Mustard as a siderat when sowing and when to bury Its told in this article, perfect for fertilizing the soil. Sideration refers to one of the agrotechnical methods, with which you can restore the soil and increase yields. It is based on the plowing of green plants, which were specially planted to enrich the land with useful minerals.
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Mustard, sown in autumn, is able to saturate the soil primarily with nitrogen and organic matter. Even manure can not be compared with her for long-term results. The introduction of the sidereal system of the farm significantly increases the harvest. The plant contains a high content of nitrogen, which gives sideration a significant effect.
Characteristics and structure of mustard
Experts include mustard (Sinapis) to the cruciferous family. It can be divided into 6 species. Especially often used for green fertilizer white mustard, which is popularly called English. Its composition improves the quality of the land. Siderat - the plant releases phosphates and other heavily soluble elements from the soil and accumulates them in itself.
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Mustard has another important characteristic. It accumulates in all its parts a huge amount of nitrogen compounds, which are so necessary for the development of future crops.
Many crops of crops cannot independently absorb phosphate substances. After mowing and rotting of mustard, other plants begin to assimilate hardly soluble substances. Due to this feature of this organic fertilizer, mustard is used as a green manure.
To improve soil fertility, special plants (siderats) are planted for further plowing into the ground. To the siderata include many feed crops:
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Often, for planting green fertilizer, leguminous plants are planted.
Care for mustard white
If the question arises whether what mustard to sow, it is better to choose white. It is suitable for sandy and loamy soil, as well as black soil. At the same time prefers land with good drainage. Mustard grows poorly in clay areas, as it needs more loose soil.
As for the acidity of the soil, the plant can be planted on any species with a pH of 4.5 -8.2. The most favorable soil for the development of mustard - with a pH of 6.5. Spice perfectly transfers direct sunshine and partial shade. However, it grows fast only with a long daylight.
After sowing, mustard sprouts in warm weather (temperature above 10 ° C) germinate for 3-5 days. After that, their growth slows down, and they cover the area with a green carpet in 30-40 days. Then the buds appear, and after a week - the flowers are yellow. Flowering continues for a long time, thus collecting around themselves various insect pollinators. The plant has a root system, which is located on the very surface of the earth, therefore in dry weather it needs good watering. Feed mustard during growth is not necessary.
Watch the video! How to apply mustard to green manure
To understand the benefits or harm brings mustard to plant in the garden, you need to know its properties and effects on various plants:
- Accelerates the growth of legumes - beans, peas, lentils.
- It is useful for grapes - it disinfects the soil, preventing the fungus from spreading and spoiling the crop.
- On fruit trees, reduces the number of caterpillar moths, aphids.
The disadvantage of the plant is susceptibility to diseases that are inherent in cruciferous, therefore it is not recommended to plant it after cabbage, since these cultures belong to the same species and have common diseases:
Conclusion: to fertilize the soil in the fall it is impossible to plant mustard after cabbage, radish, turnip, radish. For other cultures, this siderat is suitable
How to sow mustard
Planted seeds begin in March in the middle lane and from the end of February in the southern regions. You need to focus on the main planting and sow mustard for the month. In order to grow, the green man need three weeks. It will take another week to partially decompose in the soil in which tomatoes, cucumbers, strawberries or flower ornamental crops will be planted.
The second time sowing is organized in August or in autumn –in September-October. Seeds germinate easily even at low temperatures, so before the onset of cold weather, you can have time to mow and dig with the ground. Sowing mustard in the fall is suitable for any climate: in warm regions, it grows more, in cold regions - less, but it functions as a fertilizer.
Some gardeners do not, and leave the siderats on the site in the winter to dig it with the soil in the spring. Between the rows of strawberries, raspberries and other perennial plants, white mustard plays the role of mulch, protecting the root system from freezing.
Before mowing the plant should have time to grow up to 10 cm. At this point, its tissues contain the most nutrients that the plant accumulates for flowering. It is undesirable to leave mustard blossom:
- it is able to multiply quickly and, instead of being good, will be a weed that is difficult to grow,
- the stems become tougher over time, which will delay decomposition in the soil for fertilizer.
Leaving a few plants on the seeds can be, but collect them immediately after aging, so as not to crumble. Each box is about 15 seeds.
White mustard as siderat - sowing rates
About 300 g of seeds are needed per hundred of land. Dense crops do not need to be afraid, since the more germinate, the more will return to the soil. It is impossible to deepen the seed too much, as this retards growth. Depth - 1 cm. If part of the mustard seeds remain on the ground surface - not terrible - when watering, they will settle into the soil and germinate.
The culture is undemanding to acidity - it grows in a large pH range - from 4 to 8. The only thing that is required is watering in hot weather. Without water, the activity of soil microorganisms and earthworms is reduced and fertilizer decomposes more slowly, which means that the plants will experience nutrient deficiencies. With proper care from one weave, you can get up to 400 kg of green fertilizer.
When mustard crops to improve the soil is not enough:
- on sandy soils, mustard fertilizers will not be enough - the fertile layer is quickly depleted, and fruit plants quickly use food,
- clay soils also need additional fertilizer other than mustard — manure, compost, or mineral mixtures.
How to apply mustard in the garden:
- good to sow mustard in the fall before the nightshade
- potatoes get more phosphorus and are protected from pests
- can be sown three times - in early spring for fertilizer, in summer for protection and for seeds, in autumn for additional feeding of the next crop.
Mustard crops are most convenient to mow walkers - like a lawn plant. To speed up its processing in the ground, you can use liquid Baikal EM1. The method is useful because an additional amount of beneficial microorganisms involved in the decomposition of residues enters the soil.
White mustard is advisable to use on depleted soils with other types of fertilizers - organic or mineral. On heavy with compost. On chernozem as dressing. It is not recommended to be limited to one siderats, as they will not provide a sufficient number of elements for obtaining a crop.
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When to sow mustard to improve soil in the fall?
White mustard is deservedly considered one of the most useful plants used to improve the quality of the soil. The reason is that during growth it absorbs harmful substances, makes the soil unsuitable for many insect pests, inhibits the growth of pathogenic microorganisms and weeds, and enriches the soil with microelements.
All parts of the mustard plant are rich in minerals, especially nitrogen and phosphorus. Nitrogen stimulates the growth and development of plants. Phosphorus improves the winter resistance of perennial crops, so mustard mulch the beds in the fall. With a lack of phosphorus seedlings bloom worse, the fruits tied poorly and ripen much longer.
White mustard is grown in the fall from seeds. Shoots are always good, regardless of the quality of the soil. They appear quickly, and after about 20 days their height will be about 10 - 15 cm. Care of the crop after sowing consists in regular watering at least 1 time in 7 days. They recommend watering planting drip method. White mustard is often affected by fungal diseases during irrigation by the method of irrigation, especially if the autumn was cool. No more additional work gardeners do not hold.
Many are interested in when mustard should be bury in the fall. Digging the soil along with the mustard begins 30 days after sowing. All work must be completed before the plant blooms. The period of flowering of white mustard begins at 40 - 45 days after sowing. Given this, Russian summer residents start sowing white mustard as a sidereal culture in late August - early September. In the southern regions of our country, for example in the Krasnodar Territory and in the Crimea, sowing is carried out in the second half of September - early October.
Phacelia or mustard as siderat - which is better?
Phacelia in hot climates is prone to the formation of coarse stems that do not decompose for a long time. This reduces the effectiveness of its use.
Phacelia as a siderata used for a long time. According to biologists, the culture not only helps to get rid of weeds. Phacelia on the site significantly increases the fertility of the soil, enriching it with nutrients and trace elements.
To sow phacelia as a siderata costs in the autumn 50 - 60 days before the onset of frost. The plant tolerates frost well and in 2 months it will develop well. This period will be enough for embedding phacelia in the ground.
What is better to sow like siderat - phacelia or mustard? Both plants improve soil quality. But phacelia in a hot climate is prone to the formation of coarse stems that do not decompose for a long time. From this the effectiveness of its use decreases. Therefore, summer residents in the southern regions are recommended to sow mustard as a siderata, and phacelia in the northern regions. Some gardeners alternate crops of sideral crops.
The useful mustard
- restores poor soil - quickly produces organic matter, which is embedded in the soil (after 30-50 days from sowing) and enriches it with nitrogen and phosphorus
- absorbs sparingly soluble minerals and converts them into readily available forms
- excellent baking powder for heavy soils, improves soil structure
- inhibits weed growth before sowing the main crop or after harvesting
- prevents the leaching of valuable nutrients during heavy rains
- substances released by mustard inhibit the growth of mold and bacteria, therefore planting mustard after tomatoes, potatoes and other vegetables significantly reduces the number of pathogens of phytophthora, scab, putrefactive microorganisms in the soil
- allows you to reduce crop rotation and return the main crop to its former place earlier than the required time for a year or two
- on soils where white mustard is grown, the number of wireworms and slugs decreases dramatically
- during late planting, the uncut crop mustard remains as mulch, performs the function of snow retention
- white mustard sown in spring during flowering is a good honey plant
- sown next to the main crop, white mustard can act as a companion plant: for example, root selection of mustard stimulates the growth of peas, beans, grapes, and dews aphid and aphids near fruit trees
To this we must add that the cultivation of mustard does not require much labor, and the seeds are inexpensive, sold in every garden store or on the market.
With all the positive qualities of this crop, mustard is not perfect. Mainly due to the fact that it can affect diseases and pests: white rust, alternariosis (leaf spot), powdery mildew, kila.
Sowing mustard in spring
It is possible to sow white mustard at any time from March to August on any type of soil and dig in the same year. In the southern regions, it is possible to sow in early spring and from the end of February (after the 20th day).
But for greater efficiency, mustard is sown in the spring one month before the main crop is sown, and these are practically any vegetables, berries (especially strawberries) and salad greens.
Important: mustard must not be sown after crucifers (cabbage, radishes, radishes) - they have common pests and diseases. And turnips do not tolerate mustard even in the neighborhood.
It is possible and even necessary to sow mustard before breaking down flower beds and flower beds, until bulbous or rhizomatous flowers are planted, stored for storage.
Important: rotting siderats can inhibit plant growth, so wait at least 1-1.5 weeks after cutting mustard and digging before sowing or planting vegetables and berries.
Sowing mustard to fertilize the soil in the fall
In the central regions of Russia, mustard is sown in August-September, leaving to hibernate, and close up next year. If the mustard has enough time to grow enough - you can mow and close up the soil in the fall.
In the southern regions, fast-growing white mustard is sown until mid-September and even in October-November, as it easily germinates even at low temperatures - friendly shoots at a temperature of 5 to 10 ° C, partial germination at temperatures of + 2-3 ° C. And if the seedlings have already sprouted, young mustard greens continue to grow and remain at low temperatures (withstands up to -5 ° C). In the long warm autumn, even the mustard sown in October has grown back 10 cm tall.
It is important to sow mustard in the fall immediately after the harvest; it is advisable not to delay this work for longer than 3 days, so that weeds do not have time to begin to germinate.
At the end of August we harvest open-field tomatoes, at this time we sow mustard around the bushes. After harvesting the tomato, around mid-September, you can sprinkle the wicker-oat mixture onto the mustard. All siderata remain to grow in the winter, as the temperature permits. In the spring, the whole territory is tilled by a cultivator.
If, in the autumn, the mustard has had a great time to grow, you can not plow it, leave it as mulch, and after spilling the entire area with phytosporin (twice a weekly interval), plant the tomato seedlings again.
How to sow mustard
Sow mustard for better efficiency in the prepared beds:
- after harvesting the main crop of the ridge, it is necessary to clean weeds and vegetable residues
- fertilize with humus, about 1-2 buckets per 1 square. m beds
- if necessary, make dolomite flour
- dig and fence (level with a rake, breaking large clods of earth)
The technique of sowing mustard as a siderata is simple: there is no need to make rows and measure the distance - the seeds are sown thickly, sprinkling the soil out of handful, just like we pinch salt or soup or 5 g of seeds per 1 m² of soil. Do not be afraid of dense crops - carpet seedlings delay the leaching of nutrients from the soil with rain, preventing soil erosion.
The technique of sowing mustard as a seasoning, or a companion plant is different: in a row manner, between seeds about 10 cm, and between rows no more than 20 cm. Bushes grow strong, rows close. Subsequently, you can thin out shoots.
When sowing with any technique, it is important not to bury the seeds much, otherwise germination will be delayed, and this is absolutely not profitable for us. The maximum depth of embedding is 1 cm. When sowing siderats with a carpet, it is permissible if some of the seeds remain on the soil surface - after watering on loose soil, they will settle and take their place in the soil.
Why do you need to mow mustard before flowering
- Firstly, with the formation of peduncles, the stems grow coarser, the petioles become stiffer at the leaves - all this slows down the process of processing the green mass in the soil (the stems and peduncles rot in a very long time). The softer the leaves going under the digging, the faster they will be decomposed by soil microorganisms and the faster they turn into green fertilizer.
- Secondly, during flowering, mustard spends nutrients from the soil on its “personal” needs, loses the function of the green manure, and we need food to remain for vegetables and berries.
- Thirdly, the mustard which formed the seeds multiplies by self-sowing and turns into a weed.
After mowing, the green mass is dug up, buried in the soil on heavy soils and with hoe and flat cutter on the lungs. If the weather is dry, rains are rare, the treated area needs to be watered periodically - worms and microorganisms that “work” on a wet substrate participate in the decomposition of organic matter.
Many gardeners are trying to accelerate the formation of biohumus and improve soil fertility by adding the Baikal EM-1 preparation. This is a really good product, however, if the soil is very poor, depleted by many years of growing vegetables or berries, and no organic matter (humus, compost) was added when sown, then you should not hope for mustard and Baikal. In this case, the saying is true: "There is no dung - there is no harvest." Humus needs to be made at least once every 4-5 years.
Even if you sow mustard 2-3 times over the summer, mow and plant greens in the soil, this will not improve the soil structure especially - on sandy or clay soils the humus layer will form too slowly, and the next cycle of growing vegetables will make it. Therefore, the sowing of mustard for digging cannot fully replace the improvement of the soil of an unprepared plot - it is useful only in the alternation of crops on already developed lands.
If the mustard has outgrown, but has not yet formed seeds, it can be left before winter, do not mow, and in the spring the old tops can be dug up with a cultivator, hoe or flat cutter or left as mulch. But you should not strive for such a method - it is more expedient to use straw, sawdust and other materials as mulch.
White mustard in cooking
Did you know that the young leaves of white mustard are very tasty salad greens?
Just cut off the growing leaves (up to cotyledons) with scissors. Do not try to pick off - pull out of the ground with the roots. Mustard leaves are fragrant but not spicy; they can replace leaf lettuce in recipes; they are not subjected to heat treatment. Store in a refrigerator in a jar of water or in a package, like other greens.