Demanding to soil culture, prefers loose, rich black soil, loam or sandy loam with a sufficient amount of humus and lime.
Anise needs an increased phosphorus content, which increases the essential oil content and yield.
Tillage for anise planting begin in the fall, digging to a depth of 22-25 cm.
In the farm garden, after tilled crops are immediately plowed to plowing. In the spring they are harrowed and then cultivated in conjunction with harrows.
30-50 tons of manure are introduced, as well as superphosphate and potash fertilizers, respectively, at a dose of 0.4-0.5 and 0.1-0.2 tons per 1 ha (or 0.3-0.5 tons of manure per 100 m2 ).
Seeds begin to germinate at 8-10 degrees.
The lack of heat slows down the development of plants.
Therefore, it is better to allocate areas with a small slope to the south. At low temperatures, not only the vegetative mass decreases, but also the yield of fruits decreases.
Excessive soil moisture or frequent precipitations during flowering cause inflorescence and yield reduction. 12–14 kg of seeds are sown per 1 ha (10–15 g per 10 m2). The distance between the rows is 45 cm.
The seeding depth is 2-2.5 cm.
Before sowing, the seeds are soaked in water with a temperature of 16-18 ° C for 3 to 4 hours, replacing water and then keeping it in a damp cloth at 18-22 CC for 2.5-3 days. When 3–5% of the seeds turn up, they are lightly dried, scattering a thin layer on a tarpaulin, and mixed periodically.
During the growing season they are loosened with a cultivator between the rows, weed, fight against diseases and pests. In the dressings, 0.05 tons of nitrogen, 0.15 tons of phosphate and 0.05 tons of potash fertilizers per 1 hectare (0.5, 1.5 and 0.5 kg, respectively, per 10 m2) are applied.
Anise is harvested in late August or early September, avoiding the shedding of seeds. When hand harvesting, the plants are tied with rifles for ripening and threshed after 3-5 days.
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About the ability of anise to strengthen the immune system has been known since antiquity.
And today, traditional medicine has in its arsenal recipes for the use of aromatic plants for this purpose.
One of the means - anisette, which, of course, is used as a medicine, and not as an alcoholic drink. For its preparation, you need to take 20 g of anise seeds and pour 0.5 liters of vodka, insist a week, squeeze, strain and pour into a bottle of dark glass. Take this tool for 20-25 drops, 2 times a day before meals. The course of such preventive treatment is two weeks.
Of course, children should not use such a tool. And to strengthen them give an infusion of dried stalks of anise. Need to take 1 tbsp. l raw materials, pour 1 liter of boiling water, insist for half an hour and strain. Take a quarter cup 3 times daily before meals.
Anise (or aniseed bedrock) is part of anti-cough mixtures due to its effective expectorant properties. He is able to clean the bronchi very well. At home, warm inhalations are excellent for coughing - add 2-3 drops of anise oil to the hot water. But anise also helps with constipation. Crushed seeds (1 g) dissolve in 1 glass of water and drink on an empty stomach. Anise decoction will help against bloating: 30 g of ground seeds of anise, a pinch of coriander and dill pour 0.5 liters of water.
Boil the mixture for 3-5 minutes, cool and drink half a glass after a meal.
I love dishes that are generously flavored with spices, greens, so I plant many spicy plants in the country. I admit, my favorites are those who do not require too careful care, as I do not have the opportunity to visit the site every day. For example, anise. This is a low umbrella plant, giving seeds with a very interesting sweet-spicy smell. They are especially good for adding to baked goods and marinades. Greens are also edible, goes to summer salads.
Growing anise is a snap. It grows literally like a weed, if we take the right place under it: sunny, without stagnation of water after rains. Anise does not like sour, swampy soil, but in sandy loam it is possible to glory. No need to sow it in places where carrots grew last year.
By the way, in summer the anise is very decorative: it forms dense bushes with abundant foliage, on which dense umbrellas stand out from white or pink flowers.
Presowing seed preparation is about the same in all spicy umbrella: anise, cumin, fennel, dill. Seed color should be greenish-gray, black or brown will not grow. When sowing dry they sprout about a month. Therefore, it is better to pre-soak the seeds for 3-4 days, periodically changing the water. In the ground can be sown quite early, anise is not afraid of cold snaps. Although before the onset of this heat, shoots will grow very slowly. Later, the seedlings thinned, leaving between plants 10-15 cm.
From recent ENT began to grow anise ordinary - with it familiar dishes acquire a completely new taste. In early spring, 3-4 days before sowing, pour seeds with a small amount of water, change it every day. I sow swollen seeds, placing a bed where potatoes, cabbage or tomatoes grew, and certainly in a sunny place. Between the rows I leave 20-25 cm.
Since the plant loves moisture, I often water it, and then necessarily loosen the soil.
Anise greens collected throughout the summer season. Fruits - when they become brown-yellow. If the weather is good, it happens in early autumn. Fruits are collected together with the umbrellas on which they grow. I tie them in bunches and dry them in the shade.
Last summer, anise found a new use. It turns out that his umbrellas look great in bouquets of wildflowers. Beautiful and original!
Anise ordinary (lat. Anisum vulgare) - an annual plant, a representative of the Mediterranean flora. This plant is demanding on growing conditions. He needs loose and nutritious soil, light, warm and long summer. If these conditions are met, you can get a good yield of anise in the garden. But there are a number of features in this interesting plant. First of all, before
sowing need to soak the seeds for 3-4 days. Sowing should be done in a warm and moist soil, after fertilizing it well. Loosening, weeding, regular watering are also indispensable conditions for the growth of capricious anise. But these efforts are worth it: at the end of summer - beginning of autumn, anise will delight you with beautiful umbrellas with two-seedlings of gray-green color. And tasty stalks will be a great addition to your table (stalks are cut for food before the formation of umbrellas).
The plant belongs to the celery family. There are many varieties of anise, in foreign countries there are also some plant varieties, and in Russia there is a variety Alekseevsky 68 (or 1231). Vegetable anise varieties include:
So called anise fragrant, sweet, field, Parisian, vegetable. All varieties of anise easily tolerate cold weather and at the same time like warm conditions for growth.
Preparation for landing
Before direct planting, it is taken into account that this crop germinates for quite a long time, and in order to accelerate its growth, it is possible to soak the seeds beforehand. Water change at least once a day and maintain the temperature.
In order to harvest the anise pleased, the seeds are first germinated. To do this, it is enough to put them in a plate, moisten and cover with a film of polyethylene. Further, after they began to germinate, they should be dried and begin to plant in the ground.
Before planting, the plants wait until the frosts are past, and the weather will be warm. The landing is made to a depth of 3 to 4 cm, and the distance between the rows is sufficient to leave 20 cm.
Planting sites should be fertile and well-fertilized, and the soil acidity should not be exceeded.
Before planting, it is important to prepare the soil, it must be loose, so that the seeds have the opportunity to put roots into the ground as deep as possible. The ideal would be to suck the clay with sand, where most of the sand mixture.
In any case, it is best to plant a place for planting since the fall, that is, the plot is digging up and removing excess roots, and the fertilizer applied to the soil is compost or manure.
Grow culture in the home. Ideal balcony or loggia, but even just on the window get a good harvest.
Recommendations for growing anise:
- Preparing the container. A good option would be a wooden box. Wood - an environmentally friendly material and any plants in it comfortable.
- Then acquire the ground. Earth is fertilized with eggshell, onion peel and watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Preparatory soil loosened by a special device.
- Seeds are soaked and waiting to germinate a little.
- Then they plant the ground and water it.
- Put the container in a sunny place.
- Periodically produce watering, but in no case do not pour the plant.
- Next, wait for the harvest.
The pleasant aroma of anise will saturate the air in the apartment, and any host will certainly like this fragrance. Moreover, landing at home is possible even in winter.
Autumn and spring planting in open ground
Anise is planted in open ground in spring and autumn, as well as in summer. The main thing is that the soil is properly prepared. If it is correct to define how to plant in seasonally, then the main thing is emphasized:
- Spring. The land should not be cold, otherwise the seeds will die during freezing.
- Summer. Plant at any time if you wish to eat a fresh crop.
- In the fall. It is not yet cold, and the beginning of September is warm enough, they organize such a planting, although the anise will grow more slowly.
Diseases and pests
It is valuable to note that almost all varieties of the crop are quite resistant to diseases, as well as the invasion of pests. Nevertheless, the pests still overpower the plant:
This harmful insect feeds on the contents in the seeds, which contributes to the reduction of seedlings. It also damages the resulting fruits and reduces the percentage of essential oils in their composition. To prevent this, the seeds are treated with mothballs before planting.
They feed on the leaves, the tops of the stems and the fruits that cause them to dry, and they begin to die. But with bugs successfully fight, for example, onion peel extract. 250 grams will be enough to soak in 10 liters of water and leave for 5 days. Next, strain and pour into a container, then sprayed over the entire area.
These insects are great pests and lovers of juice, which is formed in the flowers and in the stems. After the juice is drunk, the plant begins to die. The most common remedy for aphids is soap solution or ammonia.
For a good harvest in the open field, the treatment is carried out in a timely manner.
How to care for the plant properly and how to grow? During the entire growing period it is helpful to provide proper care for the plant. What should fertilize the plant? Features of care consist in feeding anise with nitrogen fertilizers. Be sure to follow, if the soil dries up, then you need to water it as needed. It is also necessary to dig up the soil for the access of oxygen.
For greens usually collect thin tips, formed from shoots, and plant stems throughout the season. However, this is done before flowering begins. When added to food is used in small quantities, as the aroma will kill the odors from other ingredients.
The most recent harvest is usually at the end of August, when the umbrellas begin to close and brown seeds appear in them. The tops of the plant are cut before the seeds fall off. Harvesting plants produced in early August.
It is carried out in containers in dry and ventilated places. So the seeds for a long time retain their properties and will be used for medicinal purposes. If these seeds are to be planted again in the ground, then their shelf life in dry form is no more than one year.
The plant is also successfully used in ornamental gardening. Green stems and leaves are used in the design of bouquets. They are decorated with tables, and also it perfectly saturates the flower beds. Peak decorative falls on the stage of flowering plants. Anise will look great in landscape design.
About the benefits of plants
Anise-based oil has a fresh aroma, it has a calming effect on the nervous system, if used correctly, then it is quickly released from depression. Anis tends to relieve fatigue. It is characterized by a unique ability to spread its chic scent through the room and keep the family members calm. Turkey produces anise-based alcoholic beverage, which is known as vodka. However, it is not possible to drink it in large quantities, and therefore there is usually a feeling of mild intoxication.
Anise oil is used in meditation, helps to get rid of feelings of dependence and aggression.
Useful properties of anise oil:
- from inflammation,
- against bacteria breeding
- to enhance immunity
- from elevated temperature
- against tumors.
However, the tool is taken as recommended by the doctor, according to the scheme.
Chemical composition of anise
The plant contains nutrients and trace elements. The amount of protein and fatty acids is 18%. The plant contains 23% fat, 6% essential oils, and in the last 90% anethole, which gives a special flavor.
How to apply anise oil
To reduce the formation of gases and completely get rid of flatulence, it is necessary to drop 2 drops of oil on the sugar and honey. Then eat the prepared drug and drink it with warm water. Consume after every meal. This solution will give an additional diuretic effect, help to cope with insomnia, increase lactation, will promote the resorption of kidney stones and bladder. In addition, increases appetite and improves the digestive system.
Used for colds. It has the ability to reduce fever, provides cough sputum, clears the bronchi.
Reception during monthly means helps to reduce spasms and pain.
It is used to treat pediculosis. Enough to lubricate the scalp for literally 40 minutes, and all parasites will die, in addition, the oil improves blood circulation.
With swelling of the legs, it is enough to lubricate the problem areas, that is, the calf muscles, and the swelling will gradually disappear.
The use of anise in cooking
The very first anise began to use the Englishman in the preparation of fragrant dishes. For example, when baking gingerbread, anise was added to the dough. The use of seeds and shoots of anise is actively used in salads. This is especially practiced in African countries. In India, it is used in cooking instead of spinach. The aniseed taste with apples is especially attractive, and therefore some of their apple crop varieties were called aniseed.
Anise is often used in cooking when baking various dishes. Here it is important not to put too much food, otherwise it will be impossible to eat such treats. In many countries of the world use anise in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. And in European countries, preference is given to cooking meat and home-made products, for example, sauerkraut, pickled cucumbers and tomatoes, zucchini or squash. If you cook fish with anise, the latter almost completely eliminates the smell. In the preparation of dried apples, dried seeds are used, and the fruits are stored in an airtight container for a long time.
Anise has a pleasant peculiar taste. The product is used for soups, for baking cakes, and also included in the composition of spices when cooking kebabs.
Contraindications use anise
Harm from the use of anise oil also exists. A completely healthy person is not recommended to drink the drug in large quantities. Excessive intake can cause headaches or dizziness. In case of gastric ulcer it is also impossible to use oil, the product will only aggravate the condition. If acidity is increased, caution is also taken with oil intake.
In the treatment of hypertension can not use oil in complex treatment. With high blood clotting, 1 drop per day is enough, pre-mixed with warm milk. Children under the age of 3 years should not drink oil in general, as well as women in the waiting period of the baby and people with hypersensitivity.
When applied to the skin, anise is quickly absorbed and causes itching and burning, but everything passes quickly within 2 minutes.
Anise ordinary: descriptionAnise ordinary (fragrant anise, anise vegetable, anise bedrose) – this is a fragrant annual plant. Got its name from the Greek anison, also the Greeks call it ganij, jire, sweet cumin, bread seed.
The land of the anise is still not exactly known: some believe that he is from Asia Minor, others from Egypt or the Mediterranean countries. The plant has a straight stem with a height of 60-70 cm and small white umbrella flowers.
Anise is rich in nutrients and trace elements, the description of its chemical composition may envy no less valuable cumin and fennel. It contains a large amount of protein - 19%, up to 23% vegetable fat, up to 3% carbohydrates, sugar, and useful fatty acids, including coffee.
Анис обладает широким спектром лечебного действия и помогает при мигренях, бронхитах, астме, кашле, пневмонии, ларингите, болезнях почек, мочевого пузыря, метеоризме, болезнях ЖКТ, сердечно-сосудистой системы, а также обладает омолаживающим и регенерирующим действием.
Анис широко распространен в пищевой промышленности, что это такое, сегодня знают практически в каждом доме. Even the ancient Romans noticed that anise helps from bloating and flatulence, so they began to add it to almost every heavy dish.
Anise is used in bakery products, desserts, salads, fish and meat dishes. Moreover, if only anise seeds are used for medicinal purposes, then fruits (in desserts), green parts (in salads and side dishes), and seeds are used in cooking. Thanks to the anise, the dishes do not spoil for a long time and do not get stale, keeping the wonderful taste and fragrant aroma.
Where to sow aniseAnis is also a cold-resistant and thermophilic plant, no matter how strange it may sound. Therefore, for good growth of anise, it is best to sow in optimally illuminated places on the southeast and south sides.
Anise multiplies with seeds that germinate at a temperature of +5. +8 ° C, but the optimum temperature for it is +20. +25 ° C. However, young plants can even transfer a minus temperature to –5. –7 ° С.
Ideal for planting places where previously grown vegetables or leguminous plants.
Soil preparation for planting
The site selected for disembarkation must be prepared in autumn, before the onset of the first frost: dig 25-30 cm and remove the weeds.
Anise is a rather demanding culture, so its reproduction is best carried out in sandy soils, rich in black soil with a sufficient amount of lime and humus.
Also, anise loves loose soil enriched with phosphorus, which increases the yield and the content of essential oil.
Terms of planting "miracle herbs"
Anise seeds are sown in spring, it may be the end of March - April. At this time, the soil is heated optimally after a frosty winter.
Although in April there are still frosts, it is not scary, anise calmly transfers them. For seed planting it is necessary that the soil warms up, but at the same time remains sufficiently moist.
How to prepare seeds for planting
Seeds grow very slowly due to their dense shell, which does not pass water and air badly, and also because of the high content of essential oil in aniseed fruits.
Seed germination is greatly influenced by soil temperature. If it is rather low (+ 3-4 ° С), then the seeds will germinate by 25-30 days, if it is higher (+ 10-12 ° С), then the first shoots will appear in two weeks.
Before sowing the seeds, they must first be soaked in water at a temperature of +16. +18 ° C for 3-4 hours, changing water every day. Then the seeds need to be wrapped in a damp cloth and hold for another 2-3 days at a temperature of +18. +22 ° C.When 4-5% of the seeds begin to germinate, they need to be spread out in a thin layer on a cloth and dried slightly, stirring from time to time. Also, the seeds must undergo partial vernalization in the refrigerator for about 20 days.
This is necessary in order to ensure the adaptation of crops in case of a drop or decrease in air temperature, which is often observed in spring. After such preparation, seeds sprout in 10-11 days after planting.
Anise sowing rules
On the same day, when you plan to plant anise, you need to carefully loosen the soil and make superphosphate. To get a good harvest, you need to sow the crop in rows, at a distance of 35-45 cm between them.
The sowing depth is no more than 1.5-2.5 cm. Then the soil is rolled. The vegetation period reaches 150 days. Two weeks after the appearance of the shoots, they should be thinned to a distance of 10-15 cm.
What you need to know about anise careThe plant requires standard care: watering, loosening the soil, feeding and removal of weeds. It is necessary to carefully monitor how the anise grows, as excessive soil moisture, frequent rain and debris lead to disease inflorescences and lower yields.
Diseased inflorescences must be promptly removed. For the intensity of the green mass, new flower shoots pinch or cut. During the germination period, two supplements are made with organic fertilizers and a weak mineral solution.
Anise: when and how to harvest
The anise collection time is usually in the middle and end of August. However, before you collect anise, determine for what purpose you will use it. For culinary purposes, you can collect the green ground part of the plant before flowering.
Collected greens need a little dry: gently cut the stems with leaves and dry in a well-ventilated room. For better effect, mix the blank or bundle it up and hang it in the shade.
Seeds are harvested when the stem of the plant turns yellow, and the fruits of anise will turn a brown-brown shade. Then the plant is cut, tied in bunches and hung to ripen in the shade. Before drying, the seeds are cleaned of impurities and threshed.Store the seeds in a sealed package or canvas bags in a dry and cold place out of the reach of sunlight. So the flavor of the spice will be preserved longer.
With favorable external conditions and compliance with all rules of plant care, with 10 square meters. m crops you can get a kilogram, and sometimes more seeds.
Anise seed harvesting for medicinal purposes is carried out in September, after the first umbrellas become brown. Dried seeds in the open air or in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 50 ° C. Anise seeds are stored in a sealed container for about three years.
Anise: main varieties and varieties
Anise ordinary belongs to the Celery family. It is an annual plant with a thin root, a low stem (up to half a meter high), small white flowers, gathered in asteracept umbrellas. The fruit of the anise is an egg-shaped two-seedy, covered with small hairs.
Anis is from the Mediterranean, where it has been cultivated for a very long time. And in the Ancient East (in India, China, Arab countries), he has been known since the beginning of the 5th century. On the territory of the Russian Empire, it appeared only by the middle of the 19th century.
Anise fruits are used in cosmetology, perfumery, cooking, medicine. Anise oil contained in its fruits in an amount of about 3-4%, has a characteristic aroma and sweetish taste.
Anise is a medicinal plant. It has long been used to treat diseases of the upper respiratory tract, whooping cough and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Anise oil is used as a means of protection against mosquitoes. It is believed that the aroma of anise promotes good sleep, calms the nervous system, so anise oil is actively used in aromatherapy.
Young leaves of anise are often used as a delicate condiment for salads and side dishes, anise umbrellas in pickles, fruits for baking, for cooking jam, various jams, etc.
The most popular varieties of anise suitable for cultivation include: Blues, Magic Elixir, Moscow Semko.
Plant reproduction and planting
The area for sowing seeds must be selected with fertile, non-acidic and light soil. The place must be sunny and warm, as the anise loves heat, but at the same time it is very resistant to cold. Traditionally, the soil for planting anise has been prepared since the fall: the site is dug up to the depth of the spade bayonet, all rhizomes of the weeds should certainly be removed.
The soil is necessarily fertilized with manure or compost. In the spring, on the eve of planting anise seeds, the area must be re-dug (already half a bayonet), leveled with a rake and slightly compacted.
If you decide to grow anise in your summer cottage, then keep in mind that it is a rather slow-growing culture because of its unusual structure and rather dense shell, which is not particularly good in passing moisture and air. It is possible to contribute to faster seed growth by soaking them just a couple of days before planting in warm settled water, which must be changed at least once a day.
Council For sure to get a good harvest, the seeds before planting need to germinate a little. Wet seeds are poured on some flat surface (even a plate will do) and cover with a film for several days. As soon as you notice that about 5% of the seeds have sprouted from the total number, they need to be thoroughly dried and you can start planting.
Anise should be planted in the soil when the first frosts recede and a stable warm temperature is established. Sowing of seeds is carried out in an ordinary way to a depth of about 3-4 cm. The distance between the rows should be at least 20 cm. Consumption of seeds per 10 square meters. m. is about 15 g.
Anise care features
Anise - the plant is not particularly capricious to care, however, to get a good harvest for anise should be treated as well as any other crop.
So that the development of culture does not linger, the soil with young plants must be regularly cleaned of weeds and podpushivat. Until the first strong sprouts appear, the seeds of anise need constant and quite generous watering. As soon as the active growth of anise begins, and the shoots will sprout quite thickly, the plants must be periodically thinned out, leaving the distance between the seedlings within 15 cm.
When the sprouts rise high enough, you can stop too abundant watering and keep the soil in a slightly moist and fluffy state. Only with a very strong drought, the plant is saturated with water to the maximum.
Plant nutrition and fertilizer
In order to get a rich and high-quality crop of anise, it is not necessary to apply a lot of fertilizer to the sown soil. It is important that sowing is carried out in fertile and well fertilized soil superphosphate. That will be quite enough.
If desired, you can periodically (once every two weeks will be enough) to feed the growing shoots with nitrogen fertilizer.
The combination of anise with other plants
There is a great combination of anise with such crops as Chinese cabbage and radish. Coriander and cilantro are bad precursors for anise (due to similar diseases). Almost all vegetables are good predecessors of anise.
Despite the fact that the plant will give the first seedlings already somewhere by the end of spring, the anise will fully mature only by the beginning of autumn.
We considered the features of growing anise in the open field. Take advantage of our advice, and you are guaranteed to get a rich harvest. Good luck!
Growing anise from seeds is all that is ingenious.
The plant is not at all capricious and grows without problems in central Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. As for all other cultures, it needs a neutral or even slightly alkaline earth. Experienced farmers practice sowing it in the spring. As soon as they have the opportunity to enter the garden, they immediately get down to business. Apply not a point planting technology, and mass - thick sowing. As a result, some of the fresh herbs can be used to make salads. The event includes the following stages:
- scatter humus over the surface
- they dig a bed together with fertilizer,
- the ground is being tamped down a bit so that there are no voids in the upper layer (one seed can lie down to a depth of 6 cm, and the other remains on the surface),
- make grooves about 1.5 cm, and the aisle - 35-40 cm,
- sown in the following proportion: 2 g per 1 m²,
- abundantly shed landing.
To fertilize a vegetable garden with peat riding should be very careful. It strongly oxidizes the soil, and this can be deadly for some plants.
Anise seeds germinate problematically, because of this they are necessarily germinated. Gardeners with experience advised to put planting material in containers and fill with water. This is done so that the liquid covers the grains by 0.5-1 cm. In this state, they are left for 3 days. At the same time every 6-8 hours change the liquid to fresh.
After the procedure, the seeds are laid out on a damp cloth and placed in a refrigerator for 3 days. There the temperature should be + 1 + 2 ° С. In the end, when the seeds are planted, they will be able to germinate in 20 days. You still need to be careful, because if the seedlings do not appear, then it is worth sounding the alarm.
Vegetable anise has a not very deep root system. In this regard, the soil should be well prepared, and therefore, the most loose. Only in this case, you can get a great harvest.
Bonus +: 3 germination technologies
Seeds of plants have a fairly dense shell. Moreover, they contain the lion's share of essential oils, which is why they miss the liquid badly. As noted earlier, before growing anise in the garden, the grain must be germinated. There are several technologies for this process:
- Seedling. In February, the seeds are sown in a box, with a seeding depth of up to 2 cm. They qualitatively spill the soil, cover it with a glass cap and store at 10-15 ° C. After 6 weeks, shoots should appear, and when 2 leaves appear, pick them in cups.
- Directly sown in moist soil. When choosing such a method, it is important to take into account that the seedlings will appear at different times: at a soil temperature of 3-4 ° C - after 25-30 days, and at 10-12 ° C - after 2 weeks.
- Soak. For 3-4 days the grain is placed in water at room temperature (16-18 ° C), trying to change the liquid daily. Upon expiration, they are wrapped in a wet towel and kept for 2-3 days in a warm place (18-22 ° C). Next, the sprouted shoots are dried, and then kept wrapped in a refrigerator for 20 days (known process of vernalization).
Why do we need vernalization? It helps the plant to adapt to adverse conditions. Often in the spring the weather changes dramatically, which leads to fatal consequences, but it doesn’t care for the hardened grains. Moreover, they will rise much earlier, almost 10-11 days.
The above 4-re methods (the first one mentioned in the previous subtitle) have many differences. It is impossible to say which of them will be the most effective. After all, the results are largely dependent on the climatic conditions of the region, as well as the condition / composition of the soil. Nevertheless, the painstaking efforts of the farmer, in any case, will pay off with interest.
The weather is often unpredictable. Therefore, even in the spring can come unbearable heat. Regardless of how the anise grows, the beds are recommended to be watered. The procedure is carried out in the evening or morning. It is advisable to use warm rainwater. The plantation is compulsorily periodically cleaned of weeds.
The pledge of a healthy and abundant harvest is the timely thinning of the planting. This procedure is necessary for the lush growth of the culture, and it also protects the plant from the appearance of diaper rash.
The site should be sunny, but protected from drafts. Otherwise, gusting wind will lead to lodging of the shoots that have risen. You should not also neglect the basic rules of growing anise from seeds:
- Monitor soil moisture. This is especially true during the period of prolonged rains. If the plant is in the wet ground for a long time, then its yield decreases, and diseases start to progress.
- To use top dressing. In the first month of germination, the soil is fertilized first with organic matter, and a little later with mineral complexes. For this procedure, poorly concentrated solutions are prepared.
- In time to remove diseased inflorescences to prevent infection of neighboring crops.
- Pinching / cutting off young shoots with umbrellas. This event contributes to the intensive formation of green mass.
Quite mature bushes do not need a lot of moisture. Yet the soil must be periodically watered and weeded, removing weeds.
Among other things, some advise sowing anise only after planting vegetables. This is done in case the garden is far from home. In addition, representatives of the Umbrella family should not be allowed to grow nearby. If the above rules are observed, a gardener will receive more than 1 kg of seeds from 10 m², with the exception of fresh greens, which he will take for salads.
The harvest is great and ready to harvest.
Succulent leaves are advised to cut when the bush reaches 40 cm in height. At the same time, his umbrellas should be still green, and the seeds should only begin to tie. When these original asterisks mature, they are collected as follows:
- yellowing stalks are cut off along with the inflorescences, which have acquired a brown-brown tint,
- tied in bunches
- left to dry under a canopy,
- ground and harvested grain.
Store the spice in an airtight container or cotton bags. For blanks choose a dry, cool place without access to sunlight. It is important to bear in mind that the planting material is suitable for planting only the first 2 years.
For therapeutic purposes, the greens are harvested in September, when the umbrellas become light brown. Branches laid out on the canvas and dried. This can also be done in dryers by setting the temperature to about 50 ° C.
Thus, growing anise from seeds will bring maximum benefit to the whole family. In the spring, they will be able to enjoy the delicate taste of juicy greens, in the summer - the enchanting aromas of planting, and in the winter - the healing properties of the eastern spice.
Where anise is used
This plant uses mainly seeds, their aroma resembles the smell of other spicy plants - cumin, star anise, fennel. This feature gives anise essential oil, its content in fruits can reach 28%. Grow anise for the sake of this very oil.
Seeds are used in medicine, perfumery, cooking, but they are especially widely used in the alcohol industry. Самые разнообразные напитки созданы на основе этого растения: анис и пастис во Франции, анизетта в Испании, самбука в Италии, узо и ципуро в Греции, арак в Ираке, а кроме этого есть еще перно, рикард, раки и так далее.
Печенье с анисом
В кулинарии его используют при выпечке хлеба, в кондитерском производстве, а также в рыбной и мясной промышленности.
Семена этого растения имеют и лекарственные свойства, поэтому они находят применение в народной и традиционной медицине, особенно при заболеваниях желудка и кишечника, а также при легочных болезнях. Decoctions from the seeds of anise take for the general strengthening of the body, when coughing, from hoarseness, to improve the condition of the skin (rejuvenation), with the smell from the mouth.
When grown on seeds, the inflorescences are left, and they ripen in late August. The signal to harvest is the yellowing of the stems and the color change of the fruit in the central umbrellas from green-yellow to brown. Gather selectively: first, cut umbrellas with ripened seeds, and the rest - as they mature. Do not be late in harvesting, ready-made seeds fall off.
Umbrellas are dried in a shaded ventilated place, and then threshed. Anise seeds are suitable for sowing for three years, but they are suitable for food and other purposes even longer.
Growing anise in the garden is a snap. Try to replenish your collection of spice plants.
Variety of common anise
Place and soil
Anise prefers fertile black soil with good structure or loose loamy and sandy loam with a sufficient amount of humus and lime.
To grow anise you need a protected from the wind solar plot and well-drained earth!
The best ancestors of anise are leguminous plants, vegetables and potatoes. It repels aphids, so it is good to grow it next to carrots, basil.
When to plant
Sowing is carried out in the spring, after the danger of frost has passed and / or in the fall (in a temperate climate) “before winter”.
Seeds are sown directly in open ground in late March and early April. The exact date of sowing depends on weather changes and the end of frosts.
The seed coat contains 2–3% essential oil and 4–23% fatty oil, so they germinate for a long time. To speed up the process, before sowing, seeds are soaked before sticking. For this:
- Take a wide plane capacity and put into it a cloth moistened with water at room temperature or with a solution of epine.
- Anise seeds are placed between the layers of the canvas.
- Cover the film, but not tightly.
- Withstand approximately 36 hours.
When a part of the seeds turn, they need to be slightly dried (to a friable state).
Anise seeds are small and easier to plant when mixed with dry sand.
Anise is sown to a depth of 3–5 cm in one of two ways, depending on the purity of the site (the cleaner the site, the thicker you can sow):
- wide-row - aisle width 45 cm, seeding rate 1.2 g / m²,
- solid - interrow width 15 cm, seeding rate 1.8-2.2 g / m².
In 1 g approximately 220 seeds of anise.
Favorable average daily temperature for germination is 25 ° C. Under these conditions, seedlings will appear in about 14 days. With a lack of heat (3-4 C) they will germinate in a month.
At the beginning of the growing season shoots grow and develop slowly. They tolerate small frosts.
Until the moment when shoots with sprouts about 2 mm appear, the beds are loosened and weed between rows. If necessary, the plants are thinned after the formation of 3-4 leaves.
In the absence of rain and after fertilization, watering is carried out. Growing anise needs regular watering until the plants are strong enough, and then they can tolerate periods of drought well.
Add fertilizer only if the soil is extremely poor. When feeding, they are brought to a depth of 5–7 cm.
Fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers can be carried out before flowering in June-July at a dose of 10–15 g / m².
Mineral fertilizers are best applied in the fall when digging up the site at the rate of 20–25 g / m² of nitrogen and 25–30 g / m² of phosphate fertilizers.
Further care is to loosen the row spacing and weeding.
Growing anise at home
Anise is sown in March or April in rows located at a distance of 0.3 m. In mature plants, mature umbrellas are cut. Mature fruits have a greenish gray color. Snopiki or umbrellas are dried in the shade and in a draft, dry plants are threshed.
The soil: pH 6.0–6.5 (neutral), chernozems, light fertile loamy and sandy soils are most suitable for growing anise, good yields are obtained on dark gray forest soils, and heavy clay and solonetsous soils are unsuitable. Planting method: bezrassadny, sown in late April-early May, before and after sowing the soil is desirable to roll, the seeds germinate for a long time, shoots appear on the 15-17th day, and with a lack of heat on the 25-30th day, the depth of sowing 2-3 cm. Temperature: cold-resistant culture - the optimum temperature for growth and development is 20-25 ° C, shoots tolerate frosts down to -5 ° C. With a lack of moisture, the plants develop poorly, the stitchiness and quality of seeds decrease. During the vegetation period, you can spend 1-2 supplements with complex mineral fertilizer such as nitrophoska at the rate of 10-15 g per 1 m2. Maturation: growing season 100 days.
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What do we know about
? Probably, anise drops, which are used for coughing, are familiar to many since childhood, and perhaps someone has heard of such an alcoholic drink — aniseed vodka. For the first time, it began to be made in Russia during the reign of Peter I and was one of his favorite drinks. Seeds
added in the manufacture of various
- in marinade, when pickled
. Let's take a closer look at this interesting plant.
Anise ordinary (Anise bedrider, Pimpinella anisum) comes from the large family of Umbrella (Apiaceae). The plant is an annual, grassy plant, suggesting that its homeland is the Mediterranean or the Middle East, although it is not known right now that anise is almost not found in wild form in nature.
In the countries of the Mediterranean coast it has been bred for a long time, its seeds were found even in buildings of the Stone Age. Anise refers to biblical plants along with cumin, mint and hyssop. We began to grow it in Russia at the beginning of the XIX century.
In appearance, anise is a bit like dill. Its stem is branched, up to 60 cm high, the leaves are pinnate, openwork, the inflorescence is an umbrella. Seeds are also similar to fennel seeds, they ripen in August.