Viola or pansies are very common garden flowers that can be found on almost every garden plot, and they are decorated with balconies by city dwellers. Cultivating a viola is a simple matter, and the planting material is cheap, therefore, having read the recommendations given in this article, you can diversify the garden collection with a wonderful flowering of pansies.
And although garden violet, as the viola is also called, unites under its name about 300 different species, the following varieties are usually chosen for home and garden cultivation:
- Tri-color viola. This species is found as wild-growing, and it can also be used as a background plant for flower beds with ground-covering flowers. The height of the bush is 12-15 cm, the flower itself shimmers with white, yellow and purple hues. Blossoms from April to September, perennial.
- Viola Wittrock. This variety is found everywhere and is distinguished by its large flowers of various shades. To create such a hybrid, the breeders used about six different violets. The bush reaches a height of about 25 - 35 cm, the buds can reach 11 cm in diameter. This variety is grown both as an ampelous plant and as a groundcover.
- Horned Viola. This variety grows in one place for many years in a row and does not lose its decorative effect. The buds are more modest in diameter than the Wittrock Viola, only 3–4 cm, but at the same time the variety pleases with a variety of colors and resistance to diseases.
- Viola Sororia. This species is also called the butterfly violet, because against the background of a compactly formed green bush, bluish small flowers look like moths squatting to rest. This type looks good in the composition of the alpine slides, can be used when making tracks and rabatok.
- Viola Williams. The species originated from the crossing of horned violet and Viola Wittrock. The color of the species is bright, the flowers are small, perfect for ampel growing.
- Scented violet. And although this variety is not as decorative as the others, it is grown mainly because of the aroma, since such violets spread a thick honey smell. But since the flower was originally wild, sometimes it goes wild without proper supervision, and the flowering becomes smaller.
Did you know that an extract from the buds of a fragrant viola is used to create perfumes.
The simplest thing is to grow violets from seeds. If you take perennial varieties, then you should devote time once to getting the first green spaces, and then violets will multiply in large quantities on their own, of course, with good care.
Sowing viola seeds on seedlings
Before planting the seeds, it is worthwhile to disinfect them in a solution of biofungicides, because otherwise you can not only get seedlings with a bunch of diseases, but also infect the soil and other garden plants. Despite the fact that the seed is small, and does not imply a preliminary soaking, it is worth doing the following procedure.
- Seeds are laid on a piece of thick fabric and the fabric is tied in a knot, so that a bag is formed.
- After that, the seeds can be dipped in a disinfecting solution and after 10 - 12 hours to get such a device. You do not have to catch the seeds in all capacity.
Planting viola seeds for seedlings will be successful if the following conditions are met:
- landing capacity must be in sufficient quantity, otherwise future sprouts will not have enough space. Seeds are planted at a distance of 1 - 2 cm from each other, this must be taken into account when preparing containers,
- ambient temperature for the germination of violets should be not lower than 20 ° C and not higher than 25 ° C,
- Violets sprout in the dark, so before the first germs appear, the boxes with the seedlings are covered with a dark film. But 2 times a day you need to arrange air procedures for future shoots, that is, remove the protective film for half an hour.
- In the transplanting boxes spread out the drainage.
- Pour the soil on top.
- Depth of seeding is 0.5 mm.
- After planting, the seeds need to be watered.
- After that, sprinkle it on top with dry soil.
What time to drop the viola
The time of planting seedlings in open soil depends on the climate in a particular area. So, landing is carried out in April or in May. It is recommended for the viola to choose a well-lit area. It is best if the soil consists of soil, not very finely pounded charcoal and dry bird droppings or humus (5: 1: 1). Also for the plant is suitable the following mix: sod land, sand, humus and peat (2: 1: 2: 2). It is impossible to make a landing in a lowland, where groundwater lies very close to the soil surface.
How to land
The landing of the viola is nothing complicated. First, prepare the wells, it should be noted that between the bushes must be maintained a distance of 10 to 15 centimeters. Planted viola powdered soil, which should be tamped, and then they are watered. Perennial viols should be transplanted to a new location 1 time in 3 years, and the bush should be divided. If this is not done, the flowers will grow strongly, and their flowers will begin to grow smaller. If you want to propagate some sort of rare or your favorite, then this can be done by cutting.
The root system of this flower is superficial and is located at a depth of 15 to 20 centimeters. In this regard, it is necessary that the ground all the time was slightly moist and loose. Watering is carried out only when there is a long dry and hot period. If in the summer it rains regularly, then it is not necessary to water the pansies. It is also necessary to timely remove the weed grass and remove faded flowers, so that the flowering remains lush.
Also, these beautiful flowers must be regularly fertilized. For this, 1 time in 4 weeks feeding with superphosphate or ammonium nitrate is made (from 25 to 30 grams of substance is taken for 1 m 2).
Diseases and pests
It is easy enough to care for the viol, and if you strictly adhere to the rules and produce all the necessary procedures in time (watering, weeding, loosening, feeding), your flowers will always look incredibly impressive, and they will not get sick, and harmful insects will not disturb them . Often such a plant has powdery mildew. In the infected specimen, a whitish or grayish patina appears on the surface of the leaf plates, buds and stems. Viola can get sick because it is constantly fed with fertilizer containing nitrogen, and the disease can provoke abundant dew in the morning in a relatively dry summer period. Sick bushes need to be treated with soda ash, to which you need to add foundation, soap or ground sulfur. In the event that the bush does not recover, then after a fortnight the treatment must be repeated.
Also pansies can get sick with a black leg or gray rot. The reasons for the development of these diseases are: improper temperature conditions, violations of the moisture regime of the soil or air. Try to eliminate the cause of the disease, otherwise the remaining bushes will be infected. Do not forget to dig up and destroy infected plants, while you need to water the area where they grew up with a solution of foundationol.
In some cases, this flower can get spotted. In an infected bush, leafy plates begin to dry out, while the flower itself weakens. Be sure to dig up infected bushes. Their experienced gardeners recommend to be sure to burn, so that the disease could not spread further. The remaining healthy specimens should be subjected to prophylactic treatment. To do this, they must be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid 2 or 3 times, and the intervals between treatments should be 14 days.
For this flower there is a special danger of the pearl and clover mother-of-pearl caterpillar, which feed on the leaves of this plant. In order to get rid of pests, plants should be treated with infusion of tobacco or chlorophos.
The collection of seeds should be done at the end of flowering, and this time approximately falls in August or September. After the flower fades, a small box appears in its place, inside which there are seeds. It will be possible to start collecting seeds only after the box turns upwards. Extracted seeds should be sprinkled on a sheet of newspaper and dried in room conditions. Then they are cleaned on the shelf of the refrigerator, where they will be stored. In the event that the seed boxes are left on the bush, then self-seeding will occur. Seedlings, as a rule, are thick, and the first plant may appear in autumn or spring. If you do not want to grow the viola through the seedlings, then just in time to thin the seedlings, and also, if necessary, they can be seated.
Modern varieties of viola, which are perennial plants, have high frost resistance. If they fall asleep with dry leaves or covered with spruce leaves, they will calmly endure a decrease in air temperature to minus 30 degrees. If you grow annuals, then after flowering is over, they need to be disposed of.
Viola Wittrock (Viola wittrockiana)
The most popular among gardeners is this particular species, which is also called pansies. This perennial plant is cultivated as a biennial. In height the bush can reach from 20 to 30 centimeters. It has alternately located oval leaf plates, on the edge of which there are blunt teeth. Flowers are single, relatively large (diameter 4–10 centimeters). They may have a different color and shape. Flower growers divide the plants of this species into several categories: according to the time and quality of flowering, the size of the flowers, their color, form and level of frost resistance. If the size of the flowers is taken into account, as well as their number in the bush during the flowering period, the plants are divided into 2 groups: multiflora (multiflora) and large-flowered (grandflora) varieties. If the color of the plant is taken into account, then in this case the varieties of such flowers are conventionally divided into: two-color, single-color, and also spotty. It should be remembered that the same variety can relate to both spotty and bicoloured.
Single color varieties
- Viola White. The height of the branchy bush is 0.2 m, and its diameter is about 0.25 m. The leafy plates are green. The flowers are white, have a slight yellowness and greenness. They are very fragrant and are located on long peduncles. Flowering of this variety is observed from the second half of April to the first days of August and from the last days of September to October. Perfectly transfers winter under shelter.
- Blue boy. The height of the bush is about 0.25 m. The sheet plates are bluish. The diameter of the corrugated bluish-purple flowers is about 6 centimeters. Petals located on top, bent back. And also at the base of all the petals there are strokes of dark lilac color. On one bush at the same time can be revealed up to 19 flowers. Flowering occurs from April to August and from September to October. Under cover perfectly transfers wintering.
- Rua de Negri. Bushes are compact, they reach a height of 0.23 m. On the surface of the leaves there is a patina of gray color. Flowers have a diameter of five centimeters. Velvet petals have a rounded shape, along the edge they are wavy, slightly bent back. At the base of the petal, located below, there is a peephole of rich yellow color. At the same time on the bush can open up to 14 flowers. Flowering is observed in April – August, and also in September – October. If you cover the viol, it will endure the winter well.
- Viola red. Erect shoots in height reach 0.2 m. Red flowers have a diameter of about 7 centimeters, while at the base of the petals there is an eye of a very dark color.
Two color varieties
- Jupiter. Compact bush, reaching a height of 16 centimeters. The leaf plates are dark green. The diameter of the flowers is about 5 centimeters. Purple-white flowers have a rounded shape. The velvety petals located below are painted dark purple, while those on top are bent backwards, and they are white at the base. Up to 20 flowers may open at the same time. Resistant to weather
- Lord beaconsfield. The height of the bushes about 25 centimeters. The sheet plates are slightly gray. The diameter of the flowers is about 5.5 centimeters. The petals located below are dark purple with uneven border along the edge of lilac color. Upper bluish-white petals have ink strokes at the base. At the same time on the bush can open about 30 flowers. The variety is frost resistant.
- St knud. On compact bushes, whose height is about 0.2 m, there are leafy plates of green color. The diameter of the flowers is about 5 centimeters. Forwardly protruding lower petals have a rich orange color, while at the base they are red. The petals on the top have a pale orange-yellow color. At the same time on the bush can open up to 19 flowers.
- Shalom Purim. This is several times the improved form of the Viola Rococo variety. The flowers are also terry, but the petals are very corrugated. Flowers have a large size (1/3 more than the standard). Sold in special stores as a mixture of seeds of various colors. It also differs from the mother plant in that it grows better not in a sunny place, but in a small penumbra, in this case the petals will be the most corrugated.
- F1 Hybrid Tiger Eyes. This brand new hybrid has an amazing color. The flowers are small, in diameter they reach only 3 centimeters, on the surface of the yellow petals there are a lot of thin shirts of brown color. This plant is suitable for cultivation in open ground and in a pot. The difference of this hybrid is that it blooms very early and magnificently, and its flowers have a pleasant smell.
- Hybrid F1 "Cassis". The flowers, located on a compact bush, are painted in purple and have a thin border around the edge of the white color. The flowering is very lush, characterized by high winter hardiness.
Viola horned (Viola cornuta), or viola ampelnoe
Still quite popular with gardeners enjoys the Amola viola. The height of this perennial varies from 15 to 25 centimeters. Branched rhizome is creeping, it grows and forms a carpet. The section of the shoots is triangular, oblong leaf plates are large-toothed, they reach a length of about 6 centimeters. Stipules are pinnately incised. On the bush there are a huge number of flowers, in diameter, they reach from 3 to 5 centimeters. They are painted in various shades of purple and lilac, they have a small yellow peephole, as well as horn-shaped spurs. Flowering occurs in May – September. It has a high frost resistance, but it is recommended to cover for wintering. It is necessary to cultivate the viola ampelnaya in almost the same way as the viola garden. The breeders from England are working most on obtaining new varieties of this type:
- Arkwright Ruby. This variety is large-flowered. The color of the petals is rich red, there is a peephole of yellow color. On the basis of the petals, located below, there are specks of dark color.
- Balmont Blue. The stalks of the bush are climbing, and the color of the flowers is blue. It is recommended to grow both in balcony containers and in hanging baskets.
- Perple Duet. In flowers, 2 petals, located on top, have a burgundy color, and the 3 lower ones are dark pink and have very dark strokes at the base.
Sweet Viola (Viola odorata)
Also, quite often grown in gardens. This perennial plant has a thick rhizome. The length of the sheet plates, which are almost round in shape, is 9 centimeters, and the width is 8 centimeters. They are collected in the outlet. Large fragrant flowers are painted in various shades of purple. Flowering occurs in May and lasts 20 days. It happens re-bloom in autumn. Grades:
- Rosina. The flower looks similar to a flying bird. Fragrant pink flowers closer to the base have a darker color. The petals, located on top, bent, and the side - slightly extended forward.
- Charlotte. The color of large flowers is dark purple.
- King. There are fragrant purple flowers.
Viola moth, or klobuchkovaya (Viola papilionacea, Viola cucullata)
Bush height from 15 to 20 centimeters. Leaf plates have a serrated edge and reniform or heart-shaped. Large single flowers painted in purple. The petal is located on top, white with a strip of purple color, the center of their greenish yellow is almost white. Flowering occurs in April – June. Grades:
- Freckles. White petals have many specks of purple color, if the spring is cool, they become larger. Flowering occurs in spring and ends at the beginning of the summer period. Differs unpretentiousness.
- Royal robe. Miniature variety. The flowers are fragrant, their petals are bent back, in the base there are streamers of black or yellow color. Окрас лепестков варьируется от пурпурного до фиолетово-голубого цвета.
- Рэд Джайент. Большие цветочки фиолетово-красного окраса, расположены на длинных цветоносах. Цветет очень долго.
Also suitable for cultivation in the garden viola: graceful, mountainous, yellow, marsh, Altai, hairy, labrador, single-flowered, variegated, sandy, somhet, doggy, sisterly, stop-like, amazing, hill and the Selkirka viol. At the moment, they are used almost exclusively by some breeders in their work.
Viola Vetroka - the most popular varieties
Viola Vetrok Terry Lace
Viola terry lace is a real find for gardeners who love to plant flowers on their plot.
It easily tolerates cold winters and does not require special care.
However, throughout the warm season will be pleasing to the eye with abundant flowering.
From the reviews of gardeners, it is worth noting the advantage of this type of viola in the fact that its cultivation is possible even in the shady corners of the garden.
The only drawback is that its seedlings are prone to death from the black leg and gray rot.Terry Lace
Viola Vetroka Alpensee
Alpensee, like other types of viola, is easily propagated by dividing an adult plant or planting seeds in open ground.
It does not require special care.
One has only to remember regular watering and weeding. And if you still do not forget to feed her, then she will delight you with long-lasting spectacular flowering.
Of the diseases that can destroy the plant stands out black leg, gray rot, powdery mildew and rust. But the plant infects them extremely rarely.
Many gardeners choose this variety for low maintenance and abundant flowering, even in shady corners of the garden.Alpensee
Waters of the Elbe
Viola Voda Elba has long been known to gardeners as a bright, beautiful, low-maintenance plant.
It can be grown as seedlings, blooming in the very first year after planting in the ground, and seeds in open ground, but in this case, the flowering will be only for the next season.
The plant has a high resistance to diseases and pests. The most popular is the death of seedlings from gray rot and black legs.
Plant height usually does not exceed 15 - 20 cm, but at the same time on each stalk several large inflorescences are formed at once.
From the reviews of gardeners in various forums, it becomes clear that the main advantage of the plant is its unpretentious care and abundant flowering. The disadvantage is that the flowering will not occur in the first year of planting seeds in open ground.elba water
Viola variety Kahn - Kahn
The variety Kan - Kahn is considered one of the new types of viola, but a large number of gardeners have already managed to love it.
The bush has rather compact sizes up to 20 cm in height and flowers of medium size up to 8 cm in diameter.
Growing it is possible as a seedling method, and planting seeds in open ground.
Flowering in the first year will occur only in the first case, in the second you will see flowers only in the second season after planting.
Of the diseases and pests that can harm the plant, it is worth noting the black leg, powdery mildew and rust. But infection occurs in rare cases, because it has a high resistance to them.
The gardener's reviews tell us that the advantage of the can - kan variety is its unpretentious care and abundant long flowering.Kan kan
Viola Flamenco variety
Growing this variety will not cause difficulties even for novice florists. The plant will feel great even in the shaded corners of the garden.
Caring for her comes down in regular watering and weeding from weeds.
The bush has a height of up to 25 cm and is highly resistant to diseases and pests. At the seedling stage, black leg and powdery mildew can harm it.
The advantage of flamenco according to gardeners is considered to be a long-lasting flowering and unpretentiousness to the composition of the soil.
The only drawback is that if you sow it with seeds in open ground, then flowering will occur only in the second year after sowing.Flamenco
Viola Vetroka Africa
Like any other viola, Africa breeds in many ways.
You can divide an adult plant, sow seeds in open ground or sow them on seedlings.
She will feel great both in the sun and in the shade. Caring for her is not complicated. One has only to remember to water it in time and get rid of dried inflorescences and leaves.
Although the plant is resistant to disease, it is still worth watching it occasionally. Because Africa can be destroyed by powdery mildew, rust or black leg.
Gardeners often choose this variety for abundant long-term flowering and undemanding care.Viola Vetroka Africa
Viola Caramel grade
The adult plant of viola caramel reaches a height of up to 30 cm and will delight in long flowering throughout the warm season.
It can be planted as seeds in open ground, and seedling method. Care of it does not require special knowledge and consists in regular watering and loosening of the soil.
Of the pests and diseases that can harm this variety is worth noting black leg, rust and powdery mildew. But infection is extremely rare.
The main advantage of caramel, according to gardeners, is its spectacular flowering and unpretentiousness to the composition of the soil.
There is only one drawback, it lies in the fact that when sowing seeds in open ground, flowering will occur only next year.
The roast varnish variety has long gained popularity among both experienced flower growers and beginners in this business. It is possible to grow it by sowing seeds in an open ground, and seedling method.
In the second case, flowering will occur in the first year after planting.
In the care, grlyazh is not demanding and it comes down to regularly watering and loosening the plant. Diseases and pests attack it rarely, of which it is worth noting only powdery mildew and rust.Griljazh
According to the gardeners on the forums, it becomes clear that the main advantage of roasting is that it pleases with abundant long flowering even in shady corners of the garden.
The only drawback is that when sowing seeds in open ground flowering occurs only in the second season.
Viola Vetroka will be a worthy decoration of any garden, choose and plant.