Fern is one of the oldest plants on the planet. 400 million years ago, the fauna of the planet consisted of different types of ferns, they served as food for dinosaurs and could reach enormous sizes. Nowadays, these plants are also found in forests, on the shores of water bodies, along roads, and are often grown as indoor plants. In our article we will tell you about the most popular types of fern of polynyadnik, we will give their brief characteristics and some tips on growing.
Description of fern
The word "fern" is translated from the Greek language as "polis" and "element" - many rows. This name was given to the plant due to the placement of spores in rows on the back side of the leaf. Fern genus includes more than 175 species that can be seen throughout the planet. On average, ferns grow in height to 15-90 cm, have long leaves that form a funnel in the center of the bush, the leaf structure is pinnate, hard, the leaves do not change color even in winter. Each part of the leaflet sharpens at the end and stretches to the top. The fern polynyadnik differs in ability to grow 20-25 years on the same place.
Brown Fern (Polystichum braunii) Fern
This type of plant can be seen in coniferous and broad-leaved dense forests of the Northern Hemisphere. This shrub, which reaches a height of 60 cm, has a short rhizome, evergreen leaves, narrowed to the base. Leaves pinnate-separate, consist of elongated blunt petiolate slices, grow from one point in the center of the rhizome, forming an outlet. Propagated by spores that ripen at the end of the summer and crumble to the ground. Differ in slow growth. Leaves glossy dense texture, dark green color is covered with whitish fuzz. Scapes and leaf streaks are covered with a thin brown film along the entire length. The leaves taper closer to the base, attached to short cuttings. This type of ferns is commonly used to decorate gardens, rock gardens and parks. Differs in high frost resistance, ability to transfer frosts over 20 degrees.
Fern polyshniky Uchernoplodny (Polystichum acrostichoides)
This species was brought to us from North America. Differs in linear leaves that retain their color in winter. Have a length of up to 70 cm, consist of connected feathery leaves. Spores are located on the top of the leaf, are formed in two rows on both sides of the main vein. Because of what this species got its name. Likes to be grown in partial shade in humid soil.
Fern Multiple Protected (Polystichum munitum)
This species was also brought to us from North America. In the wild, it can be found in the wet forests of the west coast. Differs in average winter hardiness, elongated sword-shaped leaves up to a meter long, once a circular structure, retaining their color all year round. It prefers to grow in wet light soil under the canopy of trees.
Fern Polyorichnik Spear-shaped (Polystichum lonchitis)
Refers to quite rare varieties. It has a thick shortened root system, which is covered with branches of deciduous cuttings, reaching a length of about 7 cm. In the natural environment, it can be seen on the rocky slopes and crevices of rocks. He also likes to grow on neutral ground in the forest. Differs in high frost resistance. It grows to a height of 60 cm, has rigid long leaves, leathery texture, which are held on deciduous short cuttings. Sheet width 4-6 cm, rectilinear feathery lanceolate structure, covered with a brown film from the bottom. Spores ripen at the end of the summer and sprinkling into the ground, germinate.
Fern Polytronis Polyterichum tripteron
This type of fern came to us from the Far East, where it grows in deciduous forests on rich medium-moistened soil. It has a short rhizome, so it likes to be grown in medium moist soil with a lot of organic fertilizer. Differs in good frost resistance, the ability to form a dense spherical shrub, up to 40 cm high. The root system is broad, gives a gain of half a centimeter per year. The leaves are trifoliate light green in color, attached to elongated petioles and die off at the beginning of winter. Leaves are used to create bouquets. This type is distinguished by unpretentiousness in cultivation, resistance to disease, the ability to grow in shady and semi-shady places, undemanding to the type of soil, but loves moist soil. It can develop for 12 years in the same place. Differs in slow growth, it is used to decorate flower beds and rockeries.
Fern Polyrader Rooting (Polystichum craspedosorum)
This species comes from the Far East, where it grows on rocks and large limestone stones. It is also often found in China and Japan. It is a small shrub, up to 25 cm high, adorned with feathery evergreen leaves, which are formed from a rosette. Rectilinear leaves slightly arched, contain buds on tops. The fern breeds with the help of these buds, which, when in contact with the ground, quickly root and form a new bush.
Fern Tzus-Sminsky polyrader (Polystichum tsus-simense)
This plant species is distinguished by narrow-triangular long leaves of a double-circular structure with a leathery, dense surface. Leaf length about 60 cm, dark green. The Himalayas and China are considered the homeland of this species. Poor tolerates our winters, therefore, needs shelter with agrofiber or deep mulching. In case of severe frost, the leaves may get sick, but with the beginning of spring a new rosette with leaves grows from the center of the bark. In our area is extremely rare due to capriciousness in the cultivation and complexity of reproduction.
Fern polytrophid Bristle (Polystichum setiferum)
This species of fern came to us from the Caucasus, but is considered medium frost-resistant. Differs in large size. Can grow to a height of up to a meter. Evergreen leaves, have a leathery structure and dark color. The leaf is divided into teeth, each of which has a bristle at the end. The general appearance of the fern is very decorative and tracery. Grown in shaded areas, protected from drafts and strong winds. Loves to be grown in a light nutrient soil with an average moisture. In severe frost, the leaves of the shrub may die, so it is advised to plant under the canopy of deciduous trees, such as an apple tree, linden or maple, during the leaves, the leaves of these trees cover the fern and protect it from freezing.
Shrub despite its size has a light openwork look. It is grown in shady places, away from drafts and wind. Prefers a light fertile soil. This type is very popular among flower growers as it has many cultivated varieties.
- Congestum is a variety of dwarf plants not exceeding a height of 30 cm. The shrub has feathery leaves that grow straight and bend slightly at the ends. It tolerates winter frosts, does not change the color of the leaves.
- Divisylobum - this variety is characterized by narrow elongated leaves, which have an openwork form and complex-feathery configuration. The shrub grows to a height of 60 cm and has a width of about 45 cm.
- Imbnkatum - very similar in appearance to the Congestum, however, is slightly larger than it.
- Plumosa Divisilobum - the leaves of these ferns are quite large, consist of overlapping thick feathers, have a three-dimensional fluffy appearance.
- Tilogum - different branching leaves. Very similar to the previous view.
- Dakhlem - characterized by triangular leaves of green color. Three-leafy leaves are kept on long brownish petioles, pubescent with a short pile. The bush has a spherical shape, likes to grow in shaded places with an average humidity.
- Herrenhausen is a very beautiful decorative foliage plant that has thick shiny leaves that form a regular funnel. Horrenhausen does not grow in width, does not release creeping shoots, retains a compact appearance for many years, tolerates frost well, and is often used for gardening gardens and alei.
- Plumesum Densum - characterized by vertically-growing feathery leaves of bright green color, which have a length of 40-45 cm. Prefers to be grown in places with high humidity, far from drafts and direct sun.
- Volastoni Proliferum - this bush of medium height has a beautiful shape, elongated linear leaves of green color. It is grown in semi-shady and shady places, in a medium moisture substrate.
- Shini Holi Farm is a medium-growing fern up to 40 cm high, which has thick green leaves with a fleshy texture. The leaves are kept on medium brown petioles covered with thick hairiness.
All these varieties are bred for the purpose of growing them both in the open field and in indoor conditions, and are distinguished by disease resistance and low maintenance.
Fern polynyadorny Multiresnitchaty (Polystichum polyblefarum)
This species is one of the most cold-resistant ferns, can tolerate frosts over 20 degrees. Twice-leafy leaves are kept on long petioles and have a shiny dark green surface. They have a distinct central vein, covered with brown scales and long fibers on the tips of the leaves. Sporonos are located in one row on the upper side of the leaf, after maturation are spread by wind and grow, falling on wet soil.
Fern Polyhorn Polytichum (Polystichum aculeatum)
Reaches a height of about a meter, has very beautiful leaves that do not change color in winter. They have double feathery structure and dark green color. The upper leaf plate is slightly pubescent, does not grow in width, maintains a compact form for many years. It is grown in shady places, likes loose fertile soil of average humidity. Widely used for decorating gardens, parks and rockeries.
Use of ferns in garden design
Ferns with the greatest efficiency reveal the beauty and diversity of green. Perhaps no other garden plants so expressively demonstrate all the magic of shades and textures, various effects and the possibilities of their use in the design of compositions. After all, greens, not crowned with flowers or flowers are not necessarily boring. Both in nature and in the basis of any garden composition lies precisely the green color, even if it often remains just the background for more rare and colorful shades. The richness of green colors and the amazing structure of the leaves, due to which the ferns and acquire their restrained beauty only emphasizes the grace of the silhouette and is the very decorative basis on which the mystery of the ferns is based.
The leaves, or rather the fronds of the fern, are surprisingly complex. They fascinate no less than the filigree work of the artist-jeweler. Fern leaves are double pinnately-dissected or triply pinniforre-dissected, with each frond consisting of separate leaves, divided into the smallest and often delicate lobes. The beauty of wai begins to unfold already from the moment when the leaves slowly and effectively unfold from the snail-like fluffy buds, but all the grandeur and mystery of these plants are fully revealed only when they unfold to their full length.
Among ferns there are species, such as the multi-row bristle-mongrel, in which the leaves for the winter do not completely die off, but remain until the moment when new fronds appear in the spring. A few, but from no less impressive evergreen ferns, such as all blehnumy, do not lose their beauty, even in winter gardens.
Ferns in the garden landscape. © Amanda Slater
Ferns differ in almost all parameters, except for the growing conditions they require. The absolute majority of the representatives of this family adore nutrient moist soil, shading and humid air.
Variety of garden ferns
In the family of ferns there are plants not only of the most different color, but also of various sizes. These ancient relict cultures are represented in ornamental gardening and formidable giants, and tiny, surprisingly graceful and lace plants. In addition, each fern has a unique personality, stands out against the background of other garden plants, and against the background of its fellows.
Adiantum stopovidny. © eggandi Ostrichnik ordinary. © mywoodlandgarden Orlyak ordinary. © Wholesale Nursery
Among ferns with the most impressive size, the recognized favorite is bracken, a real giant with huge wydas, which in adulthood reaches two meters in height. Not less impressive are the rather large ones. adiantum stopovidny and shields, let them be the size of the eagles. They effectively spread their leaves, creating amazingly beautiful thickets.
In the thyroid, the triangular, pointed shape of the frond only emphasizes the grace of the plant itself, enhances the massiveness of curtains, and the adiantum in the garden is altogether similar to the usual herbaceous perennials in growth density. Stopant-shaped adiantum is difficult to confuse with other ferns precisely because of its unusual thick clumps. Its narrow and light fronds with a dark central vein are located in bushes radiate, forming peculiar easily recognizable spheres and multi-tiered curtains, which from a distance can hardly be attributed to ferns.
There are among the ferns and those plants that attract primarily original color. Elegant Red-Thorus Shrubber with its not very large fronds, different in shape from most of the shield workers, it seems to be covered with rust or bronze bloom. This fern has rounded leaflets in lobes that only emphasize the shape and classical wai lines, due to which the plant seems to be an ancient giant.
Multiple setae. © 99roots Kostenets skolopendrovy. © Archie Young The ladder is female. © John Tulloc
Wai has become famous for his amazing density as an exemplary member of the family. multiple setae. This fern with leaves that look like an open palm strikes with almost perfect symmetry, graceful, but almost straight wai lines and amazing lace with a massive silhouette.
Leaves Blehnum gnarly seem fancy miniature green stairs. Upright, with narrow rare leaves and lobes, they seem to aspire to the heights and create steps, they look amazingly impressive in the shadows. This fern extravagant form is complemented by a bright, glowing color.
One of the most elegant and vibrant ferns. Ostrich man it is distinguished by almost patterned bushes created by fancifully arranged wide wiases and an amazing shade of iridescent green “forest” color.
Ferns in the garden landscape. © Family O’Abe
By the most unusual ferns rightfully ranked and female ladder. Like all other bobblers, this fern looks delicate and surprisingly elegant, thanks to tightly located leaves in the fronts it looks feathery and somewhat resembles palm trees. Shrubs at the nomadic are neat, almost symmetrical. Today, nomads with purple and silver colors are especially popular.
Solid plates of leaves or dense curl attracts a miniature and somewhat restrained fern Kostenets scholopendry. Small and very original, he puts surprisingly cheerful accents in the compositions. Seemingly accrete waii in curly bushes are especially good in rockeries, conquer with quantity and accuracy, unusual beauty.
Red-tip guard © stauden-poltermann Derbyanka is spiky, or Blechnum is spiky. © echinops garden
Winning partners for star ferns
In order for the ferns to become the perfect basis for garden compositions and successfully fit into the company of classical garden perennials, they need to find a decent accompaniment. Traditionally, ferns are combined with decorative leafy plants, which, however, do not limit the range of suitable partners for these restrained aristocrats.
Amazing contrasts in the composition with the most spectacular ferns will bring flowering large-leaved plants. For large ferns, such as bracken or adiantum, it is best to pick up accompaniment from bergenia, astilbe, rogers, host, fan kyrengeshomy.
Medium-sized ferns beautifully highlight the beauty of flowering rhododendrons, successfully complemented by oak mats, comfortable host bushes. In such a company, iridescent ferns with iridescent colors will seem even more luxurious.
Ferns in the garden landscape. © Michelle Gervais
Но компания ни одного другого растения не заставит красоту папоротников раскрыться в столь полной мере, как высадка рядом хотя бы одного отличающегося по окрасу и форме папоротника. Смешивание разных видов этих удивительных растений как будто усиливает декоративность каждого и в еще большей мере раскрывает красоту зелени.
Красивое растение с глянцевыми и довольно толстыми и крупными листочками, которые образуют воронку практически правильной формы. Данный папоротник не обладает ползущими свойствами, очень зимостоек, может использоваться в качестве декоративного растения на протяжении нескольких десятков лет.
Фото подвида Херренхаузен:
Вырастает примерно до 45 сантиметров. Куст имеет вертикальное направление и перистые листья, окрашенные в насыщенный зеленый оттенок. For this fern, choose places with well-moistened air, protected from drafts and direct sunlight.
Photos subspecies Plumozum-Densum:
Shiney Holi Farms
Fern, whose height reaches more than forty centimeters. The leaves are thick and fleshy to the touch, they are green in color, and are attached to small petioles.
Photo subspecies Shini Holy Farms:
Humidity and lighting
For the cultivation of many rows of a particular type is better to choose a plot with high humidity. Care must be taken to ensure that the place is reliably protected from direct sunlight, as well as from drafts and cold wind.
Many of them can be easily grown in the shade, on a garden, highly fertile substrate, which has good drainage.
Being originally a forest fern, the Multi-row can be grown in open field. He perezimuet without any problems even without shelter.
For some species, another substrate must be provided: large stones with a small amount of soil between them. In this case perfect broken brick.
Transplant and pruning
This fern does not require regular transfers. Thus, only one transplant per year will suffice.
It is carried out in the spring, picking up the pot in size. For plants need watering with plenty of water.
However, it is not necessary to allow the formation of stagnant fluids, because this will adversely affect the development of the plant.
To prevent such a phenomenon will help correct drainage.
Also in the spring pruning, which allows you to get rid of dead or damaged parts of the fern bush.
Multiple rows can be propagated in several ways. This often happens by dividing the bush or cuttings rhizomes. Reproduction is also practiced by spores, but in this case it is difficult to achieve a positive result at home.
Vegetative division of the bush should be carried out either in spring, before the flowering period, or at the end of the summer season.
Some polysper rows can root in the soil by buds growing on the petioles.
Diseases and pests
Very close row resistant to damage numerous pests and diseases. Therefore, it is extremely rare for a plant to notice any signs of disturbance. The most dangerous pest is scale. To protect the fern from it, it is necessary to treat it with a special chemical substance before flowering.
A plant like multi-row does not possess any useful properties.
However, it is often enough used as decoration for stony sites and original dressing of shaded sites.
The polyrow today is represented by a huge number of diverse species.
The most popular of them are actively used to decorate places where other plants are not accepted.
It multiplies in different ways, not demanding care.
The main thing is to provide protection from the sun and wind, as well as good drainage. These ferns will decorate the site for many years.
Multiple row. Fern. The rhizomes are short, ascending or creeping, the scapes are covered with scales, the fronds are leathery.
The multi-row genus includes about 175 species of ferns with short ascending scaly rhizomes and tightly bundled leathery leaves with scaly petioles, as well as sorus (special fern sporangia) arranged in several rows, for which it received its name.
Sori rounded at the middle or at the end of the fertile vein, rounded bract attached at the middle, the veins not bearing the sori are never thickened, petiole without articulation, leathery leaves with teeth that end in a hard bristle, bilateral spores. Description photo view
The main difficulty in growing is maintaining the necessary high humidity, but compared to other ferns, the multi-row is less demanding of it.
The optimal place for growing the most favorable northern exposure. Due to its high shade tolerance, it feels good in rooms that are too dark for other plants.
Requirements for lighting Very shade-tolerant, does not like direct sunlight. Can grow with one artificial light.
Requirements for temperature Does not tolerate temperatures below 13 ° C: sharp temperature fluctuations (including between day and night) are especially harmful.
Soil For young plants, the earth is optimal - a mixture of peat, leaf and humus soil with sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 1. For adult specimens, turf ground is added, then the ratio will be as follows: 3: 3: 1: 1: 2. Unlike the rest of indoor plants, it can grow in pure peat for a long time. Of the shingle soils, you can use only the specialized “For ferns” land forests.
Very hygrophilous, requires abundant watering, does not tolerate the drying of earthen coma. Water for irrigation and spraying should be soft.
Need daily spraying.
Top dressing During the period of active growth alternating Top dressings with solutions of mineral and organic fertilizers are desirable.
Features care. If the earth in the pot is compacted, it must be loosened.
It is advisable to replant annually. When transplanting need to remove spoiled roots.
Reproduction Mainly by dividing rhizomes.
Difficulties of cultivation The most common problem is the drying (wilting) of the leaves, due to increased dryness of the air.
Minimum Requirements Ferns do not tolerate significant changes in optimal care. You can save time on care only by placing water tanks next to the plant (in this case, you can spray every other day if the leaves did not begin to turn yellow) or use automatic air humidifiers.
Brown's row - Polystichuh Braunii Fee Gen. Fil. (1850), 282, Wings. Fl. Western Sib. I, 31 ,, Aspidium Braunii FI. Freib. 1, 9 (1825), Schmalg. II, 692. - Ic .: Spenn, 1. p., F. 94-96, Luerss. Farpfl., 352, f. 141, 142. - Exs .: FI. exs. Austro-Hung., N ° 2035. —Sch. L. membranous, oblong-lanceolate, lively shiny, double-pinnorased, along the veins and along the rods covered with filmy hairs, the 1st order segments are arranged horizontally, oblong, inferior blunt, upper short-pointed, 2nd-order segments located at right angles to the terminals of 1st-order segments, they themselves are oblong-trapezoidal with a dull ear at the base, their middle vein is sinuous, sometimes translucent, lateral with 1-2 forks, sori pretty large, merging, sit on top shkah fruit-bearing veins, or near them, spores oval, kidney-shaped, with anastomoziruyu- conductive unevenly-toothed grebeshochkami that over the entire surface covered with even the smallest needles. VII, VIII.
Shady forests. - European part Upper Volga region, Middle Dnieper region, Caucasus: Ciscaucasian region, Western and Eastern Transcaucasia, Western Siberia: Obskoe interfluve (Tom), Altai, Eastern Siberia: Yenisei, Far East: Ussuri region, Sakhalin General distribution: Scandinavia, Atlantic Europe and Central Europe, Japan and China, North America. Described from Europe.
Polystichuh Woronowi Fom. in Moniteur du Jard. bbt. d. Tiflis, 18 (1910) 21, in FI. cauc. crit. I, 1, 94. - Ic .: Fom. (1900) tab. ad p. 22. - O. Perennial. L. Oblong-deltoid, pointed, leathery-membranous, with matt dark green from the upper side, segments of the 1st order are lanceolate-linear, in the upper part leaves are sickle-shaped upward, in the middle horizontal, segments of the 2nd order are 8—12 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, oval or oblong-oval, serrated or nadre-cut-bladed, blunt, suddenly turning at the top into an awn, at the base with an oval ear, the blades of their dentate-spinous, lateral veins of the sterile segments give narrow forks , in fertile broader, soru to the top ah fruit-bearing twigs bract chestnut, spores of brown, reniform scalloped-oval with grebeshochkami, petiole dark chestnut coated films, in the middle of carrying the black spot, rods with dark chestnut hair-like films. VII, VIII. Disputes often do not develop.
In beech and other shady forests - Caucasus: Western Transcaucasia, Talyshsky District. General distribution: endem. Described from Abkhazia. Type in Tbilisi district.
Polystichuh lobatum (Sw.) Presl Tent. Pterid. (1836) 83 emend. — Aspidium lobatum Sw. in Schrad. Journ. II (1800) 37, Schmalg. II, 693. — Ic. Moore et Lindl. Brit. Ferns tab. 10 et 11, Luerss. Farnpfl. 335, f. 138. - Exs .: Sredinsky Herb, crypt., N ° 13, Herb. FI. Asiae med., N ° 401. - L. hard, leathery, hibernating, slightly shiny, lanceolate, pointed, double-pinnate, segments of the 1st order oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, sometimes narrow and jagged (var. Angustilobum Fom.), gradually pointed, second-order segments sessile, or lowermost on short petioles, elliptical, pointed, forward-inclined, lowermost larger, sometimes significantly (var. umbraticum Knze), all serrate-hard-spinous , the ears are sometimes strongly elongated (var. auriculatum Luerss.), and the spines are elongated (var. aristatum Christ.), Dhu leaves are covered with narrow, hair-like films, as well as the average stem, petiole with brown, big films, sori large, numerous, confluent, sitting above the middle of fruit-bearing branches of veins, bract membranous, oval spores with anastomo- ziruyuschimi grebeshochkami. VII, VIII.
Deciduous forests and rocks, including the alpine belt. - European part: Middle Dnieper region (Volyn), Lower Don (Kharkiv region, Pokotylivka), Caucasus: Ciscaucasia (Stavropol), Dagestan, Eastern and Western Transcaucasia, Talysh district, Central Asia: Tien-Shan district (Chotkal), Pamiro Alai district (Gissar, Hakimi). General distribution: Central Europe, the Mediterranean, the Balkan Peninsula - Maloaz. Described from Wed. Of Europe. Type in London.
Polystichuh microchiamys Kodama in Tokyo Bot. Mag. XXIX (1925) 326. — P. kamtschaticum C. Christens et E. Hulten ex Fom. in FI. Sib. et or. Extr. V (1930) 94. - P. Braunii var. kamtschaticum C. Christens, et E. Hult. in Hulten. FI. Kamtsh. 1 (1927), 38. - P. Braunii var. subsessilis Kom. FI. Kamtsch. (1927) 64. - Ic .: E. Hulten. FI. of Kamtsch. I, tab. 2.— L. oblong-lanceolate, leathery, sharp, dark green, bipypisto-separate, up to 1 m long and up to 25 cm wide, segments of the 1st order are lanceolate, drawn to the top, oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, sharp, sharply serrated, often slightly sickle-shaped, lower with an eye, their sharp teeth end in the butt of the petiole rather long, densely dressed with wide and narrow brown films, rods Covered with narrow lanceolate and linear films, sori two-row and do not merge among themselves, spores. elliptical, improperly folded-wrinkled, remaining cover. Viii.
In the shady ravines and on the lawns among the thickets of alder. - Far East: Kamchatka. General distribution: Northern Japan, Kurilsk. islands. Described from Japan. Type in Geneva.
Our most common form. The stalks are dark brown, fronds are feathery, the segments are arranged in the form of alternate leaves, unevenly serrated along the edges.
Polystichuh tripteron (Kunze) Presl. Epim. (1849) 55. — Aspidium tripteron Kunze Bot. Ztg. (1848) 569. - Ic .: Diels in Engl. u. PrantI 1, 4 (1902) 190, f. 90, com. and Al. Opt. (1931) table. 8. - Perennial. The rhizome is short, the leaves are threefold, and the upper part is much higher than the side, the plate is slightly leathery, pinnately separate, the scape is “long, like the stem, dressed with brown films, the segments are narrow-lanceolate and slightly sickle-shaped, with an ear at the top edge, sharp -double-sawed, about 4 cm long and 1.5 cm wide, with a wedge-shaped base, sori along the edges of the segment, a small veil, elliptical spores with folded exospore. VII — IX.
Mixed forests. — Far East: Ussuri region. General distribution: Japan and China. Described from Japan. Type in Leningrad.
Polystichuh angulare (Presl.) Fom. emend, in FI. cauc. crit. I, 1 (1911) 89. - Ic .: Moore et Lindl: Brit. Ferns tab. 12, Luerss. Farnpf. f. 139. - Exs .: Herb.OH. Christ, Hispan., Galicia. - €> t.
Rhizome thickly covered with films, leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, softer, twice-three-pinnate, segments of the 1st order are lanceolate, pointed, 2nd-order up to 8 mm long and 4 mm wide on thin petioles, oval, bases with a dull eye, sometimes strongly developed (var. hastulatum Knze.), at the apex blunt, finely spiny, the notches between the blades, often small (var. microlobum Warnst.) and segments of the 2nd order are roundish, the lowermost segments of the 2nd order deeper notched, but almost equal with others, lateral veins with 1-2 wide open E forks, sori sit at the top of fruit-bearing twigs bract thin, filmy, smooth-edged with spores oval grebeshochkami and laterally often wrinkled, petiole films with large alternating with capilliform, brown plenochku, and which become a rod. VII, VIII.
Shady beech forests. - European part, Crimea, Caucasus: Western Transcaucasia General distribution: Central Europe, Mediterranean Described from Central Europe Type in London.
Notes. In the Caucasus, gives a cross with P. lobatum Presl and P. Braunii Fee.
Application, economic value. Decorate. R. for stony groups in the gardens.
Polystichuh craspedosorum (Maxim.) Diels in Engl. u. Prantl 1.4 (1902) 189. - Aspidium craspedosorum Maxim, in Bull. Acad. Petr. XV (1871) 231. - Ic .: Diels, 1, p., H. Christ Farnkr. d. Erde (1897) 235, f. 743, com. and Al. Opt. (1931) table. 19 - Perennial. The rhizome is short, the leaves are only up to 15 cm long and 5 cm wide, with a short petiole densely covered with films, the plate is linear-lanceolate, leathery, pinto-split, the stem exceeds it and ends with a rooting kidney, the segments are axial with an ear at the top, 2 cm long : 1 cm wide, the edges of the segments are crenate-toothed, the sori are almost exclusively along the upper edge of the segment, large with a non-falling bract, elliptical spores, with a granular surface. VIII, ix. (Table I, f. 7 a — c).
On shaded rocks, prefers limestones. - Far East: Ussuri region Described from Sihote-Alin. Type in Leningrad.
Notes. Suitable for culture in greenhouses, as an indicator of ferns with rooting leaf top
Differs in larger size and the fact that the leaves stick up, and their ends are pointed.
The plant is about 30 cm tall, the lobes of the leaves are quite large, in shape - something between cogged with rounded teeth and lobes (even on one leaflet there may be several rounded protrusions-teeth and two or three lobes). Better than other ferns tolerates a lack of atmospheric humidity.
Multi-row bristle (bristle-cutting)
Multi-row bristle, or as it is also called, multi-row Plumozum Densum - forms a lush lush shrub up to 1 m tall with wintering fronds on short petioles.
The leaves are dark green in color with jagged edges, dense and shiny. The cloves of the feathery sheet pass into the setae. Bristle-fern prefers fertile and light soil with moderate watering.Place for its growth should choose a shaded and protected from wind and draft. It grows well under the trees, the foliage of which, when falling in the fall, will protect the multi-row bristle-bearing moth from freezing.
Multi-row lancet - rather rare species of fern, forms an evergreen shrub 40-60 cm tall. This is a perennial with a thickened rhizome, which is covered with the remains of leaf stalks.
Leaf about 5-6 cm wide, rigid, leathery, linear-lanceolate with a sharp end. Fronds grow on petioles 6–7 cm long. Brown films cover the lower part of the feathery leaf plate.
This plant grows well on rocks and in shady coniferous forests. Reproduction occurs disputes that ripen by September.
Tsushima Multi-Rise Grows compact durable bush with a height of 40-60 cm. The leaves of this species are narrow-triangular, double-pointed. Vayi rich green color dense and glossy.
The plant is not winter-hardy; it requires careful shelter for the winter. The soil of Tsushima fern requires weak acid with regular moistening and top dressing. It develops well in shady places, reliably protected from drafts.
Mnogoryadnik prickly forms lush bush-survivor height of about 1 meter with good decorative zimnezelennye characteristics. The leaves are shiny, emerald green, high density, double-pointed. Top of shoot slightly pubescent.
This type of winter-hardy, does not require shelter. Thorny fern requires for good growth places with high humidity, protected from winds and direct sunlight.
Many rows of fetal forms neat winter green bush with a short rhizome, which is used in traditional medicine. The fronds grow 30-90 cm long, the leaf is once-circular, linear with sorus, which are arranged in two rows mirror-image from the main vein. The spore-bearing feather is on top of the front side of the leaf, which is slightly shorter and already normal.
This species is winter hardy, prefers semi-shady areas. Quite easily grown on household plots in fertile, drained land with moderate moisture. When planting this species of fern, one should take into account the peculiarity of its long spore germination period.
The multiple row protected represents sparse shrub with fronds up to 1 m long. Lanceolate leaves once feathery, winter-green. The homeland of this poorly winter-hardy fern is considered to be the cool wet forests of America.
In our latitudes, it successfully grows in darkening on fertile soils previously drained. Короткие корневища обладают лечебными свойствами, их можно употреблять в пищу в запеченном виде. Для размножения семенами рекомендуется использовать рассадный способ.
Многорядник такого вида, как трехраздельный, произрастает красивым плотным шарообразным кустом до 40 см высотой. Корневище растения короткое, с ответвлениями, довольно медленно растет. Вайи многорядника бледно-зеленые, тройчатые, растут на довольно длинном черешке. Листья трехраздельного папоротника радуют глаз с конца апреля до первых заморозков.
Эта разновидность неприхотлива, весьма холодостойка, устойчива к заболеваниям, оптимальными условиями произрастания являются тенистые влажные участки. Reproduction is carried out by dividing the bush and rhizomes. A three-part multiple row can grow and develop well without transplanting over 10 years. Decorative qualities of this type are successfully used in rockeries or shady flower beds.
Many rows of rooting came to us from the rocks and limestone of the Far East. Plant forms bush height of 20-25 cm From the rosette from the rhizome grow feathery winter-green leaves. The fronds of a multi-row fern are linear, curved in an arc, the vertex is often completed by a brood bud, which is able to take root upon contact with the ground and eventually give a young seedling.
Winter-hardy type, often used for decoration of semi-dark landscaped hills, with stones and a little soil between them being used as a ground.
A multi-stranded multislot is ornamental shrub up to 50 cm tall. The leaves are dark green in color, hard, glossy-shiny, arched. Winter fronds, twice-feathery, are distinguished by the presence of a brownish vein, covered with small scales. Sori formed one line at the bottom of the sheet.
This species is winter-hardy, prefers partial shade for growth on humus drained soil.