Despite the fact that goats are animals with fairly strong immunity, they, like any other living creatures, sometimes get sick. Most often, their diseases are the result of improper feeding and maintenance of these animals. Today we will talk about the most common diseases of goats, their symptoms and, of course, treatment.
Goats in the pasture
First of all, it should be noted that goat diseases can be divided into two groups: non-infectious and infectious. Depending on which of them the disease relates, the treatment will depend.
Acute tympania in goats - increased flatulence. Occurs because of the walking of the animal after rain, as well as its feeding on legumes. With acute tympania, the goat has a strongly swollen abdomen, appetite and gum are lost.
The first thing that needs to be done in case of suspicion of acute tympania is to deprive the animal of food. If this is not done, then it may die. Then it is lifted by the front legs, trying to free the scar from gas by massaging and pouring cold water over the sides. You can give a solution of ichthyol or creolin inside.
Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Occurs due to feeding the animal bad food. In young animals, it may appear with a sharp transition to vegetable food. With gastroenteritis, the animal's breathing becomes faster, body temperature rises, and appetite disappears. In addition, the animal has constipation followed by diarrhea.
Treatment of gastroenteritis involves depriving the animal of food for a day. But he should have enough water. In addition, the goat give antibiotics.
Vitamin deficiency, hypovitaminosis
Avitaminosis - lack of vitamins, hypovitaminosis - their lack. In young individuals, this disease is manifested by growth retardation and malfunction of the nervous system (unsteady gait, convulsions, paralysis of the limbs). In adults with vitamin deficiency and hypovitaminosis there are problems with the reproduction of offspring.
Treatment of beriberi and hypovitaminosis, which is quite logical, is a replenishment of the missing and missing vitamins. Vitamin A is fish oil, vitamin B - germinated grain, bran, carrots, vitamin D - meat and bone meal, milk, brewer's yeast.
Poisoning is caused by feeding the animal feed treated with pesticides. With this disease, the goat does not eat, it develops vomiting and diarrhea. Also, there are failures in the nervous system (unsteady gait, convulsions, paralysis of the limbs).
In case of poisoning the animal is washed stomach, give a laxative and activated charcoal. If it is known which substance led to the disease, then use the appropriate antidote.
Ketosis is caused by feeding the animal with food that is abundant in concentrates with a lack of fiber. Such a diet leads to an increased content of acetone, acetoacetic acid and other ketone bodies and impaired metabolism.
Ketosis is manifested by loss of appetite, gnashing of teeth, trembling of facial muscles, weakening of vision and hearing.
Before direct treatment of ketosis, methionine, sodium glucanate and glucose are given to the animal. Then his goat nutrition is corrected and it is regularly walked.
Dyspepsia is a disease inherent in newborn goats and kids. It occurs due to metabolic disorders, which leads to dehydration and intoxication of the body. The cause of dyspepsia is unbalanced nutrition of the goat in the last trimester of pregnancy and after childbirth.
Symptoms of dyspepsia are diarrhea of a sharp unpleasant smell, abdominal distension, and a decrease in body temperature.
Dyspepsia is one of the most dangerous diseases. Everyone who has goats should know how to treat it, because if the animals are not helped within 3 days, they will die.
To start sick animals must be isolated from healthy. After that, stop feeding them for a period of 6 to 12 hours. The basis for the treatment of dyspepsia is the injection of a solution of sodium chloride or ordinary boiled water about 5 times a day. In particularly difficult cases, antibiotics can be used.
In the vast majority of cases, pneumonia is a concomitant disease. It occurs due to the weakening of the animal's immunity as a result of hypothermia, overheating, prolonged stay in a dusty room, unbalanced nutrition.
Pneumonia is manifested by loss of appetite, purulent discharge from the nose, increased breathing and pulse, fever. Also with pneumonia, the goat coughs.
Animals affected by this disease are transferred to a clean, dry room. Adjust the power. Penicillin and norsulfazole are given.
Goat infectious diseases
The infectious diseases of the goats we are considering include:
- Infectious pleuropneumonia,
- Infectious mastitis,
- Infectious agalactia,
Infectious pleuropneumonia is caused by microorganisms of the genus Mycoplasma. Most of all this disease prone individuals under the age of 3 years.
Infectious pleuropneumonia begins with a sharp increase in body temperature. Then the animal loses its appetite and gum. A dry cough appears, alternating wet from time to time. Also in this disease there is difficulty in breathing and muscle tremors.
Treatment of infectious pleuropneumonia involves isolating sick animals from healthy and disinfecting the room in which they were located. In addition, they are given novarsenol with glucose and osarsol.
They say about infectious mastitis when the goat increases, hardens and gets a blue-violet hue of the udder, body temperature rises, appetite and gum disappear.
Treatment of infectious mastitis involves the isolation of sick animals from healthy and disinfection facilities. The udder is lightly massaged and more often than usual, the milk is decanted. Then goats are given penicillin and erythromycin (intramuscularly).
Infectious agalagia goats - the defeat of their udder, joints and eyes. It manifests itself in the cessation of milk secretion and miscarriages. Also with this disease in animals the body temperature rises.
Treatment of infectious agalactia depends on the place affected. In the udder through the nipple injected iodine solution. Eyes washed with 1% boric acid solution. The joints are treated with 1% copper sulfate solution, which is injected under the skin.
Brucellosis in goats excites the bacterium of the same name. It is excreted with fetus, amniotic fluid and blood. Animals affected by brucellosis are killed, and then the room is disinfected.
Dictyocaulosis goats - the defeat of their bronchi and trachea. It is manifested by cough, rapid and difficult breathing, shortness of breath. As the disease progresses, the animals lose weight.
Dictiocaulosis is treated with an iodine solution, an aluminum iodide aerosol, dithrazine, cyazide, loxuran, and dicthosis.
Goat Mulleriosis - the defeat of their bronchi and trachea. It is manifested by coughing, thinness and, as a result, a decrease in productivity.
Treat mülleriosis with dithrazine and emetine hydrochloride.
Linogmatosis is a common lice disease. Infection occurs from sick animals and items of care.
Linogmatosis is manifested by itching, moulting and loss of appetite. Also, with this disease, the animals become restless.
It is possible to rid the animal of lice with a solution of chlorophos and karbofos. A good effect is observed when using foxim and acrrodex, perola and insectol.
Piroplasmosis occurs due to tick bites. Most of all this disease susceptible adults. Juveniles suffer from piroplasmosis extremely rarely.
The disease manifests itself fever, anemia, yellowing of the mucous membranes. Also, when piroplasmosis animals refuse food, they have increased breathing and pulse. In addition, a characteristic feature of this disease is dark red urine.
Most often, inflammation threatens animals, whose immunity is greatly reduced. The reason for the weakening of immunity are:
- other diseases
- stressful situations
- overcooling or overheating,
- staying indoors with dirty air
- wrong diet
The main symptoms of this goat disease are:
- loss of interest in food,
- cough, wheezing in the lungs,
- discharge of mucus from the nose, with time - purulent,
- temperature increase
- increased breathing and pulse.
- The trapped individuals are isolated. The insulator provides dryness and good ventilation.
- You need to feed high-quality hay concentrates with the addition of vitamins and minerals.
- If necessary, inside prescribed "Norsulfazol", "Penicillin".
- Kids will benefit from fish oil.
Avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis
It is manifested in those individuals whose food contains little or no vitamins A, B, D and E. Vitamins provide the normal course of biological processes of living organisms. Some of them goat themselves synthesize, but there are those who must come from outside with food.
Signs of beriberi in animals of different ages are manifested differently:
- the babies start to grow worse, there are problems associated with the nervous system: convulsions, an unsteady gait. In special cases, paralysis of the limbs is recorded,
- adults lose their ability to reproduce.
The basic rule for vitamin deficiency is to eliminate the lack of the required vitamin. To do this, use special food and additives. In particular:
- There is a lot of vitamin A in fish oil and products containing retinol. In the spring its quantity in hay decreases,
- B vitamins are found in bran, carrot, sprouted grains,
- Vitamin C small livestock produces itself and almost does not need additives,
- There is a lot of vitamin D in meat and bone meal, dairy products, yeast.
Avitaminosis E is sometimes called white muscle disease, muscular dystrophy, or young disease. It is caused by disturbances in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, a lack of minerals, etc. The incidence of goat among children is sometimes up to 60%. The disease manifests itself when grazing livestock on pastures with high sulfur content, when feeding with food that lacks cobalt, copper and selenium.
For the treatment of white muscle disease prescribe drugs selenium and vitamin E - sodium selenium.
Preventive measures involve the use of vitamin supplements, especially in the winter-spring period. Usually goats weaken, being long in the stall and after giving birth. Therefore, in advance, worry about the preparation of vitamin-containing products, purposefully add vitamin-mineral supplements, granulated herbs to feed.
Manifested in the last stage of pregnancy, if the succinic goat is not properly fed. In particular, to give too much concentrated feed, where there is little fiber. As a result, metabolism is disturbed, many ketone bodies appear in the blood, such as acetone and acetoacetic acid.
The main manifestations of ketosis:
- decrease or lack of appetite
- hearing and sight deteriorate,
- facial muscles begin to tremble,
- gnashing of teeth
- the animal stops reflexively reacting to stimuli.
Home goat treatment
- Sukoznyh females before and after lambing supply balanced feed, allow a lot of time to spend on the air.
- In difficult cases, ketosis is treated with methionine, sodium gluconate, glucose.
- Beginners are advised to contact a specialist who will help balance nutrition.
Inflammatory processes cover the sebaceous glands and hair bags on the udder. Boils are often purulent. The disease affects the dairy goats, if the conditions of their content are far from normal.
- on the leather cover of the udder appear bumps of different shapes. In the center of each is the hair root,
- over time, the skin turns red or yellow,
- boils hard to touch, give the animal pain,
- pus from a bursting abscess falls on the skin, becoming a hotbed of the appearance of new bumps.
- Udders are washed with warm water with soap or a disinfectant composition, removing dried crusts.
- Wool on udder shear.
- Inflamed skin boils are treated with iodine.
Usually they pay attention in the process of milking. Appear with improper milking of females, the use of poor quality and wet litter. Often, cracks develop into mastitis if bacteria get into them.
- The udder is treated with boric acid.
- Nipples smeared with petroleum jelly.
Goats are restless animals. They are able to climb trees, jump over shrubs and fences. Excessive activity is sometimes accompanied by injury.
Treatment procedures depend on the degree of damage.
- Open wounds are washed with a solution of potassium permanganate in a weak concentration, smeared with iodine, sprinkled with naphthalene.
- If the bruises are accompanied by a fracture, put a splint on the limb, making a tight dressing. Until the fractures heal, the movement of the animal is limited.
- In case of bruises on the damaged place, hair is cut, treated with iodine and tapered.
- When pebbles or splinters penetrate into the cut of the hoof, they are removed, the extra horn is shortened. Inflamed area washed with a disinfectant composition.
Developed in goats living in a cold and damp barn. Since rheumatism is of different types, various treatment methods are used.
- The muscular version leads to hardening of the muscles, delivering pain to the animal. It is treated by transferring livestock to a dry milk vetch. The affected areas are rubbed with camphor alcohol.
- Articular rheumatism leads to swelling of the legs, fever. The goat begins to limp, loses its appetite. Salicylic acid is prescribed orally for treatment. Sore joints rubbed with compositions of turpentine, vegetable oils and ammonia are also useful.
Necrobacteriosis (hoof disease)
The infection enters the body through scratches on the skin and saliva, mucous membrane. It affects the inter-cleft slit, crumbs and whisk. It is transmitted through contact with the carrier microbe through saliva, manure and necrotic cells.
- the goat begins to limp,
- fabric hoof swells,
- purulent-necrotic lesions appear,
- in difficult situations, the horn shoe falls off, the infection penetrates the lips and mouth,
- lost desire to eat.
- Affected sites are disinfected.
- If the disease has just begun, antibiotics that have been acting for a long time (Terramycin, Cobactan) are used.
- Preparations are prescribed to strengthen the immune system.
- In special cases, resort to local surgery.
Infection manifests itself in the form of putrefactive decomposition of the ungulate. Along the way, exfoliate the sole and the wall of the hoof.
- sick limp on the affected leg,
- the area through which the infection has penetrated, turns red and begins to swell,
- in difficult cases, gangrene or hoof necrosis occurs.
The following treatment helps.
- Sick individuals are isolated, and the goat's hen is disinfected.
- Affected hoofs are treated with disinfectant compounds.
- In difficult situations, festering places are cut off surgically.
The causative agents of the disease, doctors call a number of types of RNA-containing viruses. Immediately after entering the goat’s body, the virus multiplies vigorously, initially infecting epithelial cells (creating bubbles), and then spreading throughout the body.
Goat FMD disease can due to carriers of the virus, sick or already recovered individuals. The virus enters the body through the mouth and mucous membrane, through scratches on the udder and limbs.
- temperature increases
- passivity, depressed state,
- milk yield
- after a few days, small ulcers appear in the mouth, on the wings of the nose, on the udder and hooves, which burst a couple of days later,
- loss of appetite
Special treatment for FMD does not yet exist. Usually resort to several procedures.
- Sick goats are isolated, and the room where they were located is disinfected.
- The affected areas of the body are disinfected.
- Hooves smeared with warm birch tar.
Pathogens are various living organisms that can parasitize inside or outside the body of an animal.
Develops when flat helminths of fasciols enter the animal. Organisms are collected in the liver and bile ducts. The infection can be picked up on pastures where there is a favorable environment for the development of helminths. Being infected, the goat is able to infect other relatives.
- temperature increase in juveniles up to 42 °,
- depressed, lethargic state
- loss of appetite,
- diarrhea alternating with constipation
- swelling of the lower jaw and chest,
- gradual development of anemia,
- mucous membranes become pale, after they turn yellow.
- The individual is isolated.
- Prescribed anthelmintic agents. Acemidophen, Acetvicol, Dertil, Ursovermit, FaccoMerm, Fazinex are suitable.
The disease is caused by tapeworms. Once in the body, they accumulate in the small intestine. A goat can become infected with a moniesiosis in a pasture, feeding on grass in which oribatid mites live - carriers of parasites. This usually occurs in spring or autumn.
The initial symptoms of infection become noticeable after a month. The manifestations are as follows:
- diseased individuals lose weight,
- wool becomes dull,
- apathetic, lethargic,
- feces take an unformed mucous appearance, they can be seen segments or whole fragments of the helminth.
The disease is especially dangerous for babies - having formed in large numbers, the worms in goats are able to completely block the intestines, which, as a result, leads to death.
Cattle are prescribed special anti-worms drugs. The most effective are:
- "Fenasal", "Fanadek", "Fenalidon", "Panakur",
- copper sulfate
- Albendazole, Cambendazole.
The compositions are prescribed individually for each individual or they treat the entire herd.
The causative agent is cestode larvae. Penetrating small cattle, parasites accumulate in the liver, lungs, spleen and kidneys. They represent a danger to humans. Animals can become infected with echinococcosis by eating feed with eggs and segments of cestodes.
- sick individuals lose weight,
- digestive system malfunctioning
- jaundice is formed,
- if the parasites have settled in the lungs, the goat begins to cough, breathes with difficulty, and shortness of breath appears.
Against this disease, no effective treatment has been developed.
Pathogen - filamentous helminth nematode. Once in the body through contaminated feed and drinking water, the parasite develops in the bronchi and trachea.
Diagram of the development of dictyocaulosis:
- the animal loses interest in food,
- passive, sluggish state of health,
- flowing from the nose takes a thick form
- puffiness appears
To cope with dictyocaulus, use a specific treatment.
- The sick pet is prescribed an aqueous solution of iodine, it is pushed into the trachea with a syringe.
- Ditrazin is injected as an injection - it is considered a very effective remedy for dictiocaulosis.
The causative agent is roundworms of the suborder strongest. Parasites accumulate in different areas of the digestive tract: in the stomach, small and large intestines. An animal can become infected by strongilosis by consuming feed and drinking water containing larvae and eggs.
- gastroenteritis, dermatitis, pneumonia,
- wool becomes dull, easily falls out.
- Sick animals are prescribed anthelmints and drugs to strengthen the immune system.
- Use "Fenotiazin", copper sulfate.
Carriers of the disease are lice, passing from sick to healthy individuals. Goat infectious lice can be transmitted by using common hygiene items.
- sick individuals begin to itch,
- milk productivity decreases
- if there are many parasites, the goat behaves restlessly,
- loss of appetite
- extensive dermatitis is noticeable on the head, neck and dorsum,
- wool falls out.
- Patients are subjected to primary treatment with insecticides. Preparations in the form of a solution, emulsion or aerosol spray the skin of the animal. Thus, it is possible to get rid of the lice larvae by curing pediculosis at an early stage.
- The next treatment is carried out two weeks later. Solutions of Chlorofos, Karbofos, as well as Phoxim, Acrodex, Perol, Insectol are used.
Any diseases of goats and their proper treatment cause some economic damage to the owner. There are viral infections that can infect almost all livestock. Many viruses retain the ability to exist for a long time in a favorable environment.
Once again, most of the above diseases can be successfully avoided if:
- follow the basic rules of hygiene,
- follow the feed
- properly balance the diet.
Take care of your charges, and then their health, as well as performance, will always be normal.
A favorable breeding of goats at home begins with the arrangement of a suitable room. This room will be a barn, where there will be goats. These pets are unpretentious by their nature, and therefore do not need huge areas. The room should be compact, comfortable, but not close. Existence in cramped lowers the level of productivity.
A shed for goats is planned, based on the calculation of assignment of approximately 1.3 square meters per female. the area, for an adult male producer is 2 sq. m., for a young goat - at least from 0.75-0.85 sq. m.
Compliance with these dimensions ensures a satisfactory state of animal development, a positive result of which will be a good milk yield and high quality wool.
Goat shed is built with a high degree of insulation. The peculiarity of animals is that they do not like drafts, sudden changes in temperature, as well as its cardinal indicators of heat or cold. A shed for goats in winter is kept in a temperature mode of + 10 ° C, and in summer it should not exceed the + 20 ° C mark (which is achieved by constant ventilation).
Floor crib stack boards with a slope in the direction of the entrance. Such a construction will serve as a regulation of the urination and ease of cleaning.
A shed for goats from the street is enclosed by a fence in order to carry out a walking of goats with the calculation of 3-4 sq.m. on one animal. The recommended fence height is about 2 meters. A small farm consisting of two or three animals will fit in a small goat shed with one window that can provide the necessary lighting and ventilation. Large areas of space require other conditions. They should have a supply and exhaust ventilation system.
Another of the most important questions facing a novice goat breeder is: what does this animal eat and how to organize food properly?
Goats are deservedly considered fastidious animals. No circumstances will force them to consume food from the floor, and clogged food bowls with food will remain intact. The maintenance of the feeder should be given due attention, since this is the main prop in feeding. You can build it yourself.
When breeding goats, it is necessary to observe punctuality in feeding. It should be noted that the goat meat will be tasty and useful only when properly fed. They eat well fresh and dry grass, dried branches of shrubs: willows, willows, limes, birches, aspens.
Goats also love pine feet, straw, potato peel, tops, and leftover food from the host's table.The approximate diet that eats a goat is presented in the table.
Fodder for the winter
Harvesting grass food occurs in the summer of June and August. Start hay is better before the flowering period. Initially, it is necessary to determine the required volume of this feed. The calculation is made from the approximate rate of harvesting per pet at least 400-430 kg of hay. Consider the amount of hay (straw) needed to litter the animal.
If possible, it is necessary to prepare a silo at the rate of 50-80 kg per head.
With the arrival of early spring, the herd is released to graze. Therefore, the diet is changing, to which you need to move gradually.
It is recommended to feed the goats with hay and concentrated food a little before the start of the walk. Pasture is better to choose on a hill sufficiently blown and dried by the wind. And goat preference is given to fragrant, hardened plants, rather than watery ones growing in lowlands.
Water consumption is required twice a day. In hot, exhausting weather, animals are allowed to rest.Pasture land itself is divided into several territories. Goats graze alternately: first on one, then move to another place. One section of the territory serves as a special resting place. Such a site is not permanent, but periodically changes its location in order to avoid manure pollution. Return to the livestock stall occurs in the late evening.
This method of summer feeding applies equally to wool and dairy breeds. The summer maintenance of these animals is quite simple, because some farmers stop additional feeding and transfer the animals to pasture feeding.
Animals must always have fresh water, they must be changed daily. In the barn you can equip nipple drinkers, in the yard is enough to have a trough or a large basin. It is desirable to fix them on a small elevation, so that animals do not pollute the water with their feet.
Non-contagious diseases in goats
In the first place in terms of prevalence are diseases of the digestive system of goats. Unbalanced diets, irregularities in the preparation and giving of food, an abrupt change of diet, the use of substandard and toxic products leads to a lot of disorders - from enteritis to stomach ulcers, pancreatic pathologies and ketosis.
- rumen tympania - swelling of the first chamber of the stomach, caused by an increase in gas formation (primary tympania) or blockage (secondary). It is treated by tympanol dacha, active exercise, in an emergency - puncture of the abdominal wall,
- Atonia or rumen blockage is possible due to nervous disorders (stress), poisoning, giving large quantities of bran, oilcake, and water with ice water. For therapy, it should be poured through a probe or with the help of a bottle of diluted tincture of hellebore, a scar massage gives a positive dynamic,
- gastroenteritis, neonatal dyspepsia - occurs due to a drop in immunity, improper preparation of rations, giving hot or cold food. Manifested by fecal mass containing blood and mucus, rapid depletion. For treatment, the diet is revised, starting from a daily starvation, a 0.9% solution of table salt is given to drink, parenteral nutrition is recommended. Antibiotics are shown, intraperitoneal novocainic blockade gives good results,
- avitaminosis, rickets, white muscle disease, enzootic goiter, ketosis - a group of pathologies that develop due to metabolic disorders (protein, carbohydrate), lack of vitamins or mineral elements. It is treated by compensation of the necessary elements in the diet.
Of great importance in goat breeding are diseases of the reproductive system. Postpartum complications such as delaying the afterbirth, endometritis, involution of the uterus, rupture of the walls of the uterus and vagina occurs when pregnancy planning is abnormal (incorrect selection of couples, previously fertilized), increased frequency (decrease in the service period), unbalanced feeding and improper maintenance. The most common are purulent-catarrhal endometritis, manifested by abundant exudate effusions from the genitals. For treatment, removal of pathogenic contents (washing with disinfectant solutions), suppositories and antimicrobial tablets is indicated. General stimulation of immunity.
Mastitis and its treatment
After lambing often appears goat mastitis. This problem faced every farmer engaged in the cultivation of these animals for a long time. Mastitis is caused by an inflammatory process that occurs in the mammary glands. Do not confuse the disease with the phenomenon of infancy. It is represented by non-inflammatory udder edema and disappears within a week if the correct regimen and diet are observed.
And mastitis is a contagious disease, provoked by the ingress of bacteria into the livestock organism. Therefore, when diagnosing goat mastitis, treatment is required immediately.
Symptoms of the disease are directly dependent on the scale and form of inflammation that struck the goat udder. First, mastitis proceeds covertly. At this stage, farmers observe a slight decrease in milk yield and milk properties.
The characteristic signs of such a phenomenon are: fast ripening, the appearance of flakes, as well as sediment in a can of milk.
Some inexperienced owners do not immediately attach importance to this fact. And in vain, because these signs indicate the development of the process of inflammation, which negatively affects the health of the goat and its productivity.Treatment of mastitis in goats is to eliminate harmful microorganisms from the body. This result is achieved only by exposure to drugs prescribed by a specialist. This disease is not fatal to the animal and is treated at home in the event of timely diagnosis and proper therapy.