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The scheme of vaccination of cattle

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Cattle can become ill with many dangerous infectious diseases, which are very difficult, and sometimes simply impossible to fight. As a result of some infections, animals even die a few hours after the onset of signs of indisposition.

Depending on the area in which cattle are kept, vaccinations against the diseases prevalent there are made, but the most dangerous diseases are required to vaccinate cows and calves, regardless of their habitat.

In general, vaccination of cattle is carried out against paratyphoid fever (also called salmonellosis), infectious rhinotracheitis, viral diarrhea, parainfluenza, pasteurellosis, lichen, anthrax, emkar and leptospirosis.

Some vaccinations are required only for small calves, and for adult animals they are no longer needed, because only the first vaccination is sufficient. Vaccinations against other diseases are carried out not only to young animals, but every year once or twice to the entire adult population.

During vaccination with the combined vaccine “Combovak” and during the vaccination against pasteurellosis, it is required to check the intensity of immunity for pasteurellosis in the second case and for viral infections in the first one. This is a prerequisite for these vaccinations.

In order to vaccinate cattle in the right order and at the right intervals, we need a cattle vaccination scheme. Veterinarians work with this scheme, conducting immunoprophylaxis of infectious diseases in animals. For adult cows, only the frequency of vaccinations is important; however, to create good immunity in calves, it is necessary to know the age at which vaccination is required from a particular disease, as well as the exact period through which it is necessary to re-inoculate (it is called revaccination) to strengthen the immunity in body young.

So what is the vaccination schedule? The very first calf inoculation should be given at the age of ten days. This should be a paratyphoid vaccine. After ten days after vaccination, that is, at the age of twenty days, the animal is boosted for this disease.

At the age of thirty days, a comprehensive vaccination against parainfluenza, rhinotracheitis, viral diarrhea and several other diseases is usually necessary. The vaccine used at this age is called Combobac. Here, too, revaccination is needed in fifteen days, that is, at the age of forty-five days.

At fifty-five days, calves are vaccinated against pasteurellosis, revaccination is done after twelve days, at the age of sixty-seven days.

At seventy-seven days, you need a vaccine against lichen, which should be repeated after thirteen days, at the age of ninety days.

Vaccination against colibacillosis is done twice: for the first time a hundred days before calving and the second for ninety days. Vaccination from paratyphoid fever is done eighty days before calving, and then repeated revaccination seventy days later. Vaccine "Kombovak" requires vaccinating cows forty to fifty days before calving for the first time and fourteen to twenty-one days before calving in the second.

At the age of one hundred days, calves are vaccinated against anthrax. Unlike all previous vaccinations, this vaccine is given once, without subsequent revaccination after a few days.

A hundred and ten days are being vaccinated against leptospirosis, which needs to be repeated in fifteen days at the age of one hundred and twenty-five days.

One hundred and thirty-five days later, a vaccination against an emkar is given, but revaccination is not required.

Leptospirosis is vaccinated to adult cows twice a year, every six months, exactly the same pattern is used for a pasteurellosis vaccination, that is, twice a year.

There are also vaccinations carried out before calving to create primary immunity in newborn calves.

When conducting vaccinations, it is important that the animal does not experience any ailments, because it is strictly forbidden to vaccinate sick cattle. This will only aggravate the course of the disease and cause unforeseen complications for livestock health.

Scheme of vaccination of cattle

Vaccination of cattle is necessary to protect livestock from many infectious diseases. Infections spread quickly, many of which can lead to the death of an animal within a few hours after infection. Vaccination is the most effective means of combating: the introduction of special preparations ensures reliable acquired immunity and prevents the risk of developing diseases.

Main recommended vaccinations for cattle

Cattle must be vaccinated against salmonellosis, rhinotracheitis, viral diarrhea, anthrax and other widespread and rapidly transmitted diseases. Vaccinations are carried out with a certain frequency: vaccination begins to create acquired immunity in calves, each type of vaccination is done as soon as the animal reaches a certain age. Subsequently, after a certain period, revaccination is carried out - a repeated vaccination to consolidate the body's ability to fight the disease.

The main scheme of vaccination against the most dangerous diseases:

  • The earliest is a vaccine against pasteurellosis: it is given to calves at the age of 55 days, another 12 days later revaccination is carried out to fix the results.
  • At the age of 77 days, calves are vaccinated against lichen infection, revaccination is carried out in 90 days.
  • At the age of 100 days, calves are vaccinated against anthrax, unlike other types of vaccination, re-injection is not required.
  • Special vaccines are used immediately before calving: this helps ensure good immunity to newborn calves and prevent losses.
  • Vaccination against salmonellosis is carried out 80 days before the intended calving, and after 10 days it is necessary to carry out a revaccination.

These are just some vaccinations that allow to protect livestock from the spread of dangerous diseases that can quickly lead to large losses of livestock. For complex protection a special vaccine is used: vaccination is carried out 50 days before calving. When the epizootic situation worsens, the vaccine schedules have to be adjusted to prevent infection from entering the herd.

Use of complex vaccines

Regular vaccination and timely preventive studies should be carried out by both large agricultural companies and owners of private farms; meat of unvaccinated animals can be very dangerous for humans. Already at 1.5 months of age, monovalent complex vaccines begin to be used for calves:

  • TAURUS - one of the most sought-after vaccines, is used to prevent viral tracheitis, parainfluenza, leptospirosis.
  • COMBOVAC is a comprehensive vaccine that is designed to protect against most common viral infections: including viral diarrhea, rotavirus infection, etc.
  • Associated vaccines are used to protect livestock from anthrax.

These and other complex vaccines allow you to reduce the cost of preventive measures, and at the same time to provide the most reliable protection of livestock. Compliance with the requirements of vaccination allows you to continue to sell livestock without any problems finding buyers.

Important condition: Agriholding Miratorg does not purchase livestock vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease and brucellosis for fattening and slaughter. Detailed information about the conditions of purchase and vaccination requirements you can get from the company's specialists. Compliance with the requirements for the maintenance of farm animals will allow you to sell them at high prices, issue a good bargain.

Vaccination of newborn calves (dispensary 1-20 days)

Newborn calves are more susceptible to disease than others, because natural protection lasts not for long. Already from the second week of life, they are beginning to be vaccinated, and the first vaccines include drugs for viral diarrhea, salmonellosis, diplococcal septicemia, infectious rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza and foot and mouth disease.

Viral diarrhea

This is an extremely unpleasant disease of infectious nature, which is characterized by lesions of the mucous membranes of the digestive tract of the calf. Sometimes viral diarrhea is associated with stomatitis, but most often the main symptoms are painful cough, mucopurulent discharge from the nasal passages, ulcers and erosion in the mouth, tachycardia, diarrhea and fever.

To prevent infection of newborn calves, a dry culture vaccine vaccine is usually used, and for the first time a 10-day calf is inoculated, and the second is given 20 days later, that is, at the age of one month. The dosage of the diluted drug per calf is 3 cu. cm.

Salmonellosis

Another infectious disease affecting the digestive tract of calves. In the acute course of the disease, enteritis and sepsis may occur, and in the chronic form pneumonia appears. If the calf was born from a vaccinated cow, then the first vaccination against salmonellosis is performed at 20 days of age with repeated revaccination after 8–10 days, and if from an unvaccinated animal, it means that the vaccine must be used earlier - at 5–8 days of age, with repeated after five days. The most successful drug in this case is considered to be a concentrated form-alumina vaccine, used for the first time in a dosage of 1.0 cu. cm per calf and 2.0 cu. cm - with revaccination.

Diplococcal septicemia

The disease is characterized by the appearance of sepsis and inflammation of the joints, most often affecting young individuals between two weeks and 2.5 months. It is possible to prevent the development of ailment by timely vaccination of a calf at the age of eight days, with repeated vaccination in two weeks, which is not only calves, but also lambs and pigs used for the vaccine against diplococcal septicemia. The first time 5 ml of vaccine is used, and with revaccination, the dose is increased to 10 ml.

Infectious rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza-3

Infectious rhinotracheitis is a contagious disease, manifested mainly by catarrhal-necrotic processes in the upper respiratory tract of the calf, which, in turn, causes fever, conjunctivitis and general indisposition of the animal. The parainfluenza is the same contagious disease, therefore the symptoms of these diseases are similar. In order to prevent both diseases, a dry associated vaccine against parainfluenza-3 and rhinotracheitis is used, which is first administered to calves at ten days of age, and then revaccination is carried out after 25 days. Single dose - 3 cu. see intramuscularly (in the croup zone).

Foot and mouth disease is a viral disease of cattle and many other animals, characterized by increased salivation and body temperature and erosive lesions of the oral cavity, limbs, and mammary glands. But the worst thing is that a person can suffer from this disease, so in those farms where the vaccination has not been done before, newborn calves are vaccinated from the first day of life, using serum or blood of convalescents, or hyperimmune serum.

Later, after two months of age, you can use hydroxide aluminum vaccine from lapinized cultured virus, in a dosage of 5 ml per animal.

Vaccine for young stock

The term "maintenance young" means animals intended to replenish the herd instead of retired individuals. Often they are descendants of high-performance breeding cows, and therefore much more valuable. Naturally, they are also organized at the highest level, which is reflected even in the vaccination scheme, divided into two main periods.

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a very dangerous and unpleasant disease, characterized by lesions of the capillaries of a calf or an adult, as well as a negative effect on the normal functioning of the liver, kidneys, and muscle tissue. Often there are signs of general intoxication of the body, wave-like fever.

In order to prevent illness, a deposited polyvalent vaccine or a polyvalent vaccine “VGNKI” of the Armavir biofactory is often used, performing the first vaccination at 40 days of age with repeated revaccination after six months. The dose of the drug used in primary vaccination is 4 cu. cm, and when re-grafting can be doubled.

Trichophytosis

This disease has a fungal origin and is characterized by sverbezh, the appearance of dense tubercles on the skin, which eventually turn into white spots of various sizes rising above the surface. Wool in these places looks dull and disheveled. Over time, the spots will be covered with grayish crusts.

Deprive affects more calves, localizing in the forehead, eyes, mouth and base of the neck and causing severe itching. Vaccination from this disease is carried out using TF-130, LTP-130 drugs, for the first time at one month old (1–2 ml per head), and then followed by revaccination after six months (increase the dose to 2–4 ml).

Parainripp-3

As a valid alternative, when vaccinating calves from parainfluenza-3 (if you do not consider the revaccination option of the aforementioned vaccine against rhinotracheitis), Taurus lyophilized virus vaccine can be used, which is introduced into the body of a three-month calf by intramuscular injection, in a dose of 2 cubic meters. see At the same time, the vaccine "Taurus" can be used for individuals that have reached 1.5 months of age. In this case, a cube is injected by subcutaneous injection. see the drug.

Second period (90–435 days)

The second vaccination period is an excellent time for vaccinations against new, no less dangerous diseases. The body of a young cow had a little stronger time, which means that the risk of undesirable side reactions after vaccination will be minimized.

This anthropozoonosis disease of infectious origin, is characterized by lesions of the cardiovascular and reproductive systems of the animal, which further leads to abortions in cows. Among the most characteristic symptoms of the disease are endometritis, delayed afterbirth, mucous brown discharge from the genitals, mastitis and udder swelling. To prevent the emergence of problems in adulthood, cows are vaccinated starting at 3 months. A good vaccination will be a drug from strain 19, injected in 2 ml subcutaneously.

If not all farmers are aware of other diseases of cattle, then rabies probably fears a much larger number of cattle owners. In the second period, in the scheme of preventive vaccinations, the use of vaccination against this disease is provided. A good solution would be a liquid culture inactivated vaccine from the Shchelkovo-51 strain (Rabikov). Starting from the age of three months, the calves are injected in 5 cubic meters each. see the drug, with repeated revaccination after 1 year. Further preventive vaccinations are performed every two years.

Pasteurellosis

Unlike many other infectious diseases, pasteurellosis does not cause inflammation of the organs and body systems of the animal. Detect the causative agent can only be in the blood, and the symptoms of the disease are often blurred. One of the most characteristic signs of the acute stage of the disease is high body temperature, the disappearance of milk and the development of mastitis. Death is possible.

For the vaccination of animals, an emulsified vaccine and a semi-liquid hydroxide aluminum formol vaccine are used. In the first case, the agent is injected in 1.5 ml on both sides of the neck (intramuscularly only 3.0 ml of the drug), repeating the procedure a year later, and in the second case, an injection is made in the area of ​​the croup with 5.0 cubic meters. cm for the first time and 10 cu. cm - with re-vaccination after 15 days.

anthrax

This disease takes place in the body of a cow in a variety of forms, so its initial signs can be completely confused with the symptoms of other diseases. However, as a result, blood coagulability is almost always disturbed, edema and hypoxia appear.

Multiple hemorrhages are possible, with the development of a very strong intoxication of the body. Calves are given the first vaccine against the disease at three months of age, and then revaccination is performed at 14 months. For the first time, 1 ml of STI vaccine is used, and in the second case, the dosage is increased to 2 ml.

One of the many diseases that are carried by insects (in particular, ticks). The incubation period is 9-21 days, after which the main symptoms appear - high body temperature (above +40 ° C) and swollen lymph nodes (become dense to the touch and stand out well). The sick animal is always lethargic, refuses to eat, quickly loses weight, constantly lies and, if there is no adequate treatment, dies. В качестве основной профилактической меры используется жидкая культуральная вакцина, выполняющаяся однократно, начиная с полугодовалого возраста животного путём подкожного введения в среднюю зону шеи, по 1 мл на одну особь (вес и возраст не имеют значения).

Эмфизематозный карбункул

Самым явным признаком данного заболевания выступают мышечные отёки, которые на начальных этапах очень горячие, а затем становятся холодными, с сухой и жёсткой кожей над ними. All this is accompanied by increased body temperature and almost always ends in a fatal outcome, especially if it was not possible to diagnose the ailment in time. For prophylactic purposes, formol-vaccine is often used, which was developed specifically to prevent the development of the disease in cattle and sheep. It is administered once, in a dose of 2 ml per animal at the age of 3 months. However, if the vaccination is performed before the age of six months, then further revaccination will be required in the same dosage.

Nodular dermatitis

In addition to increased body temperature, this infectious disease also manifests itself in the swelling of the connective subcutaneous tissue and tissues of individual organs. Perhaps the appearance of nodularities, eye damage, mucous membrane of the digestive and respiratory systems. A typical vaccine to prevent the development of all these symptoms is a dry vaccine culture vaccine, which also helps prevent infection with smallpox cattle.

Young animals up to six months of age are vaccinated twice, with an interval of two weeks, and after reaching six months of age, re-introduction of the drug can be performed in 7-8 months. At one time in the neck zone enter 1 cu. see the vaccine. Immunity to nodular dermatitis and smallpox in vaccinated animals begins to form already 5 days after the vaccination and lasts for about a year.

FMD vaccinations provide for re-vaccination each year. In case of systematic vaccination, to prevent the development of the disease, an inactivated trivalent vaccine can be used, starting from the fourth month of the animal's life and subsequently every three months up to one and a half years. The dosage of the drug for single use may vary depending on the manufacturer.

Vaccination of dry cows and heifers (non-living cows)

During the dry period, the cow does not give milk, but her body still has many changes that require a certain amount of energy. Of course, the effect of harmful microorganisms can be quite detrimental to the health of the animal, which means you should not forget about vaccination. The same applies to non-living cows, which are just preparing for this responsible process. In both cases, vaccinations against salmonellosis, leptospirosis, and colibacillosis will be appropriate.

Colibacteriosis

An infectious disease that is characterized by severe diarrhea, sepsis, and enteritis. This ailment is more characteristic of calves, but it is often found among dry cows. For prophylactic purposes, a hydroxyaluminium formolumusal vaccine against colibacillosis is used, 1.5–2 months before the forthcoming birth, with repeated revaccination after two weeks. The vaccine dose for both vaccinations is 10–15 cu. see intramuscularly (in the cervical region).

Milk cow vaccine

If necessary, you can immunize dairy cows, but if you follow the vaccination schedule, you will need only one vaccination - against foot and mouth disease.

Adult cows are vaccinated for this disease every year, using hydroxide aluminum vaccine from lapinized cultured virus. With such revaccination, each adult animal has 5 ml of the preparation injected subcutaneously. Some vets recommend splitting the inoculation using 4 ml under the skin, and 1 ml into the mucous membrane of the upper lip.

Is it possible to vaccinate pregnant cows

Pregnant cows, that is, during their pregnancy, can be vaccinated, but only by performing the procedure no later than two months before the intended birth. It is not recommended only to vaccinate such animals against anthrax, to take blood from them for leukemia, brucellosis.

All described vaccinations are extremely important for the health of cattle at any age, therefore, the farmer must adhere to the vaccination schedule and not risk livestock. This is especially true of animals with the possibility of free walking and contact with other inhabitants of the farm.

Shingles (herpes)

The causative agent of shingles or herpes in cattle is the herpes virus. Infection of cows most often occurs due to reduced immunity, during which the body's defenses are reduced. The virus enters the body of the cow after contact with sick individuals, or through the air.

The herpes virus is neurotropic, due to which it is located in the nerve trunks and ganglia. In these places, he is able to stay for long periods without any manifestations. But as soon as the slightest reduction in cow immunity occurs, the virus is activated and causes a number of symptoms.

A cow begins to behave more calmly (a kind of lethargy manifests itself), may refuse to offer food. In most cases, the animal experiences a hyperthermic reaction that indicates the presence of an infection in the body. In the projection of large nerve trunks (usually intercostal), reddish spots begin to appear, which in turn bring a lot of discomfort to the cow. Over time, these spots develop into bubbles that are filled with liquid that is infested with the herpes virus causative agent. These blisters cause severe itching, and the cow tries to rub against various objects, after which they burst and empty. Similarly, a cow spreads the virus to the environment and infects people and other animals with herpes zoster. To prevent this from happening, it should be isolated as soon as possible.

After opening of the bubbles, erosive surfaces appear, which very quickly become covered with crusts. These crusts quickly disappear, but they also contain a huge amount of virus. In some cases, the disease in cows is atypical, that is, the symptoms appear, but disappear very quickly and imperceptibly - this means that the immunity has managed to suppress the activity of the herpes virus.

Preventing Shingles

To protect the cow from this pathology, she is vaccinated. For this purpose, specially developed vaccines are used, which are made from live, but pre-attenuated bacteria of the causative agent of shingles. The vaccine is injected subcutaneously 2 times with an interval of about 40 days.

Ringworm

Fungal disease that affects the skin and hair of a cow. The causative agent is the fungus Trichophyton, which has a great degree of stability in the external environment (in exfoliated crusts and wool, it can retain its activity for more than two years).

Sources of the pathogen: sick cows and other animals that live in the yard, or patients with trichophytia rodents. Infection occurs through the soil, equipment for care, placement of barns, and in fact after contact with a sick individual. The peak of the incidence falls on cold pores when the animal's immunity declines.

The lichen deprivation period lasts about 1 month. After this time, lumpy formations appear on the skin of the cow (they soften with time). A little later, they become spots of various shapes and sizes. Wool that grows in the spots that appear, darkens a little, ruffles and breaks. These areas are covered with crusts, after removal of which, bald patches appear on the skin. In young animals, ringworm affects the face and ears. In adult cows, the fungus acts throughout the body. All the skin that was struck by the fungus, itches badly, bringing a lot of discomfort to the animal.

Lichen prophylaxis

In order for a cow to avoid ringworm, it is vaccinated with a certain amount of vaccine (given the age). The vaccine is administered intramuscularly, 2 times, with an interval between injections in 2 weeks.

Vaccination is carried out to cows at any age (from calves to adult cows). Already on the 30th day after the injection, a strong immunity appears, which lasts for about a year. For maximum protection against depriving the cow, vaccination is carried out annually.

Age 12-18 days:

At this age, calves must be vaccinated against infectious rhinotracheitis (RTI), parainfluenza-3 (PG-3), respiratory syncytial infection (RSI) and pasteurellosis.

You can simultaneously vaccinate with Bovilis IBR (live labeled vaccine for specific prophylaxis against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis) with intranasal labeling (1 ml per each nostril) and Bovilis RSP vaccine (parainfluenza-3 inactivated vaccine (PG-3), respiratory syncytial infection (MS) and pasteurellosis of cattle) in a dose of 5 ml subcutaneously.

Age 120-130 days:

It is necessary to re-vaccination against RTIs - 2 ml / m.

Vaccination according to this scheme will allow to create a level of protection against major pathogens of respiratory diseases in calves by the age of 2 months, and also to prevent the development of respiratory diseases up to 8-10 months of age, after which the relevance of respiratory pathologies is extremely low.

Scheme of vaccination of calves against major infectious diseases:

Salmonellosis Vaccination

Carried out in calves at the age of one month in case of unfavorable situation in the farm or region. The serotype of the causative agent of the disease that is common in your locality, you must first check with a veterinary specialist.

During this period, the calf is usually vaccinated against ringworm and anthrax.

Adult cattle are vaccinated against anthrax once a year, preferably in spring, before pasture on pasture, calves and lambs - from 3 months of age.
Foot and mouth disease vaccine

Cattle are vaccinated against foot and mouth disease once a year.

Maternal immunity can suppress the effect of vaccination in young animals, therefore, vaccination of calves with a systematic vaccination of cows begin with 3-4 months of age. However, there is evidence that calves respond to vaccination at one month or earlier.


From 6 months
Calves are vaccinated against rabies. Or, in a difficult epizootic situation in the region, vaccination is put in 3 months with revaccination at 6 months.

Pigs up to 30 days of age

Pigs are vaccinated with dry avirulent lapinized virus vaccine.

Suckling pigs from 10-15 to 30 days old are vaccinated with vaccine, repeated vaccinations are carried out for the first time 10 days before weaning and the second time after reaching 3-4 months of age,
suckling pigs over the age of 30 days old are vaccinated with vaccine, they are re-vaccinated after reaching 3-4 months of age,

pigs from 3 months of age and older, regardless of the timing of the previous vaccination against plague, are vaccinated once,

sows are advised to vaccinate no later than 28-30 days after mating.

For prophylactic purposes, the drug immunolactone is used intramuscularly: for piglets under the age of 3 months - 0.4 g, older than 3 months and for adult pigs - 0.1 g per 1 kg of body weight.

Pigs age 2 months

For the prevention of erysipelas, pigs are vaccinated with hydroxide aluminum or deposited with vaccines. Vaccinate all pigs aged 2 months and older twice with an interval of 12-14 days.
Pigs that are sick and suspected of being infected are inoculated with an anti-serum serum at a dose of 2 ml per 1 kg of live weight, and after 10-12 days a vaccine.

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Control of clostridia - systematic vaccination

Lyudmila Ivanovna Redkozubova, veterinarian-consultant of the cattle department of the company "Vetprom"

Clostridium - spore anaerobic microorganisms. In the external environment, they are in a dense spore shell, and if they are exposed to favorable conditions, they lose it. This process is accompanied by the release of the strongest toxins that are easily absorbed into the bloodstream and reach vulnerable organs - most often the liver, intestines, kidneys, as well as damaged muscles and cells of the nervous system.

Pattern of development of clostridiosis

The causative agent of clostridiosis is very dangerous for calves until they have a scar (3-4 months), for cows in the period after calving (breaks during calving) and during grazing on conditionally infected pastures. When clostridia enter the intestine, they multiply, after which they are again covered with a spore membrane and excreted from the body with feces. It should be noted that when clostridia penetrate the intestine, the disease does not always occur. Very often they pass through the digestive system in transit and leave the body in a constant spore state. The degree of severity of the infection depends on the number of toxins that release clostridia when their spores enter into a favorable environment, the digestive tract or the wound and lose their sheath. The increased content of these pathogens on farms reduces the body's defenses and the most common opportunistic microflora begins to activate, causing secondary bacterial diseases in animals (pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, colibacteriosis, etc.). The greater the dispute clostridia on the object, the higher the likelihood of their entry into the body.

Twelve toxins that cause a high level of pathogenicity of clostridia

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