By its nature, raspberry is a shrub that breeds in its natural environment with root suckers. Cultivars grown in gardens have kept this feature of their ancestors. If you do not remove their root growth and do not cut the bushes themselves, the yield is significantly reduced. The operation allows you to maintain a balance within the plant between the distribution of nutrients for vegetative growth and the formation of a crop.
Another important biological feature is fruiting on the shoots of last year, which die off after the berries ripen. On last year's shoots, fruit branches are formed - laterals, which bear fruits collected in clusters. Pruning stimulates the formation of laterals, allows more berries to ripen and become larger.
In ordinary raspberry varieties, new shoots growing in the current year will produce the next year’s crop, and in remontants, the berries will have berries by the end of summer, and usually their ripening continues until frost. Here it is important to understand when to prune the raspberry for the winter, in order to provide the bushes with active growth and fruiting for the next year. In both types of varieties, old shoots needing to be removed must be removed, otherwise the entire plantation is aging rapidly, becoming unkempt and losing its productivity.
When to properly trim the raspberries
Raspberry is generally unpretentious plant. It is best to cut it in the summer after harvest, while simultaneously pruning dead shoots, rationing the bush and removing the shoots. In Siberia and the Urals, it is good to prune raspberries in July or early August.
A single summer pruning ensures good productivity of the bushes with easy maintenance. However, in order to achieve maximum yield and durability of plants, a single pruning is not enough. A number of bush operations are also needed. In fact, they are carried out throughout the season. So year-round operations include:
- spring pruning of the tips of the shoots to different heights,
- rationing the number of shoots in early summer,
- removal of dead shoots in July-August,
- rationing of young shoots in August,
- autumn rationing or complete cutting of shoots of remontant varieties in October.
Below we take a closer look at each procedure.
The following tools will be useful for trimming raspberries:
- sharp blade pruner,
- garden shears on long handles,
- garden file,
- mittens or heavy gloves.
The pruner and garden shears must be well ground, with an adjusted return mechanism, that is, it must return to the “open” position without effort, otherwise the hand will be very tired when working. Chlorhexidine, a solution of potassium permanganate, any alcohol or acetic acid is used to remove dirt and disinfect the cutting surfaces of all instruments. In the disinfectant fluid immerse the tool or process it from the spray. During work, to prevent the transfer of fungal, viral or bacterial diseases from bush to bush, it is advisable to periodically wipe the blades with alcohol wipes or use a medical spray disinfector.
If the plantation is planted near a hedge, then it is very difficult to get close to the last shoots of large bushes. Scissors on long handles, similar to those that cut the bushes, will come to the rescue. If you work pruners, you can cut off, low grabbing shoots with his other hand. With scissors it is also easy to cut the tops in the spring of tall, upright varieties.
Ordinary raspberry trimming procedure
In the spring check the bushes, as they wintered. Blackened and frozen branches are removed. The tops of healthy shoots are trimmed with scissors to different heights, to enable the berries to grow in all tiers. The most developed and thick branches cut 12-15 cm, thinner 15-30 cm, and the weakest - 30-40 cm. Thus, the weak shoots will grow stronger and give not small and sluggish berries, and large and juicy. The upper buds on the shoots for the most part carry rudimentary and underdeveloped berries. If you do not cut the tops, the plant will spend too much nutrients on their development and other berries will become smaller.
In early June, you need to calculate how many young shoots developed on each bush and bring them to the norm of 7-12 pieces. You need to cut underdeveloped, too close to growing and shading each other branches. The remaining powerful shoots as they reach a height of more than 1 m is fixed on the trellis. In about a month, the harvest begins to ripen. On some varieties at this time, stepchildren can form in the sinuses of the kidneys, they are carefully cut with shears - stepchildren.
After harvesting, they cut out the seedlings, sometimes without waiting for their complete extinction. During this period, the bushes especially strongly give root growth. If you are not going to plant this raspberry variety, there is no need to save young shoots. If they are not cut, they greatly weaken the maternal plant, which may even soon die.
Choose the minimum cutting height for the branches that have left it. The best option when “hemp” from slices not higher than 1.5 cm remain above the ground. Leaf shoots need to be dug and cut at a depth of at least 5 cm.
In the autumn, time to think about how the plants will overwinter. Most cultivated varieties have high winter hardiness and can winter open. In regions with severe winters, it may be necessary to bend the shoots to the ground and mulch the soil in the plantation belt with old manure.
Pruning raspberry pruning procedure and dressing
The repair raspberry bears fruit twice a season. Almost all varieties in the second harvest get more berries for 3-4 weeks. In this type of raspberry, it is important to ensure that at the beginning of summer new productive shoots begin to grow rapidly. To do this, they need to be well fertilized. In the first decade of June, fertilizing infusion of bird droppings is needed: 2 kg of dry litter is poured with 10 liters of water, infused for 5-7 days, then diluted in a ratio of 1:10. This solution gives watering 4-5 liters under each bush.
Good results are obtained by feeding and spraying raspberries in the spring of ammonia. It is necessary to start feeding when a stable daily average air temperature of 10º C is reached. For irrigation, prepare a solution of 2-3 tablespoons per bucket of water. This tool also helps plants resist diseases and pests in the form of spraying. In the treatment solution add tar soap (2 tablespoons) for better adhesion of active ingredients and disinfection.
If strong bushes are formed, they will be able to provide 10-12 branches with food. But with a weakened shrub can not leave more than 4-5 shoots. During the flowering period, the crown of the head can be slightly trimmed to better set the berries.
It is advisable to feed the raspberry with potassium in early autumn. Berries will be sweeter and larger. You can use potassium chloride or give 1 glass of wood ash under each bush (you should not use ash from the stove, if you used a newspaper to start burning wood, because newspaper paints contain lead that can get into the berries). Harvest should be gradually. In years with an early onset of frost, the average and late harvest may not ripen. Berries can still be collected, dried and consumed in the winter for brewing herbal tea.
Pruning raspberry in the fall should be cut off at the latest time before the onset of frost. Cut out all weakened, damaged and shading shoots. The rest are bent to the ground and secured with wire pins.
Double Raspberry Trim
In order to harvest high yields during the second harvest, double pruning is carried out on the remontan raspberry. This means that in July and the beginning of August shoots are cut out, and in October absolutely all shoots on the plantation are removed. Pruning branches harvested for cuttings for later reproduction in spring.
This technique allows you to completely get rid of wintering pests and there is no danger of branches freezing. Roots cover with organic mulch. In the spring give fertilizer with a high nitrogen content. The early harvest in this case, the plants will not give, but the second will be very high. On raspberry field plantations, one late harvest covers both collections in quantity and quality of berries.
Conditions of high productivity raspberries and other tips
Pruning is undoubtedly an important agricultural practice, but it is far from the only one on which the harvest depends. Raspberries love to grow in open sunny places with fertile, well-transmissive soil. The reaction of the soil solution should be neutral or slightly acidic. If there are trees or a vegetable garden nearby, bushes may be inhibited due to unfavorable neighborhood. So, bushes can die if cherry, grapes, sea buckthorn grows nearby, hosts, garlic, radishes or beans.
Plants need regular watering, feeding, mulching the soil. Among the pests, a depressant effect on raspberries mite. In early spring, during the full blooming of the kidneys, it is good to carry out the treatment with Fitoverm. This is an effective biological drug that will significantly improve the entire plantation.
We advise each gardener to develop for himself his own calendar for the care of his favorite berries, taking into account the recommendations set out and the opportunity to devote time to the garden. Try to cut the raspberries in the correct time. Remember, pruning in the summer is very important. Repair raspberries can be completely cut for the winter. In the spring it is important to feed the shrubs well. We wish you good luck and high yields!
Features pruning raspberry spring
Pruning raspberries in the spring should be carried out at the very beginning of the season immediately after the snow melts until the moment when the soil warms up completely. The choice of the month for pruning (March-April) depends on the weather region in which the raspberries are grown. Choosing the option of spring pruning raspberries, you should take into account the features and varieties, namely, the number of fruits during the season (one or more).
Pruning varieties yielding a single crop
The procedure is carried out in the following order:
- Removal with the help of a garden pruner weak, sick and dried branches. In the presence of frozen stalks they are shortened to a healthy kidney,
- Thinning of annual shoots to the amount of 5-8 per bush. When spring pruning of raspberries is performed on bushes grown by the trellis method, free spaces between the shoots are left at least 10-15 cm,
- The remaining stems are shortened by a quarter of the length, so that in the end the length of the shoot is 120-150 cm.
With this option, pruning provides full coverage of the bushes, prevents the occurrence of pests and diseases. Also, the growth of the remaining shoots slows down, due to which the lateral buds begin to actively develop.
Considering the options of how to properly cut the raspberries in the spring, it should be noted and the way in which the usual raspberries will bear fruit over a longer period. Trimming is carried out according to the following rules:
Features pruning raspberry autumn
If you do not have time to cut the raspberries before the start of the fruiting season, you should familiarize yourself with how to cut the raspberries for the winter. Carry out the procedure should be no later than a couple of weeks before a cold snap. Before pruning, the bushes are carefully reviewed to determine which shoots are to be removed and to select the stems that will yield next year.
Pruning raspberries for the winter involves removing the following shoots:
- Makers, pests and diseased stems,
- Young shoots are not enough to gain strength, which can not survive the winter,
- Two-year-old shoots that have been harvesting for the last couple of years so that they do not disturb the nutrition of young stems,
- Broken and extra shoots that thicken the bush too much.
Pruning raspberries in the fall of these shoots is done without leaving hemp at the base. When bushes are formed between them, a free distance of at least 60 cm is left, cutting off extra stems with a shovel (stepping 20 cm from the main bush, circle the raspberry itself, then cultivate the land outside the circle).
Pruning raspberries for the winter contributes to the rapid growth of raspberries, so about 10 shoots should be left for a running meter. At the same time, reparantant raspberries are cut, cutting off each shoot to 10 cm.
Features trimming raspberries by Sobolev
Today, the most popular option for pruning raspberry bushes is Sobolev raspberry pruning, named after the Russian gardener who is the founder of raisin farming. This method is characterized by a combination of simplicity and efficiency, while even inexperienced gardeners can produce high-quality pruning.
According to the technology of double pruning of raspberries, bushes are formed in both spring and autumn. The date of the first pruning is the end of May or the beginning of June, when the young stems reach a height of 80-100 cm, depending on the raspberry variety. Later, pruning is extremely undesirable, since the shoots may not have time to gain strength and as a result will not suffer the winter cold. At this stage, pinch the tops of the stems, removing 15 cm in height.
After pruning, the bush practically does not grow in height, since the lateral branches begin to actively develop. After just a couple of days after pruning, the first shoots are already visible in the upper sinuses, and by the beginning of autumn, instead of a single shoot, a powerful stem with five to six shoots is formed, each 50 cm long. This year, no pruning activities are done anymore.
The next spring, when the first leaves appear on the shoots, they move on to the next stage of double pruning of raspberries. The procedure consists in shortening the shoots that successfully survived the winter by 10–15 cm. This is done so that many new branches form on the main stem, their number increases tenfold even before fruiting begins.
According to Sobolev, the key to the effectiveness of double pruning is the correct implementation of the second stage. If the rules are observed, the results exceed all expectations - instead of the single stalks that are usual for the look, the second-year bush turns into completely covered with flowers, buds, ovaries and ripe berries, and fruiting ends only with the onset of cold weather.
Pruning raspberries according to Sobolev makes it possible to make from ordinary raspberries remontant, significantly increasing the yield of raspberries.
Along with the advantages of double pruning has disadvantages. We are talking about too active fouling of raspberry bushes, which leads to excessive thickening of the raspberries. As a result, the airing of the shoots worsens, their shading increases, resulting in defeat by pests and diseases. If you do not take timely action, you can lose not only the harvest, but also the bushes themselves.
In order to avoid such problems with a double trimming method, the distance between rows of raspberry bushes should increase to at least 2 meters, and the bushes located in the neighborhood in the row should be removed from each other by at least a meter.
The maximum number of shoots for one bush should not exceed 10. If desired, significantly increase the yield of raspberries, double pruning of raspberries can be carried out with a gradual decrease in the number of replacement stems and fruiting shoots. First, from 10, 8 are left, after - 6, and at the last stage - 4 young formed shoots.
How to prolong the fruiting raspberries?
To increase the duration of fruiting raspberries, some gardeners shorten shoots at different lengths.
Some stems are cut by 10-15 cm, others by 20-30 cm, some in half, and still leave the stems with a quarter of escape.
Thus, the first to start fruiting poorly pruned stems, and will finish fruiting (in August), the stalks are pruned the most.
The yield from the most cut stalks will be less, but the berries will be large. Thus, fruiting stretches for the entire season.
Spring Raspberry Pruning
Spring pruning raspberries - addition and continuation of pruning done in the fall.
Begin pruning immediately after the descent of snow. Remove frozen, broken, infected and weak shoots. Trim as low as possible to the soil without leaving a hemp.
Trim the tops to healthy buds, cutting 15-20 cm.
Thanks to this pruning, the upper buds awaken, forming from 3 to 6 shoots 50 cm long, on which berries are formed.
Without pruning the tops of the berries will be small.
The remaining shoots must be 1.2-1.5 m high. The distance between the rows in the raspberry pan should be at least 2 meters, between the bushes in the row about 1.5 meters. Each bush should consist of no more than 10 shoots.
With a large number of shoots on the bushes, they will shade each other, and will not gain the necessary nutrients.
When is it better to cut the raspberries?
Raspberries must be trimmed several times per season. Over the summer from one root can grow up to 20 new shoots.
За 2-3 недели до наступления холодов проводят обрезку отплодоносивших побегов.
Если у вас не ремонтантные сорта малины, к обрезке можно приступать после сбора урожая ягод (конец августа).
Обрезка малины летом
Постоянный уход за малиной необходим и летом. Обрезку малины летом проводят с целью удаления и уничтожения увядших верхушек побегов во время цветения, или пораженные вирусными болезнями.
Such stems should not be held until the autumn, otherwise the nearest bushes can get infected. Carry out the removal of unnecessary overgrowth, which appears, because it depletes raspberry bushes.
Pruning raspberries in the fall. How to cut the raspberries?
Start cutting raspberries immediately after harvestThis is recommended by experienced gardeners. In the fall, prune all diseased, broken, poorly developed, pest-prone shoots.
But the main goal - pruning two-year shoots, leaving only well-developed shoots. Cut off shoots from the site and burn.
Pruning raspberry bushes in the fall step by step:
1. First cut under the root of broken, damaged by diseases and pests, dried, weak and annual shoots
2. Under the root, cut off two-year-old shoots,
3. Too overgrown bushes need to be thinned out, leaving 8-10 of the most healthy and strong stems per 1 m 2,
4. Dig up raspberry bushes, destroy weeds,
5. All trimmed branches burn or remove from the site. They may be pests or pathogens,
6. In conclusion, to conduct dressing raspberries, and process the stems with iron sulphate.
In raspberry all new shoots appear from the rhizome, so you can cut them flush with the ground, leaving no stumps.
If you multiply raspberries, then use root shoots. Her dig and transplanted to another location. If there is no such need, the shoots should be immediately pulled out as soon as you notice that more nutrients go to the development of the necessary shoots.
In regions with little snow in winter, you can not cut the bushes, tie the bushes and bend them to the ground. Spring pruning after snow melt.
Conducting pruning and care for raspberries in spring and autumn, you stimulate raspberries for good fruiting.
How to prune raspberry repair varieties?
Repair raspberries can bear fruit both on two-year-old shoots and on annual ones, it can produce a crop twice a season - the first on the shoots of last year, the second on new shoots.
Pruning raspberry pruning has its own characteristics, it is best done after the first autumn frosts. All shoots are pruned to zero, leaving hemp 3-5 cm. So we get rid of all the pests living on the shoots and raspberries better overwinter under snow or shelter.
Pruning can be done in the spring, but you need to do before blooming buds and the beginning of sap flow. But it is better to do pruning in the fall.
Pinch the tops of the two-year-old shoots so that the first fruiting begins a little later. The tops of the annual shoots of the repair raspberries are not shortened, as there is a harvest of berries.
After harvesting the first crop of berries, remove the seedlings, for the fastest to obtain a second crop.
In regions with a short summer, the second crop of raspberries does not have time to ripen, in such areas grow raspberries like annual plant.
In this case, the whole ground part of the raspberry is cut off completely, and only annual shoots will bear fruit.
What is the need to prune raspberries?
If the shrub is too thick, large berries should not be expected. This factor also affects the taste of the fruit: a thick growth does not let the sun's rays through, as well as the air flow (all parts of the plant should be well blown by the wind). Proper raspberry pruning prevents the emergence of various diseases, and also reduces the chances of reproduction of pests, and the process of harvesting itself becomes easier - fewer prickly branches.
As it is known, in most raspberry varieties, flower buds are formed on two-year-old shoots. After two years of growing season, the branches are subject to cutting, they are replaced by young stems growing from the rhizome of a shrub. In other words, if the “spent” branches are not removed in time, the young population will not have enough vital forces to mature well before the onset of winter.
Such shoots can freeze or even freeze with the arrival of frost. Raspberries are pruned in spring, summer, and autumn. Let's take a closer look at all the steps.
Raspberries in the fall - care, pruning for the winter
In the autumn, a thorough preparation of the raspberries is made for the upcoming winter. Of course, all branches removed from the olee are removed, all diseased or damaged shoots are cut (sanitary pruning), as well as excessive growth. Do not forget about the cut "at the root" and the subsequent utilization of plant residues by burning.
Autumn pruning of raspberries should be carried out 3 weeks before the arrival of the first frost - this is the best time for this procedure. To calculate the time in advance, it is recommended to study the forecast of the Hydrometeorological Center.
In the bush over the summer can grow about 20 young branches, sometimes more. If your raspberry grows in rows, then 12-13 shoots should remain on each bush, but if it is grown by bushes, then leave no more than 10 branches. Pruning raspberries for the winter is sometimes combined with preparing the plants for the cold, especially in the so-called cold regions of our country. At the same time, the branches of the shrub are grouped immediately after pruning (sometimes they bend down to the ground), covered with protective material (lutrasil, spanbond).
Pruning raspberry pruning, when and how to do it correctly?
Despite the fact that this procedure is most often carried out at the end of the fruiting period, pruning time for remontant raspberries should be chosen taking into account the climatic features of your area of residence. Pruning raspberries in the fall is recommended for the southern territories, but in the northern regions, on the contrary, it is better to do this in early spring. You should also take into account the fact that the remontant raspberry can bear fruit not only on two-year-old shoots, but also on annual ones. This way, you can harvest useful berries twice a season. In most cases, the second wave of the harvest is not as abundant as the first one, but still you can continue to savor the sweet berries all the way to the first snows.
Pruning raspberry pruning is done in the fall with the onset of the first frosts (around November), all branches bearing off without regret are cut off literally “at the root”.
If young bushes were planted in the current year, then all shoots should be shortened so that their height was no more than 20 cm. Autumn pruning is also good because every parasite and disease-causing spores simply have nothing to winter with, while as the root system is covered with a layer of snow. With the arrival of spring at the bush will grow new strong annual shoots that will give you a generous harvest.
Pruning a raspberry in spring, as mentioned above, is more recommended for the northern regions, where freezing of plantings often occurs in the winter. The preservation of the ground part of the plant will contribute to the accumulation of nutritional components in the root system of the shrub, and when snow falls, the left branches will serve as a kind of protective cocoon. Thus, spring raspberries should be pruned around the end of March / April, before bud break. Against the background of swelling healthy buds, you can easily see the "dead" shoots that have not survived the winter. All frozen, broken, dried branches are cut either completely (if they are not viable), or before the first living kidney.
We should not forget about the pests and diseases that prefer to spend the winter in the bark of a bush. To exclude the possibility of raspberry disease, immediately after pruning it is recommended to treat the hive with a solution of the “Decis” preparation (according to the instructions) or Bordeaux mixture (3% pp). For the same reason, be sure to burn all trimmed plant fragments.
Timely watering, protection against parasites, periodic loosening of the soil, regular and competent pruning of raspberries - when and how to do it correctly, you already know - that, in principle, is all the worries that your berry plantation will require from you. For a summer resident who loves his plot, this is a familiar list of seasonal affairs, the more generous harvest of useful and tasty raspberries is a very worthy reward.Remontnaya Raspberry Generalissimo
Why do raspberry pruning
Usually raspberry fruit buds begin to appear on the branches of the second year of life. Although there are special remontant varieties that can produce a good harvest during the first year. But the renewal of shoots requires both varieties, since, starting from the second year of growth, the shoots may get sick and lose their former ability to set fruit.
Among other things, if you do not carry out the correct pruning of the bush, in the spring, up to twenty seedlings can form on it, which only create density, but do not bear the benefits of berry formation. Moreover, an overabundance of excess branches causes a decrease in the quantity and quality of the crop, as the bush spends its energy on the growth and development of barren shoots. Over time, pests can appear in such thickets, and diseases can spread.
When to prune
Raspberry Crop - This is a whole set of manipulations. It is necessary to cut dead branches, also remove damaged and dry shoots, chop trunks and cut off root shoots. Shoots should be shortened, and also to carry out binding or bending down to the ground raspberries.
Pruning is recommended three times a year:
- In the spring. It is best to remove unnecessary branches at the end of March or in the first days of April.
- Summer. The procedure is carried out after the entire crop of berries has been harvested. The period depends on the raspberry variety.
- In the fall. It is best to prepare the bushes for winter at the end of September or in October. The main thing is that before the onset of cold weather remains at least 2-3 weeks.
Features of cropping depending on the time of year
Raspberries are cut not only in spring, but also in summer. And in the fall, thus preparing the bush for the winter.
Spring raspberries are pruned around March or April. At this time, should be carried out the so-called normalization of shoots.
- To do this, carefully climb the branches and cut off those that were broken or frozen to death. Of those that remained, you need to choose 15-18 of the strongest, and cut off all unnecessary at the base.
- The tops that froze in winter also need to be trimmed, shortening them in this way to a healthy kidney. After this, the shoots are tied to the trellis.
- Then you need to pay attention to the growing young shoots. Those that are located far from the middle of the landing, you need to immediately cut down.
- When young shoots reach 25-30 cm in height, it will be necessary to choose about 40 (not more) shoots per linear meter of the row, and cut off all the rest.
Summer pruning is carried out almost immediately after the harvest.
- All branches that otplodonosili, you must cut to the base, while not leaving hemp. They do not need a bush, so it makes no sense to leave them until the autumn and even more so until spring, because they will only impede the growth of young shoots and shade them.
- In order to obtain a rich and high-quality crop, it is necessary to limit the expansion of the raspberry bush all the time. If you ensure this, fruitful branches, located in the center of the bush or belt planting, will develop well.
- Approximately 2-3 times a month you need to cut off all the shoots that are shown out of the ground at a distance of more than 20 cm from the center of landing. If such manipulations are carried out regularly, they will not take much time.
Pruning raspberries in the fall should be done about 2 or 3 weeks before the cold weather comes. First you need to carefully examine all the bushes to determine which branches should be removed and which can be left until next year.
In the fall, be sure to cut:
- old shoots that are already otplodonosili
- diseased branches and those that have been attacked by pests,
- young shoots that the winter cold obviously will not survive,
- broken shoots and those that develop poorly
- useless branches that only thicken a raspberry bush.
Due to the fact that the raspberry after the autumn pruning grows quite quickly, you should leave no more than 10 shoots per linear meter of the plot. In the fall, by the way, it is necessary to cut off the remontant raspberry. Cut branches must be removed from the site and burned. If you do not cut the raspberries every year in spring, summer and autumn, then in a short time the raspberries will look like impassable jungle. In this case, the fruit will be very small, and the berries themselves will be small and tasteless.
Summing up, it is necessary to highlight a number of the most important points that you definitely need to pay attention when pruning raspberry bushes.
- The branches that are cut off must be immediately removed from the site and burned, since there may be many dangerous harmful individuals on them.
- In order not to allow the raspberry jam to thicken, which can provoke its wildness, you need to follow the rule: how many old shoots were cut - so many new branches were left.
- In order for the fruits to be large and sweet, they must receive a lot of sunlight, as well as good ventilation of the air. So, the wider the shoots will be, the better for the plant.
When is it better to do raspberry trimming
Raspberry bushes are pruned to achieve these results:
- thinning bushes to get a satisfactory amount of light and ventilation;
- productivity growth
- increasing the resistance of bushes to frost,
- prevention of wintering of pests and fungal diseases in the shoots,
- external tidiness of the bushes.
It is said that it is better to cut raspberries in the autumn, but not in the spring, because fungi and insects remain to winter in the stems. You can cut in the spring, because at this time you can see in what condition the bush, which shoots need to be removed for the implementation of sanitary pruning.
The exact timing of the autumn pruning is difficult to specify, but the main signal to start the operation is the end of fruiting. Experts recommend pruning raspberries 3–4 weeks prior to the onset of frost (some gardeners argue that it is better to prune the raspberries after the first frost). Consequently, the time of autumn pruning varies from July to October.
Raspberries need to be thinned regularly so that it does not spread out in breadth
Some gardeners also use summer pruning. It is performed for the rapid formation of young stems and growth of fertility. You can limit the growth of a raspberry bush, for this cut all the young stems around the main bush.
The most effective recognized method of cutting raspberries according to Sobolev, named after the Russian founder of the breeding. It does not require special training, even a beginner can handle it.
According to this method, pruning dates fall in the spring and autumn. The first pruning is carried out in May — June, when shoots grow up to 1 meter. Later, such an operation is inexpedient, because the stems do not have time to harden before frost. In the spring, the stems are cut to 15 cm, and in the fall - to the base of the soil in order to prepare raspberries for winter.
How to prune raspberry bushes in the fall
Effective cutting of raspberries in the fall covers the following stages:
- It is necessary to cut dry, diseased and weak one-year shoots, as well as biennial shoots. Biennial shoots are different from the annual bark color. It is dark brown, one-year stems have light brown or greenish bark.
After harvesting, remove all biennial branches.
Launched raspberry bushes are subject to many diseases: they become smaller, their number also suffers
Raspberry is a delicious dessert and medicinal plant.
How to properly prune the old one (anti-aging pruning)
Standard raspberries are bred on the same soil for about 10 years, 15–18 years is considered the maximum period, because the soil is already very depleted during this time, especially if it is not fertilized. The productivity of the bushes is significantly reduced not only because of the soil, but also because of the aging of the root. The influence of low temperatures, insects and diseases does not allow the buds to be properly laid, from which later shoots of replacement and sprouts appear.
Without proper pruning, shoots may appear on the bush, which only create thicknesses, but nicknames do not increase the amount of the crop.
The gardener often wants to save his reliable variety, and not plant another, so the plantation needs to be rejuvenated.
This can be done like this:
- In September, it is necessary to deepen the shovel near the bad bushes to the full depth at a slight angle to the bush. This operation should be done around the whole bush,
- The main roots will be chopped, the bush can be pulled out from the root. It is necessary to take care not to damage the root scions, because in their presence lies the essence of the method. It is not necessary to dig up all the bushes at the same time, it is better to do this for several visits annually, otherwise you will have to stay without berries,
- The holes from the bushes are covered with humus or compost and watered. In the spring, mineral fertilizer is applied to this place. Таким образом, оставшиеся кусты будут приносить ягоды, а на территории выкопанных появятся новые побеги со своими корнями. Через год на них будут уже настоящие побеги замещения.
Так за несколько лет доступно омолодить свой малинник, не переставая собирать ягоды.
Как правильно обрезать ремонтантную малину
Не каждый понимает, что существует большая разница в обрезании традиционной малины и ремонтантной. In the first, the berries are formed on two-year shoots, in the remontant one they are formed on annuals. This significantly affects the way the pruning is done.
The repair raspberry has a high yield, improved taste, adapts well to different weather conditions
Every bush has about 8–10 main shoots, and annual shoots are already coming from them. In order to have more of them, you need to pin down the growth point of any escape, then it will give 4-5 more shoots. The resulting processes will also need to be cut by 10 cm to obtain a new tillering. Next year, the processes are cut inside the bush so that it is not too thick, and the external ones remain intact. As a result, out of 10 stems it is really possible to get about 100, and all of them will bear fruit equally well.
Diagram of pruning raspberry pruning includes the removal of old shoots
Dutch gardeners cut raspberries in the fall, with the result that they achieved excellent results: 30 kg of berries from a bush during the season. Here we must not forget about top dressing and sufficient watering, since significant amounts of berries require a lot of mineral and other components, which are not enough in the soil.
Work in the raspberry field in the autumn time is carried out only after the bushes reach two years of age. They can be practiced after collecting the last harvest, when the cold comes and leaves fall. All large shoots are pruned almost on a par with the soil, they retain only small hemp 5-7 cm, young stems are cut out completely. If you do not carry out pruning of raspberries in the autumn, then in the spring the bushes grow low, and the variety may lose the ability to repair.
What to process and feed after
Autumn feeding is carried out after the raspberry is cut and the soil under it is dug up.
You can make such fertilizers:
- liquid bird droppings should be placed throughout the plantation,
- manure is applied before digging to mix it with the soil. It is not only a fertilizer, but also a great way to cover rhizomes in winter. Consumption per 1 square meter - 4-6 kg. Do not apply manure more often 1 time in 3 years, it is better to alternate it with other fertilizers,
- compost is considered an excellent top dressing. It is obtained from plant waste (leaves of trees, tops, weeds, carrion), which perepryvat over the summer,
- You can plant siderats: blue lupine, mustard, vico-oats. They are planted in June, and in the winter they are buried in the ground. They rot and become a wonderful fertilizer in the spring,
- adding peat enriches the soil raspberry. This element should be combined with other dressings, so as not to overdo it,
- Mineral fertilizers (superphosphates, potash salt) are applied to the soil at the rate of 40–60 g per bush. Grooves are made between rows at a distance of at least 30 cm from the bush and fertilizer is poured into it.
Nitrogen fertilizers should not be applied, because they lead to strong growth, and raspberries after pruning must go to a state of rest. Reckless use of nitrogen fertilizers may cause the plant to freeze over in winter.
Raspberry bushes grow well and give a rich harvest on soils rich in chemicals
Thinking about how to fertilize raspberries in the autumn, look at the appearance of the plants. He will indicate the need for the introduction of certain fertilizers:
- poor growth and yellowing from the center of the leaf to the edge speak of a lack of magnesium,
- potassium deficiency leads to the appearance of brown edges on the leaves, the bushes winter badly,
- if the leaves are yellowish with green veins, this indicates iron deficiency,
- when phosphorus is not enough, the stems become thin,
- if the leaves on the bushes are small, yellowish, raspberry lacks nitrogen. Its excess is manifested in excessive growth of leaves and stems, unripe berries fall off, the yield decreases.
So, autumn pruning of raspberries is necessary for both traditional and remontant varieties. It allows you to correctly prepare the plants for winter, to ensure their cold resistance and resistance to diseases, harmful insects. If it is not produced, then next year the yield of raspberries will be much lower.
When to cut raspberries - in the fall, spring or summer
Definitely difficult to answer this question. The fact is that to achieve good success this procedure during the season should be carried out several times. An operation is performed in order to prevent the bushes from becoming too thick, for the timely regrowth of new shoots, on which sweet berries will then appear.
The development cycle of an ordinary raspberry keeps within 2 years. The bush consists of annual green shoots of the current year, there are no berries on them. The second group of shoots has a woody appearance, they grew out last year and flowers and berries form on them.
A competent owner of a berry should do pruning of ordinary raspberry bushes three times over the summer:
- after spring snow
- after harvesting in the summer,
- in the fall for 3 weeks before frosts.
Autumn pruning raspberries
Autumn pruning is aimed at preparing plants for winter. Cut out all the stems that have completed fruiting. Patients, excess and broken stalks are also subject to removal. Cutting is carried out under the root and everything that is cut from the bush, must be burned.
The best time to carry out the autumn pruning of raspberries is 20 days before the expected occurrence of frosts.
On average, each raspberry bush grows 20 shoots of the current year over the summer period. And in the winter after properly pruning should take about 10-12 of them.
Autumn pruning is usually combined with the preparation of raspberries for winter. In this case, the stalks of the shrub are grouped, bend and tie them together so that they do not unbend in winter. Some gardeners cover the bushes for the winter with warming material, for which they use lutrasil or spunbond.
Why do I need a procedure
Pruning raspberry bushes in autumn is done for the following reasons:
- The fruits of the culture are formed on the stems not older than 2 years. From this it follows that the old branches are completely useless and they should be cut to the ground. If we neglect this, the raspberry jam will turn into impenetrable thickets and will produce very few berries.
- Autumn pruning is also needed for more convenient picking of berries in the coming year and other work on the care of raspberries. After pruning, there is more space, rows of plants are visible, and intervals between plants are maintained.
- Pruning raspberries in the fall will get rid of pathogenic fungal spores and pests that hibernate under the bark of raspberries. This is a pledge of the powerful development of raspberries next spring and the formation of a bountiful harvest.
Repair raspberry varieties spend a lot of nutrition on the formation of berries and this period lasts several months. To ensure the harvest of the next year, it is necessary to rid the bushes of excess ground growth before the onset of winter. Thanks to this autumn procedure, the roots will not waste precious food on the growth and development of unwanted shoots. Meals will accumulate for future harvest.
Pruning includes rejuvenation, thinning and the formation of bushes to give them a neat shape. Autumn pruning of raspberries is mainly carried out to remove the stem-bearing two-year-old stems. The shoots of the third year of life give very few berries and it is better to get rid of them. Instead, they should get new promising shoots.
So, the autumn procedure is carried out in order to:
- all the remaining branches had enough light
- there was a recovery bushes
- bushes entered the winter prepared.
Autumn is the best time for pruning, but it is necessary not to delay this operation until frost. After harvesting in the warm autumn, harmful insects can be deployed on raspberries, and pathogens can infect its stems. Experienced gardeners do pruning in September. After it is held, there are still quite a few warm days, during which the plants accumulate nourishment to form the future harvest.
Russia is a big country and in different regions the time when cutting raspberries in the fall can move a little in one direction or another. More precisely - read below.
To tighten the autumn trimming operation does not make sense. On the contrary, it is necessary to execute it as quickly as possible. This is explained by the fact that at the end of warm days, various pests are activated as much as possible, trying to feed themselves enough before hibernation. Often they are fed on raspberries. From this it follows that the earlier the pruning is done, the better for the plant.
When to perform the procedure on a regular raspberry, it is difficult to decide, but after picking the berries, this should be seriously considered. Therefore, if you picked berries in August, then in the same month, you can hold and pruning.
If we talk about the remontant raspberry, then there is not much point in rushing to pruning, since it bears fruit until late autumn. Most often it is cut after dropping the leaves.
Regardless of whether raspberries belong to a particular species and variety, pruning must be completed at least 3 weeks before the arrival of frost.
Approximately by region, the following terms are obtained when cutting the raspberries in autumn:
- in the middle lane (Moscow region) - from August 18 to September 12,
- in the Urals and Siberia - during August,
- in the South of Russia - from mid-July to mid-October,
- in the north of Ukraine and Belarus - in the middle of September,
- in the south of Ukraine in early October.
Autumn is considered the optimal period for pruning procedures on raspberries because its stems are full of harmful insects that have prepared to spend the winter in them.
According to the lunar calendar 2018
Individual gardeners do not want to understand for a long time the intricacies of various conditions necessary to determine the date of pruning and carry out this procedure, guided solely by the lunar calendar.
Pruning raspberry bushes should be carried out with a waning moon in the 3rd and 4th phase. At this time, the plant sap moves from growth points to the roots, and this is favorable for pruning. It is strongly not recommended to refer to this operation when the moon is in the full moon, new moon and on the 23rd lunar day.
Suitable days for cutting raspberries in the fall of 2018 according to the lunar calendar are the following:
- September: 1, 6–7, 15–16, 26–28,
- October: 2–5, 8, 12–13, 25, 29–31,
- November: 4–5, 9–10, 25-28.
It is not recommended to prune this crop on the following days:
- September: 2, 9, 25,
- October: 1, 9, 24,
- November: 1, 7, 23.
Here in such terms it is necessary to cut ordinary raspberries, adhering to the lunar calendar.
Repair raspberry varieties bear fruit almost until the first snow falls. Therefore, its pruning is performed later than ordinary varieties. Having collected the last harvest, immediately proceed to the operation.
For a long practice of growing raspberries, many varieties of pruning have been developed. With the most popular varieties of pruning raspberries in the fall for beginners in pictures and with visual videos we will introduce you.
Pruning varieties belonging to the common raspberry variety has few differences. It is only known that fast-growing varieties during pruning shorten more than varieties with normal growth.
Regular raspberry pruning
Habitual for us varieties that were not processed in the summer, need to be processed in the fall. You should do the following:
- we remove broken, weak stems, as well as those damaged by pests and diseases,
- cutting of all two-year-old stems, since the harvest on them is almost not formed,
- cutting of annual shoots for thinning.
All those shoots, which were discussed above, should be cut at the base, leaving no hemp.
Kurgan gardener - Alexander Sobolev improved the method of double pruning, adding some recommendations to it.
By this method, in May, the tops of young shoots are also pruned, leaving the bushes 1 meter high. In this case, the roots can easily cope with the supply of the stems and the shoots will not break from the wind.
Next spring, young shoots will grow. It will be possible to cut the tops of annual shoots and lateral shoots of the second year of life in a single pass.
By the middle of summer, the raspberry section, which is cut off according to the Sobolev method, will consist of:
- branching 2-year-old bushes with excellent harvest,
- blooming 1 year old stems,
- young shoots.
At the end of 2 years, the biennial stalks are to be removed, and in the spring, pruning of the lateral branches at the biennial stalks and pruning of the tips of the annual shoots is duplicated. And in the summer, thinning pruning of the shoots of the current year is carried out again. And this work should be done annually.
If you expect to receive only one, but very abundant wave of fruiting from remontant raspberry next year, then you should wait for the first frosts and cut off all the stalks of the bush to the ground. In the event that this operation is carried out ahead of time, there will be an autumnal regrowth of the shoots, which inevitably die in the winter from frost.
In the spring of next year, thinning of regrown shoots is done, leaving no more than four on the bush - the strongest.
Video from the Garden World channel - how to prune the raspberry in autumn.
The main difference between a remontant raspberry and ordinary varieties is that it can bear fruit not only on the stems of the second year of life, but also on the shoots of the current year. Only the harvest on young shoots is formed somewhat later.
In this regard, the pruning of such a culture is carried out in 2 stages:
- At the first stage, they cut it at the root, after picking the berries - those branches that grew last year. There is little benefit from them, because next year they will have very few berries.
- The second wave of fruiting usually occurs in September and lasts until frost. It is formed mainly on the upper tier of the stalks of the bush. It is this top that is cut late in the fall.
Even before the procedure, you should prepare and sharpen the necessary tools. Here is what we need for work:
- Pruner. It must be well ground. Instead, you can use garden shears, designed for thorny shrubs.
- Garden knife. It is useful in difficult cases when the stems are cut unevenly.
- Lopper It can be useful on thick stems.
- Rake. They will be used when you need to remove cut branches and leaves from the crimson plot.
Remember! Raspberries of ordinary varieties are not capable of forming a harvest of berries on the shoots of the current year, flower buds can be formed only on two-year-old stems.
Raspberries are represented by a perennial bush with a two-year development cycle. The crop is formed on stalks that are 2 years old. In order for the crop to bear fruit every year, and the berries do not become small, it is necessary to systematically thin out the bushes and shorten the shoots.
As usual, the autumn pruning is carried out in combination with the preparation of plants for winter. Cut off all the shoots that otplodonosili, as well as diseased and broken stems. Also under the base cut off the excess shoots of the current year. All cut elements are then incinerated.
The procedure starts about 3 weeks before frost. To determine the exact date, do not be superfluous to ask long-term weather forecast.
Over the summer, about 20 young shoots grow in one bush, and only 10 pieces need to be left after pruning.
Gardeners with experience pruning bushes to different heights:
There is a certain expediency in combining pruning with winter preparations. For what, after the trimming procedure, the bushes bind, bend and fasten together. In regions with a harsh winter, raspberries can be additionally covered with warming materials.
Height of trimming bushes
This parameter depends on the age of the raspberry and its external state.
- Biennial stems are cut to the root, and annuals - shortened by half.
- When pruning take into account the characteristics of the variety. Bushy and fast-growing varieties pruned shorter than others.
- Remaining stems after pruning should not rise more than 1.5 meters. Cultivars characterized by abundant fruiting in the first year are cut at the level of the soil, since in the spring new shoots will grow again.
If we briefly summarize what has been said, the stems, from which fruit is expected next year, are shortened and the old ones are cut off completely. Young shoots need to be thinned. So you can prevent the spread of diseases of culture.
Care culture after pruning
Above, we looked at how to properly cut the raspberries in the fall. After the procedure, the bushes need little care, the essence of which is as follows:
- After the trimming procedure, it is necessary to make a watering irrigation that will allow the bushes to safely winter.
- To protect the remaining raspberry stalks from winter freezing, especially remontant varieties, it should be covered for the winter.
- In order to avoid evaporation of moisture, the soil around the raspberry bushes should be covered with a mulch layer. Thanks to this agro-reception, the roots of raspberry will be protected from freezing, which is most relevant in winters with little snow in winter. Mulching perform:
- dried grass
- fallen leaves
- tree bark
- No less important, after the autumn pruning of the shrub, is feeding raspberries. Fertilizers will help the bushes to feed on useful nutrients for the formation of the future harvest of berries. For dressing as usual use:
- bird droppings
- минеральные удобрения,
- сочетание органики и минеральных туков.
Ни в коем случае не вносите под зиму удобрения, содержащие азот. Этот элемент спровоцирует быстрый рост побегов в ущерб будущему урожаю.
Many gardeners are engaged in growing raspberries, which has a sufficient distribution in our country. It belongs to not very demanding cultures.
If we irrigate and loosen in time, fight weeds, protect from dangerous pests and diseases, then we can rightly expect a bountiful harvest of tasty and healthy berries. Also get a decent result, you will help our recommendations for pruning raspberries in the fall for beginners in pictures.