The photo clearly conveys the beauty and size of early sweet cherries. The tree is vigorous, large, at the age of ten reaches a height of 6 meters. The barrel is grayish brown. The crown is wide pyramidal, leafy, in diameter is 6.0-6.5 meters. As it grows, it takes on a spherical shape, becomes more spreading, and the foliage becomes more dense. Cherries Valery Chkalov, a description of the variety which causes sincere interest among gardeners, is characterized by large, elongated leaves.
Fruiting begins on the 5-6th year from the moment of planting, one tree can produce 12-17 kg of fruits, in 10-15 years - about 60 kg of cherries, which is a very good indicator.
Cherries Valery Chkalov (description of the variety, reviews encourage people to acquire such a crop on their plot) is characterized by dense, large fruits. Their shape is rounded, heart-shaped, with a blunt tip, the average weight of each is 6-9 grams. Dark red color, when ripe, the fruits become almost black. The flesh is sweet, juicy, reddish color with pink veins. Characterized by a pleasant wine-sweet taste. The bone is large, round, with a distinct seam, difficult to separate from the pulp. The stem is thick, medium, firmly attached to the fetus, when disconnected from which the juice is secreted. The fruits ripen early: in the first ten-day period of June, and are suitable for fresh consumption and for canning.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Cherries Valery Chkalov, a description of the variety of which prompts her to acquire on her own plot - a winter-hardy culture capable of withstanding 30-degree frosts. Even if there is a freezing of the kidneys, there is always a chance of saving the third part of the crop.
The disadvantages of the variety include low resistance to fungal diseases, of which the tree is most often affected by gray rot and coccomycosis.
Do you like cherry Valery Chkalov? Description varieties, pollinators, ripening time, especially care - how to understand the intricacies of growing a tree to achieve the highest possible result? It is worth knowing that such a tree in the best way shows its qualities in the presence of pollinators, so you need to acquire several trees at once, while respecting the distance between them of at least 4 meters. The best pollinators are such varieties as Jabule, Homestead, Bigarro Burlat, Skorospelka, Melitopol Early, June Early.
It is recommended to plant a young sapling of sweet cherries in the northern regions in the spring (before the buds swell) in order to allow the tree to take root. Cherries Valery Chkalov, the description of the variety of which has a large number of advantages, can land in the autumn in conditions of a southern climate with mild winter. For planting should be selected1-2-year-old seedlings with several well-developed branches. Older instances are not recommended to buy, as they are harder and longer take root. The root system must be developed, without any growths and damage.
Cherries Valery Chkalov, a variety description of which is interesting to many gardeners, needs the right choice of planting place. Important conditions are the abundance of the sun and the absence of drafts; the south side of the garden is most suitable for this. There should not be a close location of groundwater, otherwise the roots will rot.
Previously required to prepare the planting pit and immediately drive a peg - the future support for the seedling. The bottom of the pit should be dusted with manure or compost (in the amount of 2 buckets), sprinkled with black soil on top. You can also add 100 grams of potassium sulfate, 300 grams of superphosphate and 1 kg of ash. After planting, tie up and water abundantly. The root neck of the plant should be located 5 cm above the ground.
A small earthen bank should be erected around the tree, which will prevent the spreading of water during irrigation. Water consumption per unit - 2 buckets. After watering, the soil should be mulched with peat, thus giving a start for the growth of a new tree with the name “Valery Chkalov's Cherry”.
Grade Description, Care Tips
Cherry well perceives properly conducted watering and does not like excess moisture. The first two watering should be done before and after flowering, the next - three weeks before the removal of the fruit. The last time the water supply is in October. This schedule can be adjusted by natural rainfall, in the dry season the number of irrigations should be increased.
The soil should get wet at 30-40 centimeter depth, because at this distance is the main part of the suction roots. For watering an adult tree around the circumference of the crown, you should dig a furrow about 30 cm deep. You should not water the cherry trees at the time of the ripening of the berries, since the latter can crack. It is also not recommended to moisten the soil in the second half of the summer season, as this contributes to the delay in the growth of shoots.
The soil around the tree should be kept clean, without weeds. You can make mulching. Periodically loosening should be carried out for better air penetration into the surface layer of the soil.
Pruning cherries is recommended in early spring, starting from the second year of planting. Every autumn you need to make organic fertilizers and mineral preparations.
About planting varieties
If we talk about planting periods, then the most favorable time for this is the early spring (before the buds swell).
Despite the fact that now there are more and more winter-hardy varieties, do not forget that this tree is still more southern and heat-loving. Based on this, and the place for him to choose on the south side, preferably behind some building, which will serve as an obstacle to strong winds.
Plus, the area should be well lit, because this is also one of the favorite conditions of the tree.
It is worth emphasizing that sweet cherry loves elevated places. Therefore, it is better to create a small artificial unevenness in the form of a tubercle, but in no case, do not allow a buried landing. The root neck should be 5 cm higher than the ground level, taking into account that the soil will gradually settle.
Do not forget also that this Cherry variety is self-infested and needs nearby pollinating trees. For this purpose, suitable varieties such as Skorospelka, June early. The distance between the trees should not be less than four meters.
And, if the idea of planting a sweet cherry came to you not spontaneously, but planned, then it is better to prepare the place and the pit in the fall. To do this, dig a hole the size of 80 × 100 cm, fall asleep there two buckets of humus, mixed with a layer of fertile soil and leave until spring.
In no case should the soil be heavy. Suitable loamy and sandy. Also, it should have good moisture and breathable properties and eliminate the stagnation of water. In the spring, superphosphate and sodium sulfate are added to the planting pit.
The fact that the root neck should protrude above the surface, we mentioned above. It remains to add that you need make a small roller around the seedling and pour 2 buckets of water, then grind with peat.
Top Care Tips
Watering plants should be carried out in stages. The first ? before flowering. The second - after its termination (not earlier than in 20 days). The third is three weeks before harvest, but not during the ripening period itself. And the latest? in October. Of course, with all this we take into account the amount of precipitation and weather conditions.
Fertilizers. In the first year after planting, it is very important to monitor the weeds and prevent them from appearing in the near-trunk circle. Like any plant, sweet cherry needs additional nutrition in the form of organic and mineral fertilizers. The main thing is not to forget that we introduce nitrogen-containing substances only in spring, while potash and phosphorus are desirable in autumn.
The first 5 years you need to very carefully monitor the formation of the crown and carry out frequent pruning. Then it can be done less often, but still this stage is an integral part of caring for cherries, because this tree is characterized by a rather intensive growth of shoots.
Winter is a difficult test for many trees, especially for the heat-loving and southern. At the present time, when the air temperature began to fluctuate sharply, one cannot count on the fact that there will not be severe frosts even where they are rare. Therefore, you need to be as prepared for their offensive as possible and protect the trees.
Whitewashing and trimming - are all known ways to protect against frost, and therefore, do not need to reduce their values and forget about them. Pre-winter (late) watering and moisture saturation? will also contribute to increased frost resistance.
In addition to all of the above, we protect young saplings from frost with the help of various designs, we wrap with fir-wood, and we warm the trunk of an adult tree with sacking and thick paper. We resort to these methods in the case of other fruit trees.
Pests and diseases. Not only we love to feast on this juicy tasty berries. There are many pests that are not against eating the leaves of a tree or spoiling the appearance of the fruit. Among the most common? cherry sawfly, cherry elephant, cherry fly. Spraying with Bordeaux mixture or special chemicals is used to combat them.
A lot of grief and bring various diseases that often attack the beautiful cherry. Kokkomikoz - one of the most frequent. Initially, there are many small specks of brown color, which gradually merge into one large spot.
The leaves fall, the tree weakens and may die. The causative agent of coccomycosis prefers to hide in the fall foliage for the winter, and with the arrival of spring continue the attack and the destructive influence. That is why in the late fall you need to clean up all the garbage in the garden and burn it.
Bacterial cancer bone - also occurs quite often. It can occur both in the intensive form and in the sluggish form, but both lead to the inevitable death of the tree and its drying out.
To summarize, I must say that any type of sweet cherry is not the simplest tree to care for. You can not just plant and forget about it. But if you surround him with care and attention, then you will certainly be rewarded, and your efforts will not be in vain.
Every summer you can pamper yourself with homemade, tasty, and berries grown in your own garden, and this is worth a lot.
Sweet Cherry Variety Description Valery Chkalov
Cherries Valery Chkalov - seedling of the Caucasian Rose variety from free pollination. Bred together by the Genetic Laboratory of them. I.V. Michurin and Melitopol experimental gardening station. A variety created by S.V. Zhukov and M.T. Oratovsky, included in the State Register for the North Caucasus region since 1974
The tree is large, up to 5–6 m tall, spreading with age, of medium thickness and well leafy. The stem is thick, with a gray-brown rough bark. Skeletal branches diverge at angles of 45–60 °, with a bark of a reddish-brown shade. The shoots are curved, gray-brown, with rare lentils on the bark.
Leaves are green, wide, oval or egg-shaped. Fruits are large, weighing 6–8 g, broadly heart-shaped, with a blunt tip, dark red, almost black-red. The flesh is dark red, pink streaked, juicy. The fruits contain solids - 13.5%, sugar - 10.7%, ascorbic acid - 21.5 mg. At the top of the fetus there is a large gray point, from the side of the suture - a tubercle. The taste is wine-sweet. Tasting score - 4.5 points.
The stone is large, creamy, semi-separated from the pulp. The peduncle is firmly attached to the fruit, separated with the release of juice. Variety dessert destination, also suitable for canning. Early maturation - the beginning of June. Plants come into fruiting for 5 years. The degree of self-fertility is low.
The variety has a high winter hardiness. Kokkomikozy affects up to 4 points, is not resistant to gray rot, other fungal diseases resistance is average. The variety is characterized by yield: in Crimea, the average productivity for 10 years of fruit bearing at the age of 10–19 years was 62 kg of fruit from a tree, the maximum - 174 kg at the age of 12 years. This is one of the most popular market varieties of sweet cherry, very technological.
Advantages and disadvantages
The variety has many advantages:
- Early terms of fruiting (early June).
- Large sized berries.
- Excellent taste.
- Annual fruiting.
- Good winter hardiness.
The disadvantages include the average resistance to disease, susceptibility to moniliosis.
For a rich harvest of cherries, it is necessary to have at least two pollinating trees on the site, which bloom simultaneously: April, Bigarro Burlat, Jaboulet, Skorospelka. Between plants should be left 3-4 m, so that they will not come into contact with crowns in the future and do not shade each other - the cherry is very demanding for the light regime.
Choosing a place
For a heat-loving tree, a bright, spacious place is chosen on the southern side of the garden, heated most of the day by the sun, not shaded by buildings and other plants. To protect the trees from cold winds, plant them near the fence, shed, hedge at a distance of not less than 3 m. Low places do not fit - cold air can stagnate there, in the spring the snow does not melt. Groundwater should not be too close - at least 2 m from the soil level. Cherry prefers to grow on loamy or sandy soil. Even its winter hardiness depends on the composition of the soil. Trees growing on clay plots are often damaged by frost: the crop dies, wood and fruit buds are frozen. In the sandy soil add 2 buckets of clay, in the clay - a bucket of sand.
Next to young trees in the aisle, you can plant strawberries, berry bushes, flowers. But the cherry grows quickly, the crown becomes sprawling, will shade the planting, so you should not plan them for a long time.
Selection of seedlings
Do not buy seedlings with hands: in the markets, on the roads. They should be purchased in specialized garden centers and nurseries, where each plant has a certificate with an indication of the variety and age of the seedling. Here you can get professional advice about the taste of sweet cherries, the rules of planting and care. It is important that the trees purchased are healthy, otherwise they can become a source of disease for other garden plants. Saplings should be 1-2-year-olds, having a central shoot and many side ones - such trees will have good branching in the future and a correct crown will be formed. The stem should be smooth, without damaging the bark, branches flexible, not dry. At 5–15 cm from the root collar, the site of the vaccination should be visible: the stem there is somewhat curved, growing slightly to the side. So, sapling varietal. The roots of the plant should be well developed, with a lot of fibrous branches, deformed and black say about the presence of disease.
The best seedlings are sold at the end of the season, often in the spring they are sold. Plants purchased in late autumn can be prikopat before spring planting. In a protected place of the garden, seedlings are laid in a groove at an inclination, almost horizontally, the roots and a third of the trunk are covered with earth. For protection from rodents, be sure to cover with spruce branches.
The seedlings in the container are already fully prepared for further growth immediately after planting. Such plants are more expensive, but they are a guarantee of quality and good survival. You can replant them all season. You should carefully examine these plants before buying. They are removed from the container, while the earthy clod, entwined with fibrous roots, should not crumble.
Plant a fruit tree in central Russia in the spring before the buds are swollen. Planted in the spring of seedlings will have time to take root, grow stronger over the summer and a good winter. In the south, planting is best done in the fall: in spring, the early heat can damage a young plant, the warm, wet autumn weather contributes to its better survival, it quickly adapts to new conditions and is more resistant to weather stresses in the future.
On a note. In cold climates with an autumn planting of seedlings with an open root system, early frosts can destroy it.
A place for seedlings is prepared in advance: in the fall during spring planting, in August - in the autumn. Or at least 2 weeks before disembarking. They dig pits 60 cm deep and 80 cm wide, leaving a distance of about 4 m between them. About 4 m from the planting holes, several more pits are prepared for seedlings of other varieties for pollination. In the pit fall asleep a mixture of fertile land (2 buckets) and humus (1 bucket) and leave until planting trees. It is advisable to lay drainage at the bottom of the pit, because the culture does not like an environment that is too humid.
The day before planting, the roots of the seedling are placed in a solution of Kornevin. The stimulator can be added to the water when watering the tree or just to powder the roots with powder. If the seedling has a closed root system, the soil in the container is shed with water and allowed to stand for 5–10 minutes. The lump is saturated with moisture and will not crumble when removed from the container.
- Весной в лунки вносят суперфосфат (100 г) или 3 ведра компоста и 1 л золы, смешивают с грунтом.
- A peg 80 cm high is driven into the hole on the side so that it is from the northwest relative to the tree.
- In the center they make a mound of 20–30 cm.
- In the center of this site place the sapling, straighten the roots. Plant from the container is planted with a lump.
On a note. Straw, sawn-up sawdust, mowed grass are used as a mulching material - this layer will prevent the evaporation of moisture.
So that young plants do not suffer when the temperature drops, they are sprayed with Epin's solution.
A fruit tree suffers from dampness. When prolonged rains fruits can crack, there is a risk of fungal diseases. Pre-loosen the soil around cherries, make fertilizer. The trees planted in the spring, watering the first time every 5-7 days. In the autumn, 1-2 irrigations are enough. Then young saplings in the year of planting moistened once a month (1 bucket) in hot weather. For adult plants, the rate is 4 buckets three times per season. The soil should be moistened to a depth of 40 cm, because it is at such a distance that the main part of the suction roots is located. Water contribute to the grooves made around the circumference of the crown. The last watering is carried out before the onset of frost (8 buckets).
On a note. To attract bees during the flowering sprinkle the tree with water and honey. Or, honey plants such as mustard, mint, marigold, clover are planted next to the cherry tree. After all, the better the pollination, the higher the yield.
After each irrigation, loosen the soil to enrich the plant with oxygen, mulch with straw that retains moisture.
Watering Cherries Valery Chkalov - video
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"If the berry is crumpled, it is delicious, containing a lot of sugars, with a slight pleasant sourness, dark red juice."
And if the berry is not dented, it does not stand out?
Why did they distort the text to make Yandex like it?
The whole berry of a sweet cherry will not let out juice in any way. For transportation, they collect berries with petioles, so that they do not release their juice and do not spoil on the road.
Diseases and pests
The attractiveness of cherries is so great that it attracts people and various ailments with its fruits. Planting seedlings always requires special care for them. However, the care of cherries can not fully guarantee the protection of trees from all evils. In order to avoid the main diseases and pests with which the sweet cherry is found, the necessary information from the tables will help in combating them.