tagil subspecies

Cattle were bred in the Urals. It has excellent dairy quality. Individuals have a black-and-pie suit. Cows give a year from 4500 kg of milk. Fat is high, sometimes up to 5.5%. Animals are well suited for the climate of Siberia and the Far East. The mass of cows is 450 kg, the mass of bulls is 800 kg.

Based on the foregoing, you can make a rating of the best dairy breeds:

  • Черно-пестрая,
  • Голштинская,
  • Холмогорская,
  • Ярославская,
  • Красная степная,
  • Тагильская,
  • Айрширская,
  • Джейрсейская.

Каждую породу вы подбираете именно для своих климатических условий, факторов содержания, типа кормов и ваших индивидуальных целей. In the direction of creating improved dairy breeds, further work is underway: new breeds are being hatched, old ones are being improved. In our other articles you can get acquainted with the cows of the Schwyz breed.

The content of the article

  • What dairy breeds of cows are the best: description and productivity
  • What to look for when choosing a cow
  • Features of a jersey cow

The most popular dairy breeds of cows in our country are:

Holstein cattle

The most dairy breed of cows in our country is Holstein. In the year from one such cow, you can get 7-10 thousand kg of milk. The homeland of this breed is Holland. In most cases, the Holsteins have a black-and-white color. The disadvantages of cows of this breed include not too high resistance to diseases and relative whimsicalness regarding conditions of detention. Puberty at this KRS comes at the age of about 9 months.

A separate line of Holstein cattle are animals of brown-white color. Such cows give less milk (up to 4-6 thousand kg per year), but are considered less whimsical. Milk in brown-red cows is fatter than in black-and-white. Therefore, such cattle prefer to keep the farmers, the owners of the creamery and cheese making.

Red steppe cattle

Dairy breeds of cows can be displayed in the house of the number and for these specific regions. Red steppe cattle is the most common in the south of Russia. Such cows are bred mainly in the Krasnodar Territory and in the Southern Urals. The main advantages of red steppe cattle is unpretentious. Cows of this breed can easily adapt to any, even the most adverse climate, and undemanding to feed. Milk such animals give 4.5-6 thousand kg per year. Seed red steppe cows for the first time at the age of 15-19 months.

Simmental cows

Dairy breeds of cows were bred, of course, not only in Russia or Holland. Simmental highly productive livestock was once selected in Switzerland. This cow was brought to Russia a long time ago - almost two centuries ago. In the year from one such cows can get up to 5 thousand kg of milk. Coloring Simmental cows in most cases have a red-white. The advantages of this cattle include fast acclimatization and good health. Bred these cows in almost all regions of Russia. Breeds of this breed ripen already at the age of 8-9 months.

Jersey cattle

This breed, as well as all described above, belongs to high-dairy. From one such cow, you can get from 4 thousand kg of milk per year. Color Jersey KRS has a light brown. This breed was bred a long time ago, apparently by the method of popular selection. The main advantages of Jersey cows include simplicity and accuracy in relation to pastures. Such grazing never spoil the territory of grazing. These cows reach sexual maturity by the age of 9 months.

Thus, the best dairy cows are those described above. The price of such heifers is usually quite high. The cost of young cattle of this direction of productivity is determined most often by weight. The price of dairy heifers is usually 180-250 rubles per kg.