For the first time, seedlings of the hybrid form of Veles grapes became available to fans of this culture in 2009. Photo varieties and description of the grapes Veles, obtained by the famous Ukrainian breeder-enthusiast V.V. Zagorulko, aroused serious interest from the growers of Ukraine, southern Russia and even Belarus.
Characteristics of the Veles grape and its description
New seedless grapes showed very early ripening, surpassing even the "parent" varieties Rusbol and Sofia. From the moment of budding to harvest, it takes only 95–100 days, while Sofia has this period of 110–125 days, and Rusbol matures in 115–125 days. Obviously, the more distant ancestor was able to influence the early ripening of Veles - the seedless grape variety Magaracha, which gives berries after 80–85 days from the time the buds burst.
The hybrid has a very high growth rate of bushes, under favorable weather conditions, the shoots mature well.
The number of eyes on a bush should not exceed 35. With this account it is necessary, as in the video, to form a grape bush, while on the shoots 2-4 powerful volumetric inflorescences consisting of small yellow-green bisexual flowers are left. Such a flower structure of a promising hybrid facilitates pollination and allows for very large brushes to be tied, up to 30 cm long and about 20 cm wide. The clusters are voluminous, very branchy, of medium density or loose, have the shape of a wide cone.
According to the description and photo of the Velez grape, ripe clusters weigh from 600 to 2000 grams, although the winegrowers, who have already managed to grow bushes on their plots and get the first crops, demonstrate brushes weighing about 3 kg. The hybrid, attributable to the third class of seedlessness, has a high consumer appeal and taste.
As the berries ripen, they acquire a spectacular pink hue and reach a weight of 5 grams.
Dense, jelly, translucent pulp has a decent taste with a pronounced nutmeg. According to experts, the taste of the new hybrid deserves higher marks than the berries of another famous variety - Radiant Kishmish. No wonder the novelty of selection in 2010, just at the tasting, was awarded two top awards at the Crimean competition "Golden Grape Bunch".
Berries are covered with an invisible grape skin of medium thickness. In 20% of the berries, seed rudiments that do not interfere with the taste perception are noted.
Features of the technology of growing grapes
If the grape growing technology provides for the treatment of gibberellin brushes, oval berries grow larger and longer, and the number of completely seedless fruits increases dramatically. Already existing experience of growing grapes in the open field shows that high humidity can cause the development of gray rot cracking ripening berries.
Brushes with ripe berries are well stored and transported. Shoots tolerate the weight of clusters. In dry weather, brushes up to one and a half months can remain on the vine, fully preserving all taste and juiciness. According to the reviews of wine-growers, even a slight degree of grazing does not affect the bunch of grapes, but only enhances the nutmeg notes.
According to the photo of the variety and the description of the grapes Veles is prone to the formation of stepchildren. In the southern regions of this growth receive an additional second crop, ripening in late September or in October. In the middle lane, where less time is left for ripening of shoots, it is better to remove the stepsons.
Reproduction and care for grapes Velez
For the reproduction of grapes used harvested in the fall cuttings. Saplings can be either with their own root system or grafted. The survival rate of new plantings is high, fruiting in favorable conditions may begin in the second year, but for better development of the bush it is more expedient to remove the resulting inflorescences. In the care of the hybrid form does not cause much trouble. Veles grapes has an average of 3.5 points resistant to downy mildew and oidium. When carrying out preventive treatments of this culture with means of protection, the risk of infection with these diseases becomes minimal.
Winter hardiness of the variety that withstands temperatures down to –21 ° C is insufficient to grow grapes in the open field without additional shelters in the middle lane. In the southern areas, Velez winters well, and even if individual shoots are damaged by the cold, the bushes quickly recover in a season.
It is possible to improve the maturation of the shoots and improve the quality of the crop with the help of spring pruning and normalization.
At the same time on the vine leave 6-8 eyes to escape, and under favorable climatic conditions on strong bushes increase the load. As can be seen in the photo and from the description, Veles grapes are characterized by high yield. Shrubs annually form inflorescences and give a large number of ovaries. The first main harvest is removed in August, and when using stepsons, the second wave of berries ripen in mid-autumn.
This characteristic feature of the culture suggests that the hybrid is suitable for cultivation in a variety of climatic zones, from central Russia to the Kuban and the Crimea. With the observance of the technology of growing grapes, Veles will regularly supply the grower with large, excellent quality berries.
What will please Velez, the grapes of the god of fertility?
This grape variety is not for nothing called the name of the Slavic god who was responsible for fertility. The Veles grapes are indeed fertile, with the great merit of the parent varieties: Sophia and Rusbola.
As a result of crossing these varieties by the breeder Zagorulko, who is engaged in viticulture as an amateur, and thanks to the excellent weather conditions, an excellent permanent grape was born. Today the variety is widely distributed throughout Ukraine, the south of Belarus, as well as in the Central and Southern regions of Russia.
Appearance and size of the cluster of grapes "Veles"
The weight and size of an average bunch that can ripen on a grape bush of the Veles variety can be attributed to a large and very large one. In particular, the majority of clusters during the period of removable maturity are capable of reaching a mass of more than 3 kilograms, and the smallest clusters weigh 0.6 kilograms. The length of the bunch is on average 18 centimeters, and the width can be up to 13.
The length of the bunch is on average 18 centimeters, and the width can be up to 13.At the same time, its structure is quite loose, the berries are not placed tightly, it has many branches. Due to its conical shape, the bunches look very cute,
The berries on the bunch also have a beautiful view and size. They weigh about 4-5 grams, differ in pink skin and transparent amber pulp. At the same time, due to the high density of the pulp, in which the seeds are absent or absolutely not felt, the fruits of the Veles grapes are extremely palatable. The skin of the grape berries of this variety is thin, with food also not felt. When they eat, there is a not very distinct aroma of muscat.
The volume of the harvest of grapes "Veles": what will please the variety
Not to note the high yield of this grape variety is not possible. Thanks to the vigorous shrub and the ability to get a pasikovy harvest, about 4-6 kilograms of grapes get from one bush. But, with good care, its volume can increase significantly. An important factor is the stability of the crop, regardless of the age of the bush.
It is worth paying attention to the fact that this variety has a very short period of ripening of the crop. The growing season of the grape bush lasts only 95-100 days. With good bush lighting and good weather conditions, harvesting is possible at the very beginning of August. It is for this reason that the variety is ideal for the climate of Central Russia and the Moscow region, as it has time to mature before the onset of cold weather.
The advantages of "Veles": what can boast the most successful grape variety?
• Large yields of high-quality berries by all criteria.
• Early ripening of the crop.
• With stable and dry weather, grapes and clusters are capable of maintaining a beautiful appearance and taste for a long time (about 1.5 months). Berries do not crumble on their own.
• Due to the density of the pulp of the grapes "Veles", the crop without damage tolerates long-term transportation.
• The grapevine is not damaged when the air temperature drops below -21 ° C, however, this crop requires shelter for the winter. Major eyes can be severely damaged.
• The presence of a bisexual flower simplifies the features of grooming and planting the variety.
• Grapes have an average resistance to fungal diseases that are most common in the vineyards: powdery mildew and oidium.
What can disappoint the grapes "Veles": the disadvantages of the variety
Unfortunately, but the finest harvest of the described variety can be significantly affected in bad weather conditions, especially with high humidity and frequent precipitation. In this case, the berries crack, which causes them to rot. Under similar weather conditions, it is imperative to harvest the crop in a timely manner and store it in dry rooms.
The disadvantages include the fact that the Veles variety is very young and not yet sufficiently studied. Thus, depending on growing conditions and climatic conditions, it may exhibit other not very good characteristics. This is especially true of its resistance to diseases and pests. Thus, in order not to lose the grape harvest, it is recommended to spray the bush with special universal preparations prophylactically.
Reproduction peculiarities of the Veles grape variety
For this variety are possible almost all types of planting of grapes, except for sowing seeds. It is best to purchase seedlings of this class in specialized nurseries, which can be grown on their own roots or grafted to other rootstocks.
You can do the independent harvesting cuttings from the grape bush, root them in the soil and then plant, or plant in the old stock. The quality of the grown shrub practically does not depend on the method of planting, only in the case of grafting on the old stock, the shrub will be able to develop much faster and begin to bear fruit.
Spring and autumn planting of Veles grapes: pro and con
The question of exactly what time of year to plant grapes is very serious. Indeed, in any case, there are both pluses and shortcomings.
Springtime is certainly more optimal for planting seedlings and for grafting. After all, there is a warm season and a whole growing season, during which a new bush will have time to take root and grow strong to survive the first winter. Besides, The Veles grapes planted in spring already during the second growing season may please with the first inflorescences and crops.
However, in the spring it is much more difficult to find the desired and undamaged sapling and cutting with which the nurseries simply teem in the autumn. When spring planting is also very important not to miscalculate with the landing time: it can stretch from the last days of March to the last days of May. When planting early it is important to harbor a sapling.
Autumn planting is good because at this time you can not only find a lot of honeycombs of seedlings, in particular, the Veles variety, but also have to work less with it. The fact is that another drawback of spring is often dry soil, which requires frequent watering. In the autumn, it will be enough to water only the grapes planted, to cover and forget about it before the onset of spring heat.
In fact, the effect of planting will be the same as in the spring, because in cold weather, the sapling will not grow, it is simply stored in the soil. But with this “storage”, the probability of damage to a seedling by low temperatures and freezing of the soil is very high. Also, if it is bad to cover, all the moisture can come out of the sapling with frost, which will reduce its adaptability.
Place for planting grapes: what you need to know about the whims of "Veles"?
Almost all grape varieties have such a feature as a strong dependence on good lighting and a cozy place to grow. Sunlight and heat are the key to quick ripening of the crop, and the absence of cold drafts - preservation of inflorescences.
The soil of the grapes "Veles" loves fertile, with a good ability to pass moisture. Excessive wet marshy soil is categorically not suitable for this variety, as it will cause cracking of berries. It is better to choose black soil or to bring the soil ideality artificially, by adding fertilizer to it, creating a drainage system. Also, it is very important to choose those places where groundwater does not rise above 1.5 meters even with heavy precipitation.
The fact is that in this variety the bush has very good growth, for which it needs a lot of space. If the bushes are planted very thickly, they can shade each other. Grapes are often planted near the walls of buildings, and in such a case it is necessary to retreat from the building by at least 0.7 meters so that the foundation does not interfere with the development of the root system of the bush.
Planting Veles seedlings of grapes: the order of the task
Before planting it is very important to choose the sapling itself. A healthy and intact seedling has white roots and a green cut. Spring seedlings grown on their own roots, have green shoots with leaves. Before planting, the roots of a seedling must be dipped in water for a day or two, and also treated with a solution that is able to stimulate root formation. Such a solution can be made on the basis of the drug "Gumat", whose concentration in 1 liter of water should not exceed 10 drops.
Pit preparation and the planting of the seedling itself also has many nuances:
• It is recommended to prepare the pit much earlier than the landing itself. For spring planting of grapes, this should be done in the fall so that the soil can sift well. When spring planting pit digging for 2 weeks. In addition to the pit, it is important to prepare the site in advance: dig it up and apply fertilizer.
• The depth and width of the pit should be at least 0.8 meters. This will put a good layer of fertilizer on its bottom: humus and mineral fertilizers mixed with fertile soil. Having filled this mixture to the bottom of the pit, it is very important to cover it with simple soil, which will make it possible not to burn the roots of the seedling during planting.
• The seedling is placed in a pit at such a depth that its root collar will be above the soil surface. If the pit is fresh, you can raise it above the soil even by 5 centimeters. Bury the grape seedling should be very carefully and slowly, trying not to damage the roots, but do not leave airbags near its roots. Therefore, having dug a hole only half in, it is recommended to pour in a bucket of water and then complete the process.
• Having planted a grape seedling it is poured over with 2-3 more buckets of water (depending on soil moisture) and mulch the soil around it.
• While the soil is loose, it is imperative to drive a strong support near the sapling. It will allow you to direct the growth of the vine in the direction you want.
How to graft the cuttings of grapes "Veles" on the old stock?
In order to have a good grape graft graft, you need to pick a good stalk and a good stock. The stalk is harvested from the Veles grapevine and must be waxed (this procedure allows you to retain moisture in it for much longer). The lower part of the cutting must be cut with a wedge, which serves as the basis for its good rooting. Also, the cut-off part is kept in water and root-forming solution before grafting.
In a well-trimmed after removing a bush and a split old stock, the stalk is placed only in the trimmed part. After this, the stock is very tightly tightened with the help of fabric or lace. If the stock is wide - more than one cutting can be placed in it. To preserve moisture in the stock and cuttings, it is recommended to cover the inoculation site with wet clay and cover.
Briefly about the features of care for grapes "Veles"
For optimal growth of the bush and the formation of the harvest, grapes require a lot of moisture. It is not necessary to water the bush very often, because it has a strong root system and is able to “extract” moisture from the soil on its own. However, during the most responsible vegetative processes of watering it is necessary to carry out the following:
• At the time of the first buds blooming on the vine
• At the time of the formation of grapes on peas.
To make irrigation more effective, they carry out another important action: they mulch the soil around the vine. In addition to retaining moisture from evaporation, mulch also serves as an excellent fertilizer. The fact is that the best mulch is stubborn and blackened sawdust, wet forest moss, peat and humus, which, over time, decompose and saturate the soil with nourishing grapes.
It is optimal to make a layer of mulch about 3 centimeters so that it does not impede the entry of air into the soil.
Но, мульча не способна удовлетворить абсолютно все запросы виноградного куста по подкормке, поэтому в почву периодически стоит вносить перегной, калий и фосфор под перекопку или в качестве раствора. Стоит учесть, что лишком обильные подкормки могут быть губительны для винограда, поэтому важно не перестараться.
Перед наступлением зимы или очень ранней весной куст винограда обрезается. Pruning not only allows you to form the correct shape of the bush, but is a good stimulant to increase the quality of the crop. For a bush of grapes "Veles" optimally remove about 6-8 holes. Leave no more than 4 sleeves. With the likelihood of severe frosts, shorten the vine can be stronger. Also, pruned and damaged parts of the vine, which are completely removed and burned.
We have already mentioned above that this variety requires sheltering for the winter. With only young saplings, it is easier to carry out this task: you can use a plastic valve with a cropped bottom or another large container without a bottom. It is set above the seedling and completely covered with soil until spring. Large and adult bushes are covered with a film, from which something like a tunnel is created. Also, for the winter shtamb bushes as densely covered mulch.
From the defeat of fungal diseases to protect the grape bush allow special sprays, which are carried out prophylactically each year. The frequency of such spraying should be at least 3 times per season (can be carried out at the same time as watering). Herbicides are usually used for spraying, but it is more optimal to select the drug specifically for the type of disease that will make the fight against it much more effective.
Description of the variety with photos, characteristics
Growing Veles engaged growers of Ukraine, Belarus, Central Russia and the Far East. The ripening period of grapes is short - from 95 to 105 days. Clusters begin to ripen in early August. The main characteristic of the hybrid - yield.
Apparently because of the fertility, the author gave the variety the name of the Slavic god of fertility. Yields are stable, annual. Increased yields can be attributed to the tendency of the hybrid to form stepchildren, on which clusters are formed. Shrubs are characterized by strong growth, saplings and cuttings take root well. The frost resistance (-21 °) of the grapes allows its cultivation in covering culture in regions with moderate climatic conditions. Bushes need formative pruning. Apply medium (6 eyes) and short pruning.
The maximum bunch weight is 3 kg. This result is obtained by experienced growers with proper care of the bush. The average lover can expect a bunch weighing one kilogram or a little less. The clusters are not dense, friable, conical in shape, dimensions are 20 cm * 30 cm. The average weight of the berry is 5 g. The skin on the berries is thin, can be damaged by wasps, and can crack from the excess moisture in the soil and air.
In the pulp and aroma there are notes of nutmeg, the taste of the pulp is original. The hybrid belongs to the seedless (3rd class) forms of grapes; when analyzing its characteristics, the comparison is carried out with the raisin Radiant. The seeds of Veles are small, underdeveloped or absent completely, are not felt during the meal.
Ripe, pink berries get a delicate shade of amber. Brighter colored sunlit clusters. Due to the beautiful color, large size, clusters are attractive, have commercial value. On the bushes Veles there are flowers for women and men. Problems with pollination does not occur. Additional pollination guarantees a 20% yield increase.
Drought, sunny weather does not affect the presentation of the brushes, but prolonged rains, wet cold weather can impose on the appearance of the cluster its imprint. Berries in such weather often burst, it worsens the presentation, reduces the consumer value of the variety. Matured clusters can not rush to cut. Up to 45 days, they hang on the bushes, preserving the taste, presentation. At the same time, protection against wasps is necessary, they can damage the thin skin of berries.
Due to the low level of knowledge of the variety, due to its relative novelty, there is no exact data on the relation of the variety to diseases. Judging by the comments of winegrowers, it can be assumed that the possibility of fungal diseases is quite high. Accordingly, the hybrid needs regular (3 times per season) measures to prevent fungal infection. In relation to diseases, the author rated:
- 3.5 - for resistance to mildew,
- 3.5 - for resistance to oidium.
Advantages and disadvantages
A preliminary idea of the variety can be obtained from a short list of advantages of a hybrid:
- early maturity
- frost resistance
- customer value - presentation, great taste.
- suffers from wasps,
- the berries are cracking from excessive moisture,
- need prevention of fungal diseases.
Planting and care
Velez propagated by cuttings, saplings. Previously, fruiting bushes grown from seedlings. Rooting cuttings is good, but the first harvest will have to wait longer. It makes no sense to give the same recommendations on the choice of a place to novice wine-growers from the south, Siberia or the Moscow region.
If in the south light shading of a bush in the middle of the day is welcomed, in the Moscow region the same shading will slow down the aging of shoots. We can conclude from this - for a temperate climate the most sunny part of the garden is the best choice. In hilly terrain, preference is given to southern and southwestern slopes. Grape bushes get 10% more heat.
When planning a vineyard, take into account the direction of the world. The orientation of the trellis depends on the orientation of the vine. Planted seedlings in one row, place it from west to east. If the plantation will consist of several rows, it is better to have them from north to south. In regions where wind often blows, one must take into account the wind rose. The pallet is located downwind.
Selection of seedlings
When choosing a seedling beginner can be advised:
- Do not buy in the fall seedlings with leaves and an open root system. Literate sellers cut the leaves, because because of them, the seedling loses moisture faster.
- Do not buy early seedlings. In the south, they start digging in October.
- Check the root system of the seedling, not to buy a stuck escape.
- Check for live seedling or dry. If you scrape the bark of a live seedling, it is green and damp. Roots of a live sapling on a break white.
Parameters of a good ligneous seedling: height is about 40 cm, the thickness of the vine with a pencil, the buds on the vine are at least 3, the roots are 15 cm long and more.
Young seedlings can not be planted between adult vines. If they dig a hole in the place of an old vineyard, they make it big and fill it with a large amount of organic matter. When arranging a vineyard in a pit-free place, a hole is dug 80 cm by 80 cm. You shouldn’t plant shallow holes, especially on loam, young bushes will die rather than give a good growth. The pit should be well filled with organic matter, to ensure good drainage. In a well-filled pit, the roots will develop well.
Pit fill with a mixture of earth, humus and sand. Adding sand is especially important on heavy loams and dry black soils. Drainage made of stones:
- large crushed stone
- broken brick
Filling the pit: the first layer is a spade of ash and 1.5 cups of superphosphate, the second layer is drainage (15 cm), the third layer is fertile land (15 cm), the fourth layer is a mound of humus (4 buckets). On the humus poured 2 buckets of water. The seedling is placed on top of the cone, its roots spread on the slopes of the cone. The entire landing pit is filled with a fertile mixture. Above the surface leave the upper bud of the seedling. The pit is covered with mulch.
Caring for Veles grapes is standard, little different from the care of other table varieties. A planting pit well filled with organic and mineral fertilizers supplies the bush with nutrients for 3 years. Starting from the 4th year, it is necessary to feed.
The formation of the bush is necessary. The recommended load on a bush is 35 buds, this is taken into account when conducting formative pruning, and 6 to 8 buds are left on the shoot. In the spring on the fruiting shoots leave from 2 to 4 inflorescences. The soil is self-pollinated, but the use of gibberellin improves the set of berries and their size.
The peculiarity of the Veles variety is the active formation of stepchildren. In temperate climates, they should be removed as they appear, left in the south. In warm climates, the second crop is obtained on the stepsons, the clusters on the stepsons are smaller, but they have time to ripen to cold weather. The term of the first harvest is the beginning of the middle of August, the second (in the south) - the middle of autumn.
Veles grapes do not need to be watered often. There are certain periods of the development of the vine when irrigation is necessary:
- blooming first buds on the vine
- the beginning of flowering
- the initial period of the formation of the fruit.
After each watering, mulch the soil with peat, sawdust, moss, humus. The optimal layer thickness is 3 cm, a larger layer of mulch will worsen air access to the roots.
In the autumn they cut out the spawn-bearing lashes and young shoots with mechanical damages or not mature. Pruning with signs of infection is subject to cutting and destruction. Veles is formed into 4 sleeves, on each shoot 6-8 eyes.
In the south, Velez winters excellently, and in temperate climates it needs to be sheltered for the winter. Young sapling make shelter is not a problem. For this purpose, fit any container without a bottom. It is set above the seedling and filled with earth, humus or sawdust. Adult bushes after autumn pruning are removed from the trellis, laid on the ground, constructing a shelter of arcs and covering material. Bush shafts spud.
Grapes Veles: video
"Veles" - grapes that never lie on the market and on the shelves of supermarkets. Popularity among buyers, he earned thanks to the excellent appearance, transportability, and the ability not to lose the presentation even with long storage.